ECON 211-001 Gender in Economy
ECON 211-001 Gender in Economy Econ 211-001
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Alejandra Cortez on Friday February 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Econ 211-001 at Colorado State University taught by Christina Curley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Gender in the Economy in Economcs at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Gender in Economics Week 1 Notes What is Economics about? Choices Neoclassical Economics o Mainstream economics/ dominant school of thought o Concerned with decision making under conditions of scarcity Economic Terms Scarcity: Resources are limited o Ex: time, money, oil Opportunity Cost: value of the next best alternative; what you are giving up for something else Positive: factual statement; objective Normative: statement of desires and wishes Economic Principles Central economic problem: how to allocate scarce resources in order to maximize well being Utility: how economists define wellbeing or satisfaction o Utility = measure of happiness Rationality: the ability to choose the option that maximizes utility give the knowledge of available opportunity Families and the Household Families: consists of 2 or more people living together that are related by blood or marriage Household: 1 or more persons living together Use of Economic Theory Theory: explanation for why an event might have occurred Economic Model: framework that explains human behavior Economist often use simplifying assumptions Usual approach: examine effects of a change in a single variable while assuming all else remains equal Scope of Economics Mainstream economics tends to focus on the market and government Gender economics adds: o Analysis of nonmarket decisions and production o Analysis of men’s and women’s work in the labor market and household o Behavior of families and households and well as the individuals o Correlate between gender and behavior/decisions The Meaning of Gender in a Transitional Era Gender roles have become less clear over time Confusing attitudes o We believe in equality, but have deeply engrained values and beliefs based on tradition Differences between men and women Essentializing: thinking or speaking as if all women are alike and all men are alike Gender and Sex Sex: classified by biological characteristics o Genitalia and sex organs o Determined by chromosomes and hormones Gender: is a social construct; acquired through interaction in a social world; gender is learned o We are born with sex but we learn to be masculine or feminine “Teaching” Gender o Traits and behavior that match gender are socially reinforced o Male and female children are treated differently from one another Theoretical Approaches to Gender 1. Biological influences on gender Biological Theory: biological characteristics of the sexes are the basis of gender differences Hormones: estrogen and testosterone Brain structure oMen generally have greater development of the left lobe Controls linear, logical thought oWomen tend to have greater development of the right lobe Controls imagination, artistic activity, and intuitive thinking 2. Interpersonal Influences on Gender Psychodynamic Theory: emphasis on the interpersonal relationships within the family that affects the child’s gender identity o Early relationships are the primary basis of sense of identity Psychological Theory: stress learning and role modeling between children and other people o Social Learning Theory: we learn gender identity through communication and observation 3. Cultural Influences on Gender Standpoint Theory o Position in society (race, gender, class) influences circumstances in life o Different social groups develop particular skills, attitudes, and values based on their place in society Gender in Economics Week 2 Notes Nature vs Nurture Gender differences could be due to nature Social structural approach o Biology constrains roles and behavior Adaption o Tech progress reduces biological constraints The Nature of Males and Females Sociobiology: the study of the biological basis of social behavior Some patterns of behavior have a basis in evolution Sociobiological explanation of qualities desired in a mate Factors Influencing Gender Status Status has varied over time and across societies Certain technology leads to more or less division of labor on basis of gender A more important role in production outside the home leads to higher status Control of property and distribution is also a factor The US Experience Preindustrial Period o Colonial American: most necessities were produced in the home o Specialization Men did agricultural work Women did housework and light manufacturing Everyone did something productive Industrialization o Young women began working in factories until marriage o Married women’s responsibilities were to care for the children and home Evolution of the Family and Women’s LFP (labor force participation) o LFC rate: number of people in labor force/population over the age of 16 th 19 Century o Family shifted from production unit to consumption unit o Rise of “traditional family” o Labor market still necessary for poor/single women Technological Progress o Household appliances Washing clothes more often More elaborate meals o Due to technological progress the work performed at home was devaluated Fertility (how many children being born) o Agricultural production: children contributed economically o After industrialization, children became more costly o Fertility fell from 1800’s to 1900’s 20 Century o Household sphere shrinking o Increase in public schooling o Increased demand for clerical workers (female dominated) o Resulted in increases number of women entering labor market Women’s LFP rate was still low until 1940’s o Marriage bars (married women couldn’t work) o Lack of part time jobs 1940’s o Shortage of female workers Low birth rates in 1920’s and 1930’s Increased education Women marrying at a younger age o WWII Pulled married women into labor market Occupations and earnings of women in the 19 /early 20 century o Women dominated service jobs o Professional Men were managers and proprietors Women were teachers and nurses Gender pay ratio o 1850: 29% o 1890: 46% o 1930: 56% o Now: 77% Gender in Economics Week 3 and 4 Notes Neoclassical Economics Assumes humans are rational, self-interested utility maximizers Tendency to treat the family as a single minded unit The Simple Neoclassical Model Specialization and exchange: efficient and can lead to higher levels of production o Main benefit of traditional family structure o Disadvantages: Specialization as a homeworker limits opportunities for anyone in an abusive relationship to get out Assumptions about family o 1 unit o Adults make informed and rational decisions Comparative Advantage How to choose who might work and who stays at home 1 person has the comparative advantage if he/she is giving up less by staying home o Lower opportunity cost It is frequently the case that women have comparative advantage in home production Men and women are raided with different expectations/training The already-established wage gap for women might lead to decision to stay at home Advantages of Family and Domestic Partnership Some don’t require specialization Economics of scale: each unit produced gets cheaper as you make more Housing for 2 people is usually cheaper that separate housing for each person Meal for 2 or more doesn’t take twice as long to cook for 1 o Ex: buying in bulk Public goods: available for use but one doesn’t have to pay o Ex: chores Externalities in consumption: occur when the consumption of a good or service by 1 affects the other o Can be positive or negative o Ex: when your roommate uses all the toilet paper Marriage specific investments: skills/knowledge developed that are worth more in the relationship than outside of it. o Ex: knowing your partners favorite meal is only useful in that relationship, nowhere else Risk pooling: if 1 becomes unemployed, they can rely on the other Institutional advantages: health insurance, pension, social security Non-market Work Economists traditionally focus attention on paid labor o Household and volunteer work go unrecognized by economists Housework and Child Care Wives spend an average of 28.5 hours per week doing housework and childcare Husbands spend an average of 17.4 hours per week doing housework and childcare Married women spend an average of 10 hours per week on unpaid work than unmarried women Married men spend an average of 5 hours per week than unmarried men Housewives spend an average of 43 hours per week Since the 60’s wives’ housework has decreased and husbands has increased o Smaller families, better technology, some reallocation of tasks Volunteer Work Women tend to volunteer more Some studies indicate that women are more altruistic o Altruistic: showing concern for others Men tend to donate more Gender in Economics Week 5 Feminism and Economics Feminism: the doctrine which declares that social, political, and economic rights should be equal Feminist theory leads to questioning of economic theory Economics has been male dominated; economic theory mainly comes from male perspective Gender and Disciplinary Values Economics is a human practice, subject to human imitations, interests, and biases o People will study what interests them How Gender Influences Economic Theory Objectively, logical consistency, math, lack of emotions, etc., are highly valued in economics (masculine characteristics) o Irrational = emotional, rational = no emotion o If an analysis contains emotion it isn’t taken seriously and undervalued Break connection between valued judgements in economics and gender o Feminine qualities are less valued in economics There is some cultural association of masculinity with superiority and femininity with inferiority o Masculine careers are valued higher o Women are given advice to act like men in work force 4 Aspects of Economics 1. Economic Models Assume people are rational, autonomous, self-interested oThese assumptions are used in most economic analysis Ignore family, parenting, unpaid work, etc. oNot considered worthy for analysis Need better assumptions about human behavior that include relationships with others Feminist economists seek to add qualitative analysis to models, not decrease rigor Traditional models don’t reflect reality very well because economists make very restrictive assumptions 2. Economic Methods Usually mathematical and statistical oFocus groups and personal interactions is frowned upon oPsychology and sociology are considered less worth social science oThe math is supposed to make economics a “harder” social science People have higher respect because of the rigor Wage gap: economists earn more than the other social sciences Hardness without flexibility = rigidity Logic without the big picture = out of touch results oPoliticians make decisions off of economic analysis Scientific progress without human values = scary Including both feminine and masculine qualities makes methodology flexible, attentive to context, humanistic, and rich as well as strong, logical, scientific, and precise 3. Economic Topics Topics often restricted to the market; traditional non-market activities of women aren’t considered Some models do factor in family dynamics, but are not helpful to the feminist goals of equality Care of children, elderly, and the sick are appropriate economic topics when they are provided by the market/government oNot considered worthy if done in the home In general, it seems like for a long period of time (until recently) “women’s work” was not an appropriate economic topic 4. Economic Pedagogy Pedagogy: the theory of teaching of how to teach Economic teachings are mostly focused on transfer of preset knowledge Feminist economists would prefer a teaching style that also fosters critical thinking, communication, and creativity Some women are discouraged form studying economics because of some of the assumptions, the methodology, and even treatment from instructors Conclusion Feminist economics is not meant to only be practiced by women, or to rule out math and statistics Feminists argue that economics is less useful if it reflects only a distorted view of masculinity in models, methods, topics, and pedagogy Economics as a field needs to use a fuller range of tools and cover a wider range of economic activity Gender in Economy Week 6 and 7 Consumption and the Consumer Society Consumer sovereignty: the belief that consumer satisfaction is the ultimate economic goal; economy is ruled by consumer desires Influences Decisions are heavily influenced by norms and marketing Consumer behavior is often cultivated as a means to the end of producers o Producers influence consumer behavior Consumer Behavior: The Marketing View Marketing professionals want to persuade consumers to purchase their organization’s product The decision making process: 1. Problem recognition: perceived want or need 2. Information search: seeking info on how need can be met 3. Evaluation of alternatives: looking at similar products (combine with #2) 4. Purchase decision: buying the product 5. Post purchase behavior: are you satisfied or dissatisfied Consumer Motivation and Behavior Why do consumers want and buy certain things? Human perceived needs: o Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, sex o Safety needs: for security and protection and possibly financial stability o Social needs: for a sense of belonging and love o Esteem needs: for self-esteem, recognition, and status o Self-actualization needs: for self-development and realization Consumers sometimes behave in irrational was because marketers know how to appeal to their needs The degree to which we perceive a need is related to own past experiences and the experiences of groups to which we compare ourselves to Group preferences change our own perception of needs Around the time of the 1960’s, marketers would appeal to men by putting women down and appeal to women through social needs The Role of Consumption and Marketing in Teaching Gender Teaching Gender Male and female children are treated differently Social learning: imitation and reinforcement Entertainment is a commodity that is marketed and sold Children’s entertainment involves TV, movies, toys, and games o Purchase of these items establish gender roles What is produced is a reflection of society’s desires and values Toys Traditional gender separation of toys Some classic girl toys involve childcare and cooking/baking Classic boy toys include action figures, robots, guns, and cars Girl = pink and boy = blue Toys correspond with potential careers o Women are more likely to go into childcare jobs while men go into jobs such as architecture and engineering What They Teach Girls toys = beauty, fashion, and homemaking o While not technically a bad thing, but toys such as barbies teach that physical appearance is very important Boys toys = violence and construction o Teaches that strength and power are important There’s the double standard that girls are allowed and even encouraged to play with boys toys, but boys can’t play with girls toys o Parents become concerned and other kids ridicule when boys play with girls toys o Face direct discrimination Ex: Most people don’t want to hire a male nanny This shows that boys don’t get as many toy options and society sees masculinity as superior to femininity Video Games Some video games appear gender neutral, but are marketed to males anyway Some video games are violent and demeaning towards women, or are really over- sexualized, which would likely make women disinterested in playing Comic Books “Women in Refrigerators”: a term used in comic book fandom and sometimes science fiction fandom to describe a common trope where a woman is brutally murdered in order to progress the make protagonist’s story line. The term is more broadly used to describe systematic violence against women in comics Women as Sex Objects o Typically drawn as objects of desire o Large bust, tiny waist, provocative clothing o Drawn in sexual poses: bending over, arching back Male superheroes are also drawn unrealistically and some are also scantily clad
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