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ANTH 1102 Introductory Anthropology Study Guides for Midterm and FInal

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by: Brooke Mays

ANTH 1102 Introductory Anthropology Study Guides for Midterm and FInal ANTH 1102

Marketplace > Georgia Regents University > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 1102 > ANTH 1102 Introductory Anthropology Study Guides for Midterm and FInal
Brooke Mays


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About this Document

The professor for this course was Dr. Jennifer Trunzo. I worked off a basic guide she provided for the class but all the information is from my own notes.
Intro to Anthropology
Dr. Jennifer Trunzo
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Mays on Friday February 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANTH 1102 at Georgia Regents University taught by Dr. Jennifer Trunzo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Georgia Regents University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Be prepared to apply the concepts of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism to different scenarios  Ethnocentrism: judging cultures according to your own values, thinking your culture is  better (results in racism, war, sexism, class conflict, and religious prejudice)  Cultural relativism: all cultures and their practices should be respected, view culture in  terms of native understandings Be prepared to apply absolute and relative dating to an archaeological drawing  Half Life: the time it takes for ½ of a radioactive isotope to decay to a stable form  Potassium­Argon: half­life of volcanic rock  Relative dating: can’t get an actual date but you can get a general sense One question from each D2L Reading will appear on the exam as well Enlightenment philosophy/philosophers  Hobbes: before government, people lived in families, no moral codes, all out competition  Locke: capable of reason and using logic, we think about how we want to be treated, the  Golden Rule  Rousseau: naturally good, competition not a huge part until you’re in a large unfamiliar  group, have to form rules Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory  Natural selection and adaptation  Human pressures, climate changes  Origins of Species: Galapagos islands, bird species with similar physical traits but there  also difference in head size and beak size and shape Franz Boas’ contributions to anthropology  Historical particularism: every culture has a unique history  Cultural Relativity: all practices respected, native understandings  Four Field Approach Ethnocentrism (be prepared to determine situations that constitute ethnocentrism) Cultural relativism (be prepared to determine situations that constitute cultural relativism) Social Darwinism/Cultural Evolution/Lewis Henry Morgan’s Savages, Barbarians, Civilization  idea  Social Darwinism: most socially and technologically advanced societies flourish while  the least advanced either evolve or disappear Ethnography: Old and New  Old: catalogue a culture  New: problem­oriented subgroups within a society and how norms affect them Ethnology  Ethnology: comparative cross­cultural method, basic common principles and practices Anthropological ethics Fieldwork/Participant Observation  Fieldwork: going to live and work in a different cultural area  Participant observation: living among the people you are studying, doing the same  things they do, living as much like them as you can Sapir­Whorf hypothesis  The way people use language influences how they perceive the world Language and social status  Sociolinguistics: how language marks social differences Male vs. female language use  Misunderstanding between men and women result from different ways of using language  Men: accomplish, information, solve  Women: create and sustain relationships What archaeologists study  Use of material remains to study the past Archaeological dating methods  Law of Super positioning: oldest levels are on the bottom/youngest levels are on top  Law of Association: objects found in the same level are about the same age  Absolute dating: most specific/accurate: Radiocarbon and other chemical techniques Relative Dating: Law of Association and Law of Super positioning Be prepared to apply relative and absolute dating to interpret a diagram What physical anthropologists study  Human origins, non­human primates, human use of environment Relationships between Evolution, Adaptation, Natural Selection  Natural Selection: survival of the fittest, some genes aid survival and some kill,  eliminates individuals who have “bad” combinations of genes while those with “good”  combinations survive, genes help them adapt to the enviroment Anatomical and social traits of primates  Hands: 5 digits, opposable thumb, nails  Eyes: binocular, depth perception, color vision  Large brain compared to body: 2.5% of body weight  Flexible shoulders/wrists: throwing  Most are social: live in groups  Babies: atrial and K­selected Human­like primate behaviors  Planned deception  Warfare  Murder/psychosis  Mourning   Tool use Ethology  Using one species as a model to predict behavior of another Anatomy and locomotion of primates: Vertical clingers and leapers, Brachiation, knuckle­walkers, Bipedalism Physical changes that allowed bipedalism  Biped: foramen magnum under skull toward center to give upright position  Quadruped: back of skull so their focus is forward  Lower spinal curve  Pelvic shape: shorter and wider, flared pelvis, able to have muscles  Limbs proportions: legs are about 30% of overall weight  Leg anatomy: femur angle, knees are under body  Foot anatomy: aligned big toe, arched foot  Muscle anatomy: gluteus maximus and hamstrings increase in size Theories of why bipedalism arose  Carrying things  Thermoregulation  Visual surveillance  Long­distant walking Characteristics of hominids and apes  Bipedal locomotion  Large brains in proportion to overall body size  Use of tools Physical Characteristics Differences between monkeys and apes (which species are apes, which species are monkeys)  Bigger  Tails vs. butt pads  Monkeys run on branches, some live on grougd  Body for Brachiation: long arms, short legs Differences between apes and hominids (which species are hominids, which species are apes) Also know physical differences between apes and hominids (i.e. brain size and bipedalism)  Bipedal locomotion  Large brains in proportion to overall body size  Use of tools Tool use and/or specific technologies associated with each species of ape or hominid  Oldowan: sharp broken rock, one face to it, little planning  Acheulean: hand axes, worked on both sides, specific shape, various sizes, re­sharpened Which species showed artistic talent and ritual practices  Neanderthal: possible artwork and music, ritual burials Social behaviors of chimps, bonobos, and gorillas  Chimps: big groups, male dominance (supporters), not monogamous  Bonobos: female dominance, sex not just for mating but to cement relationships, more  peaceful, no warfare  Gorillas: small family with one male, male dominance, aggression displays, they  remember their families Neanderthal interactions with Early Humans  Interbreeding occured Intro to Anthropology: Test 2 Review  Jane Goodall: known for her 55­year study of social and family interactions of wild  chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania Ethology: using one species as a model to predict behavior of another  Social benefits of group life: reduced danger, increase in amount of food available by sharing Dominance: Fleeting vs. permanent: fleeting dominance can change and must be earned,  permanent dominance has no competition Multi­male vs single male groups: multi­male groups (chimps) must compete for dominance  while single male groups (gorillas) have permanent dominance    Body size: multi­male groups (chimps) are same size as females, single male groups (gorillas)  are larger than females   Advantages of dominance: more food and mates  How is dominance learned: learned through observation, watching parents and watching how  high­ranking individuals treat others Bonobo dominance patterns: female dominance, daughter inherits it from mother   Glynn Isaac: home base theory Home bases: Functions, characteristics, chimps vs hominids: making, storing, discarding  tools, processing and sharing food; broken stone tools, bones from multiple species,  killing/butchering sites, living floors Chimps: establish geographic ranges, build nests each night to sleep, accumulation of refuse  occurs in areas near nests Hominids: animal bones and stone tools remain in clusters near old trees, nested in trees Altruism: putting oneself at a disadvantage to help another  Communication  Social functions  Vervet monkey calls: What information do they carry?: warn others of dangerous animals  such as birds, snakes, and big cats Why do we know the calls mean different things?: volume and duration of calls  What are implications of these different meanings?: nonhuman primates assign meaning to  sounds, learned to use communication technically correctly, communication is adaptive,  reinforced ties with group, protects group from predators, hominids may have made similar  sounds How do we know the calls are used purposefully? indicate which danger and also affect  response speed   Indications of seriousness of danger: volume and duration have an effect on response time Chimp vs. human vocal tract: Not as many muscles in face, tongue not as strong (its thinner  and anchored in the back), larynx is high so there is no resonating chamber   Chimp sign language: do they teach one another?: yes they do   Do they invent words?: yes they do  Skeletal evidence for ability to speak:   Which hominid species may have been able to speak? Homo erectus  Forensic Anthropology and archaeology:  Goals: identify the victim and determine the manner of death  Taphonomy: studies the environmental conditions and actions of humans or animals that affect  remains C­transforms vs. N­Transforms: C­Transforms are cultural (human) altercations of remains or  crime scenes and N­Transforms are natural altercations   Why were 9/11 victims hard to find?: assumptions about depositional patterns and  powerwashing programs Determining age and sex of skeletons: best areas of skeleton for both and why they are  useful  Male: square skull, square eye sockets, square chin, long cheekbones, well defined mastoid  process, Acetabulum deeper and bigger, Subpubic angle less than 90 degress, Sacrum curves  toward front of pelvis, tailbone is bigger, Sciatic notch is a tight fit Female: round skull, round eye sockets, pointy chin, “bossing” extra roundedness, short  cheekbones, less defined mastoid process Be prepared to take examples of age, sex, and racial characteristics of skeletons and apply it  This means questions that ask you to identify age, sex, and race will be on the exam  V. Gordon Childe’s characteristics of civilization  Agriculture and the State (cities):  When did it emerge in different places?  6000 BC­ first city states in site of Eridu 4200 BC­ Uruk  Pre 4000 BC­ scattered villages 4000 BC­ walled city with surrounding villages 3000 BC­ Uruk, colonies as secondary centers, surrounding villages Evidence of transition to agriculture and herding  Selective breeding: plants with bigger seeds/fruits/grains, sturdier grasses, animals with better  temperaments, smaller in size, and less dangerous physical characteristics Impacts of agriculture: decrease in human health, permanent settlements, territoriality and  warfare, differences in social status emerge, technological change Social status in the archaeological record  What could explain the emergence of cities and states?: good land was claimed, trade  expanded, population increased, need to expand for food production lead to irrigation City­states and settlement patterns 


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