Pols. 220 Midtern guide
Pols. 220 Midtern guide POLS 220 001
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POLS 220 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Wolf in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
POLS 220 Midterm 1 Study Sheet The midterm will take place on Wednesday October 7th at 11 am in the EDU 103 lecture hall. The exam will consist of 15 Multiple Choice questions, 5 IDs and 1 short essay question. You will not be permitted to use notes, books, or the internet. Multiple Choice (2 points each; 30 points total) IDs (4 points each; 20 points total) On the second part of the exam, you will define 5 different concepts. You will choose 5 concepts from a list of 8 to define. Please limit your definition to 1-3 sentences. Do not write more than this so you have enough time to answer the essay question. The concepts on the exam will be taken from the following list: Self-determination: A national identity; member of something coming from a strength in groupings. the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government. Nationalism: “us vs. them” Is a sense of pride in one’s nationality and a desire to control a state representing that nationality. The State- a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory. FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE and forms of organization: War making: eliminate rivals outside their territory; yields armies/navies. State making: eliminates rivals from within territory; yields instruments of surveillance and control (policing) Protection: eliminating the rivals of their clients; yields courts/representative assembles Extraction: acquiring the means needed to carry out the first 3 activities (TAXATION) ; yields fiscal & accounting structures ($$$) This all shows that was is needed in order for effective states to be created. Also that taxes are needed to maintain connection of people and the govt. [taxation and negotiation between citizens leads to a democracy, and for them to improve their militaries. Run-off elections: Where the first round of elections do not leave a clear winner, so another round of elections must be enacted. First past the post- the candidate with the most amount of votes wins. (Who wins a plurality of the votes wins the one seat available; winner-take-all. Also called plurality/majoritarianism system. Relates to Duverger’s Law: Clientalism: a system in which a political patron offers or withholds some materialistic benefit in return of political support. (Medicine in turn for citizens’ votes) Political parties (FACTIONS): group of people that have a common interest that send people to run for office as a form of political participation. Interest groups: An organized group that seeks to influence public policy (from the outside). Engage in many of the same activities as political parties, but don’t run for office. Three waves of Democracy: 1. American/French Revolution 2. Post WWll 3. Post-Cold War: Fight against Communism Led to former soviet states being democratized Latin America was democratized due to Pope John Paul ll influence> i.e. the “liberation theory” Berlin Conference where Africa was colonized and broken up by other countries. Competitive Authoritarianism: sticks to assessing countries who seem to be democratic but behave authoritarian. *In Competitive Authoritarian regimes there are Still elections Monarchy Consensus democracy primordialism: “back to the root of where you came from” ideas can’t be changed. Violent conflict erupts due to hostilities with roots extending back to time memorial (red neck families killing each other over cows Constructivism: “one’s ideals are constructed through time.” Deal with past and current experiences. Identities are not ready-made but are socially constructed and are continuously being redefined. Instrumentalism: ideas and concepts are used as tools by govt. Self-seeking political leaders manipulate symbols and beliefs for personal gain. **ALL FORMS OF EXTREME IDENTITY LEAD TO THESE 3, AND HAVE REULTED IN MOD VIOLECENE, CIVIL WAR, AND GENOCIDE, AS WELL AS GREATER THOUGHTS OF “US VS. THEM.” Civic Vs. Ethnic Nationalism: Have to do with who gets to become a citizen- Civil nationalism (AKA French nationalism): Anyone who is willing to pledge their allegiance and assimilate can become a citizen Ethnic nationalism (GERMAN WAY): If one was not born a citizen (through blood) one cannot become a citizen. Identity is overwhelmingly present here. Institutions Political institutions build political communities They enable politics to happen; enable us to have common lives Larger, more complex society must build a community through political institutions. WHAT INSITUTIONS DO : -Maintain order -overcomes collective action problems -resolves disputes (law/order) -selects and disposes of leaders thru limited time ruling -channels/articulates constituent interest into a “public interest” MEASURING INSTITUTIONALIZATION: -Adaptability; age or able to shift functions -Complexity; one ruler vs. many organizations -Autonomy or political sphere: own values and interests, not expressions of social groups. -Coherent; unified, disciplined, coordinated. Modernization theory: The idea that if a country is developing economically, it will also begin to develop politically [people will become more educated etc.] **Modernization: A transition from tradition to modern ways. [Attitudes, beliefs, mode or organization]. Modernization has caused urbanization, industrialization, secularization, and media participation. }} ALL 4 ASPECTS LEAD TO DEMOCRACY. Huntington disagrees with this, saying that just because economic progression occurs, does not necessarily mean that democratization will follow; no factors matter if there is not a strong foundation first (if one doesn’t have strong political power, regardless of the political system a state may have, it will fail) **modernization Sucks bc: 1. It increases mass living and population, 2. Intelligence increases hence people start getting new ideas, 3. Agriculture diminished 4. Diversity increases, 5. Diverse inequalities of complex social structures. In other words: POLITICAL DEMANDS INCRASE AND THE CAPABILITY TO MEET THOSE DEMANDS DON’T’ CAUSING TENSION. Proportional representation: creates multiparty systems. Makes it more likely for people to continue voting bc based in the percentage a candidate gets, that party gets the same amount of seats in the legislature (Vote tends to count a bit more than an in plurality system where winner takes all and leads to voter apathy) Forms of political participation- A form of expression in which the people say what is it that they want or don’t want in their government. * Within the system: *Outside of the system: voting protests running for office coups (insurgencies) answering polls social movement calling representatives The war thesis (Tilly’s argument) -War makes the state, and the state makes war. -suggests that the state is a protection racket; i.e. person grants people protection in exchange for their allegiance (or them to grow food, which they will also profit from). But as threats arise (other kings), a system of taxation must be implemented to fund army and continue to provide protection. In order to enact this, a tax collector is needed, but from this person, other people are needed to help him, so a bureaucratic structure is created. -strong institutions are needed -formed along homogenous groups that had strong ties or similar interests that could be strengthened enough to form a sense of identity with a place (self-determination). Social capital/trust/political culture All these ideas correlate together. Social Capital: the ability “of members of a group to collaborate for shared interests. Based upon “trust among people in a society and their ability to work together for common purposes” Social Trust: extends beyond one’s group or social network most people in a society and work together towards common goals. In order to have a strong society, you must have social capital/trust to create rich political culture. **you MUST have civic organizations that bring people together in a cohesive body i.e. bowling alone, Masonry, Facebook today. IF PEOPLE DON’T INTERACT, POL. CULTURE IS INEFFECTIVE Essay question (50 points) You will be asked to answer ONE short essay question from a list of three questions. Remember to answer only ONE question! To prepare for this portion of the exam, please make sure you understand: —state formation in Europe vs. Africa: Europe had a higher population density, which makes it easier to project power (i.e. cities are easier to control), but also made land extremely valuable, which led to wars that were territorially bounded (i.e. over a specific piece of land), all of which led to the creation of administrative bureaucracy (e.g. tax collectors, police units, etc.). Over time, this led to the recognition of both internal and external sovereignty. Africa, on the other hand, had a very low population density (and lots of land), and tribes tended to be nomadic, so there was no real reason for people to fight over territory. When there were clashes, they were over what was valuable— booty. Then, Europeans colonized the continent, carving it up into different territories, which ended up forming the basis of the modern state in Africa. —varieties of democracy: o PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS [executive and legislative branches are separated; sovereignty is shared among president and those two branches to create a checks/balances system; president is usually in office for fixed terms; are elected through popularity] *Strengths: strong, single-party executive whom can make rapid, important decisions; president is directly accountable to people. *Weaknesses: prone to gridlock; not highly representative (popular vote is divisible, executive power is not). o PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS: [govt is composed of prime minster and his cabinet; prime minster is the leader of the govt & is indirectly elected by the legislature; governs so long as he is being supported & withholds a majority of the votes in the legislature. *Strengths: more flexible (no fixed terns on executive); more potential for consensus. *Weaknesses: executive is not directly accountable to people. o MAJORITY/PLURALITY: double-ballot election in which president must receive a majority of the votes to win. Creates two party systems (DUVERGER’S LAW) can be less representative of constituents and winner0tak all leads to political apathy. o PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION: once parties attain a certain threshold of votes, they are awarded seats in the legislature based on the percentage of the votes they got. Creates multiparty systems and make one’s vote count more. —Varieties of authoritarianism: An authoritarian regime is one where a single individual or a group of elites (selectorates) govern without constitutional checks on their use of power. Fail to meet the minimum standards of democracy: -free/fair elections -civil liberties guaranteed -Right to vote and participate politically -autonomy govt Must balance out constituent acquiescence and shareholding with rivals and other members Done through repression, benefits (buy out people) and financial incentives (contracts ((for rivals). Monarchial (moderately stable) (Saudi Arabia and Jordan); ruler is of royal descent. Are successful due to their allocation of power and revenues to members of royal family. Are accepted because they have procedures for transfer of power. Military (Latin America 1970s-80s). Moderately unstable. Don’t last too long due to the crossing of the repression line w/ people. Also they don’t know how to share power; the military ARE the selectorates. There is no civilian intake here. One-party Regime (highly stable). Elected senior personnel control access to political office and policy-making. If it is not Communist, one-party regimes fail. There are two types: o Doesn’t allow elections in which other political parties can compete against it. Ex) CHINA; societal involvement is needed for general population control. o Allows multiparty elections. Ex) Pre-2000 Mexico. Was effective by enabling electoral fraud to occur in elections which kept people complacent. Personalist (highly unstable). Seek loyalty through patronage, filling key military, police or bureaucratic positions w/family, tribunal or ethnic group members. o Have strong despotic power but weak infrastructural power (don’t get things done, despite the amount of power they have over people). o They suppress economic development to allow authoritarian figure to be above all and to stay in power without anyone surpassing him. —Theories of Political Identities and Conflict Religion Ethnicity, and nationalism which all relate to Primordialism, Constructivism and Instrumentalism due to the social capital and trust of people/nation. Primordialism (fixed) ethnicity These makes up part of my Constructivism (experiences) religion Instrumentalism (manipulation) nationalism political identity and how I react to political issues. These are theories used to understand political identity *politicians use primordial and constructive aspects (ethnicity and/or religion) of people’s lives to activate political differences into people and make them act upon those differences to fight others >> INSTRUMENTALISM *National identity is a type of political identity to make people fight against others. —Approaches to multiculturalism in Europe Starts in civic vs. ethnic nationalism: Civic (France) assimilation Ethnic (Germany) Blood only Since some ppl didn’t want to assimilate, due to religious ties they were put in ghettos. To try and combat this, the Since Germany’s system of blood being the only French created the laicite, which stated that religion was not way to becoming a citizen, such issues don’t exist a topic they needed to worry about politically. Today there and has made it much easier to talk about the issue of religion bc there is a clear line between however, this had led to problems with talking about those that are citizens and those that aren’t. religion as a difference among people bc they kept it “oppressed for so long.
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