Bio 111 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Avery Walton on Friday February 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Deaton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Photosynthesis CO2 glucose is the process of photosynthesis You need co2, light, and h20 to make glucose, o2 and h20 ATP and NADPH are the energy intermediates Green plants, cyanobacteria, and algae are the only ones that do go through photosynthesis. Mesophyll is the tissue on the leaf of the plant and it has cells chloroplast. This is where photosynthesis takes place. For photosynthesis to happen, water is taken from the roots to the leaves through small veins and then co2 is taken through the leaves. O2 is released through the stomata. The third membrane of the chloroplast is the thylakoid membrane (in the center of the cell). That’s where the chlorophyll is. In the membrane there’s these fluid filled things called thylakoids that enclose the thylakoid lumen. The thylakoids stacked on top of each other form a granum. In between the inner membrane and the thylakoid membrane is a fluid filled thing called the stroma. The light reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and they produce ATP, NADPH and O2. The Calvin cycle uses co2, ATP, and NADPH There is life that doesn’t have access to light (corral) Bacteria could undergo photosynthesis w/o splitting O2 Fe atoms are deep in the ocean (red sediment) – it had the O2, and it rose into the atmosphere Shorter the wavelength the higher the energy Photosynthesis happens at 425nm and 675nm (visible light) It doesn’t work at the higher energy part of the spectrum; it is just too harsh to capture the energy Energy is weaker when it goes into water Electricity penetrates water because water molecules are charged. Living organisms respond to what we call visible light. The higher the energy of electromagnetic radiation, the worse it penetrates water. The first photosynthetic organisms evolved in an aqueous environment. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have 2 outer membranes it was engulfed by another cell (evolved from bacteria) There are 3 types of chlorophyll pigments chlorophyll a&b (absorbs red and blue), and carotenoids (absorbs blue and green). Carotenoids have 2 spots where their electrons can jump. It expresses orange, yellow and red usually on flowers and fruits. In leaves, chlorophyll usually masks the carotenoid and so that’s why they are green usually. Chloroplasts absorbs the light energy and goes to the excited state Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light and we see green The Emerson enhancement effect able to absorbs red light twice In the light reactions capturing the light and converting it to sugar There are 2 photosystems in the thylakoid membrane. The electrons are transported linearly from photosystem II to photosystem I. This is called noncyclic electron flow and NADPH is made. Z scheme high energy e go through the electron transport chain, pump H+ ions across membrane in chlorophyll, goes through e transport again and reduces 2NADP+ There are 2 photosystems because you need 2 photons of visible light to move the electrons to the desired energy level It needs 2 jumps to use the e from O2 Water splitting clock oxidation of water, split H2O to release O2 ATP synthase H+ diffuse through and they make ATP form ADP and P We have electrons and ATP now Water is split that’s where the o2 is formed. 2 H2 are taken from the stroma and 2 H2 come from water. NADPH is from the H+ and 2 electrons. The H+ gradient that is made is in the lumen creates the ATP synthase production Chemiosmosis in chloroplast ATP synthase across an ion gradient produces less ATP water to more NADPH non Cyclic photophosphorylation Cyclic photophosphorylation make lots of ATP and no NADPH Products ATP, NADPH, O2 Used Water and light energy NADPH and ATP aren’t made in equal amounts Non cyclic makes equals amounts of ATP and NADPH (Light reactions) Cyclic makes more ATP (Calvin Cycle) it just stays in photosystem I and makes a circle that creates a H+ gradient in the lumen to produce lots of ATP The pigments in the light harvesting complex can can undergo resonance energy transfer and just let the electron go down the line. When P680 gets excited it can go through resonance energy transfer so it releases its high energy electron and becomes P680+. The light harvesting complex is also known as the antenna bc it absorbs energy like a funnel down to P680. Rubisco enzyme that takes co2 from atmosphere and transforms it to the organic molecule You need 6 NADPH and 9 ATP to make 1 molecule of glucose Dark reactions Some photons captured by light harvesting complexes produce ATP but not NADPH Glucose production requires more ATP than NADPH Both are related by cause and effect Calvin Cycle Phase I: Carbon fixation co2 is taken from atmosphere and is made into an organic molecule via rubisco Phase II: ATP is used for energy to reduce NADPH to NADP, carbohydrate production Phase III: Regeneration of RuBP 10 G3P molecules are used for this and ATP Photorespiration RuBP is added to o2 instead of CO2 to make 1 G3P and phophoglcolate which gets phosphorylzed to make an organic molecule ad co2. This occurs when o2 levels are high around plants very wasteful bc it releases co2, limiting plant growth There wasn’t any oxygen on this earth when things were evolving that’s why it still works It’s a protected mechanism energy can be dissipated through co2 C3 plant RuBP and Co2 produce the 2 G3P molecules. They have 3 carbons that’s why they are called C3 (wheat, corn and oak). C4 plants Instead of making G3P, these plants a 4 carbon molecule (oxaloacetate) These plants have a system that limits photorespiration. The mesophyll surrounds the bundlesheath cells where the Calvin cycle happens. Co2 enters the stomata and oxalate gets produced. The enzyme PEP, unlike rubisco, it doesn’t recognize o2 so when o2 is high and co2 is low, it continues to fix co2. C4 plants grass family Calvin cycle happens in bundle sheath cells where dark reactions occur Coating of mesophyll cells block bundle sheath from being exposed to high o2 C3 plants outcompete c4 plant when it rains a lot bc c4 has to put energy into it C4 plants dry climates C4 plants can store Co2 in their mesophyll and bundle and change it to oxalate and close their stomata C4 plants can do good in the drought bc they don’t need water stored co2 CAM plants store co2 as malate during the night and releases co2 in the morning to start the Calvin cycle They go through light and dark reactions The leaves of the CAM plants taste sour in the morning Etc and chemi in chloroplasts and mitochondria o Where the e comes from and where they end up o E come from water molecule and end up on NADPH chloroplasts o E come from breaking down from organic molecule and end up on h20 mitochondria Plant Structure Alternation of Generations Gametes get fertilized and turns into a zygote and then it goes through meiosis Seeds have dormant embryos and when they germinate it produces a seedling. Sexual reproduction in plants has 2 multicellular stages gametophyte produces gametes (relatively small) and sporophytes produce spores (relatively big). Seeds are dispersed and wait till it’s a good time to germinate Monocots and Dicots 2 groups flowering plants go in Cotyledons number of seed leaves present on the embryo 5 multiples of flower parts di 3 multiples of flower parts mono netted leaf di parallel line on leaf mono Sugar cane is a monocot and it isn’t always a c4 plant Plant Anatomy Meristems the only part of the plant where cell division occurs, where new tissue is being made (tissues) Non meristematic parts where permanent tissue is made Shoot part above the ground Root underneath the ground The plant grows from the root apical meristem and the shoot apical meristem Plant Tissue Skin on the outside Vascular tissue on the side Brown tissue is filled inside—thin cell wall Meristems (1) cell division Complex (3) cell enlargement o Dermal Tissue bug gumdrops at top, wheel of xylem and phloem o Vascular Tissue Water going up vessel elements, has 1 cell wall with pits in them xylem Water going down, has sieve plate at top of sieve tube cells and a companion cell is attached phloem o Ground tissue big gumdrop looking things, wheel of xylem and phloem Cam plants doesn’t take up co2 only at night Simple Tissues (2) Parenchyma brown tissue, store starch, thin cell walls Collenchyma thicker cell walls, support, flexibility for plant stem, let bend but not snap Sclerenchyma cell wall, no cytoplasm, cellulose gets hardened by lignin, 2 cell walls, bark in trees Primary Growth Length increases Simple tissue, leaves, stem Outside grows upward Secondary Growth Vascular tissues, inside grows (girth) Stems Stolons, bulbs, corms, tubers, cladodes and rhizomes modified stems They have morphological plasticity for stems^^ Lobed, lobed odd bipinnate don’t have morphological plasticity for leaveslook like leaves off of a tree Surface of leaf Trichome prevent insects from eating it, produces waxes to reduce evaporation across the leaf (not let it dry out) Root Dermis on outside Round tissue filling the inside Monocots vascular bundles are in a ring Dicots vascular bindles in the middle Pericycle is meristematic tissue that gives rise to branch roots. Primary growth goes down in length 1. Meristem using stem cells (that have no cell wall) to divide 2. Root cap protects the cell division and meristem 3. Related by cause and effect^^^ 4. The primary function of root hairs is to increase root surface area Above ground roots o Tropical treeshave shallow roots 5. Mangrove trees have pneumatophores 6. They grow in immersed water^ 7. Related by cause ad effect^ 8. Root hairs are used to go in places too small for root Secondary growth Woody plants Vascular cambium gives rise to phloem and xylem in the middle of plant Cork cambium gives rise to protoderm All plants have a life cycle that alternates haploid(gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) stages. Plants consist of a root and a shoot. Meristems are where plants grow by adding new cells. Ground tissue fills the space between dermal tissue and vascular tissue. Flowering plants are divided into monocots and dicots. Plant Nutrition Lateral Flower Bud Broccoli Apical Leaf Bud Cabbage (branches) Axillary Leaf Bud Brussel Sprouts Lateral Stem Meristem Kohlrabiit has a really long stem and then a sprout of a leaf with a bulb at the bottom You can only have elongation and expansion at the tips on the rootprimary Increase in diametersecondary Place a nail .5m up a tree, it still with be .5m up, but it will increase in diameter bc it’s a tree (woody plant) Mg is component of chlorophyll Plants adapt to light levels Shade leaves are unorganized Sun leaves are organized bc they are exposed to more photons (looks really neat on a microscopic level) Water, co2, phosphorus and potassium from rootsnutrients needs by plants N2 is abundant in the atmosphere, but plants can’t use it H+ ions that are pumped out of the membrane in the roots is active bc you have to have ATP H+ pumped out is primary active transport Intake of nitrate uses symport secondary active transport protein ^^^both related by cause and effect Adaptions for obtaining nutrients can take up the nitrogen and make it nitrate or nitrite (something soluble that the roots can take up) nitrogen fixing bacteria are anaerobic leghemoglobin carries the nitrogen to the root nodules. It is produced by Legumes Parasites don’t have roots, but they attach to a host plant and take sap form them and get all the nutrients from them Secondary active transport and a symport take up the ion uptake by roots Symplastic molecules moves through the symplast Trasnmemebrane proteins move the molecules from one cell to another Apolastic moves through apoplastic (water filled cell walls)…easier than going through the symplast Symplast cytosol and plasmodesmata Casparian strips have a wax coat and it stops water rom coming in through apoplastic transport Water from roots to leaves cohesion in he xylem o H+ bond link together o When water evaporates, the surface tension increase and it pulls water up from the xylem Shape of stoma determines how much water the guard cell has Sunrise blue light stimulates the H+ pump and water enters cell..swells and the pore opens up Sunset K+ leaves the cells, then water leaves and the pore closes….water stress closure of stomata st ABA binding (1 messenger) stress hormone that senses whether or not it needs to be open or close Water leaves or enters through osmosis Water stress in the desert, plants will drop their leaves to compensate…reduces transpiration Phloem Transport pressure flow down the stem In some plants, sugar moves from sugar producing cells into companion cells and sieve tube elements via plasmodesmata Source where the sugar is produced Sink where the sugar is converted (can be storage, or a fruit) When the sugar comes in, water comes in. When the sugar leaves, water leaves In xylem transport H+ bonds are critical In phloem transport osmosis is important They aren’t related^^^ Plant Reproduction Stamens hold the male gametophytes and carpel hold the female gametophytes Sporophyte dominant…the plant itself Plasticity in Flowers 4 whorls of tissue, if one is missing its called incomplete Imperfect flowers has male and female gametes in separate flowers(corn) o Staminate flower male o Carpellate flower female Dioecious not having male and female parts on the same plant Monoecious corn (having male and female parts on the same plant) Inflorescences sunflower, having all of your flowers in the center means better chance of reproducing Wind pollination pollen carried by wind Animal Pollinators animal carry pollen to other plants to pollinate it, genetic diversity Some fly not all To attract a pollinator, you have to reward it and show it where to go o Color, pollen, odor, shape, shelter, warmth Nectar = energy Pollen = protein Sporophyte is the main part Goes through meiosis in the ovary….8 gametophyte 3 cells, 2 sperm and 1 pollen tube cell made…meiosis in the anther (male) Double Fertilization one sperm fuses w one egg and get a zygote, the other sperm fuses with the central cell to create an endosperm cell Pollen grains have speciesspecific morphology; cross contamination is very rare Pollen tube initiation and growth is governed by chemical signal molecules o Some can self pollinate Seed Formation o Embryonic shoot can’t carry out photosynthesis unless its out of the ground, it has to digest the endosperm o 1. Humans rely on plant seeds and they contain large amounts of carbs…related by cause and effect. The fruit of a plant is usually derived from the ovary o One seedsimple o More than one seed per fruitcompound o There is lots of diversity o Fleshy part of strawberries is from the stemaccessory (tissue from something else) Germination: Monocots o Embryonic shoot is the part that grows o Has a coleoptile Germination: Dicots o Produces food by photosynthesis All germination seeds don’t all have a coleoptile Coleoptile is used to protect during germination Seed Dispersal o Bat put it in their mouths o Dogs get those sticky thingy on their fur o Wind Dandelions fall off from wind o Many plants and seeds can survive in seawater Senescence o Seasonal occurrence o Trees drop their leaves up north during winter Ethylene used as a hormone that detects when the trees need to drop their leaves Plant Hormones Fruit ripens at higher temps better The plant should be ripe if it was exposed to ethylene Auxin is hormone that inhibits lateral meristems. In the mutant at left, the auxin activated second messenger pathway is always active, explaining why the plant is so tall. Auxin o Stimulates elongation of cells in the shoot and root and inhibits lateral meristems o Lateral buds, top of plant has the most auxin levels o Tall and skinny=auxin Cytokinin o Stimulates cell division in meristems o Roots have the most cytokinin Auxin and cytokinin influence growth form Gibberellin o Stem elongation o Seed germination o Seeds take up water in soil, gibberellin triggers cells of the aleurone, express gene for enzyme amylase o Energy released fuels meristem divisions in the embryo o Seeds produce gibberellin seedless grapes make small fruit unless treated with the hormone o Seedless grapes are small w/o gibb. Abscissic Acid o Promotes dormancy in seeds o Growth hormone o Closes stomates during water stress o Rain washes this out of the seeds Ethylene o Stimulates senescence in leaves o As a fruit ripens, it increases Positive Photoropism o Sunlight only hits on side of coleoptile auxin flow is directed toward the shaded side so cells on that side can lengthen Thigmotropism o Auxin secreted on inside and outside of stem Folding leaves to touch o Water leaving the cell o K, Cl channel opens o Leaflets fold upward Gavitropism o Positive in root bends down. Inhibited by auxin o Negative in shoot goes upward. Where the auxin is the most, that’s where it will elongate Shoot and root cells have opp responses to auxin The binding site of auxin receptors in the 2 types of cells is the same They arent related ^^ Flowering is controlled by night length, not day length o Depends on red and farred light o Long day flower o Short day no flower o Farred light cancels red light flash Vernalization o Some plants must be exposed to cold temps for many days to flower o Plants w bulbs Photoreceptors o Phytochrome red light st o 1 set of light sensitive set of proteins exposed in plants o Red light activates it o Far red light inactivates it o Depends on what the seeds last saw whether they will germinate or not o Signal to a seed that this is a good place to grow Plant defenses o Hydrogen peroxide bleaches, affects protein structure o Chitinases enzyme that destroys chitin that is on the exoskeleton of arthropods Response to Herbivory o Volatile compounds from a damaged plant can signal to other plants that an attacker is coming Plants can summon help when attacked o If a caterpillar is eating a plant, the plant calls wasp and wasp comes and stings it Plant Hormones are used commercially o Florists spray cut flowers with cytokinin to inhibit senescence o Keep flowers from wilting o Bananas are picked green, pumped w co2 so they don’t ripe, and then when they get to store they are pumped w ethylene Specimens grown from cuttings in greenhouses around the world flower on exactly the same day as the parent plants in the wild o they bloom the same day as their parent o precise clock animals have one too
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