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Exam 1 Study Guide Systems Neuroscience

by: Emma Notetaker

Exam 1 Study Guide Systems Neuroscience NSCI 3320

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Emma Notetaker
GPA 3.975

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Study Guide for our first exam
Systems Neuroscience
Laura Schrader
systems neuroscience, neuroscience, Schrader
75 ?




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Popular in Neuroscience

This 33 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NSCI 3320 at Tulane University taught by Laura Schrader in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Systems Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Week 1 Brain Structure and Development • directions: • anterior/rostral: rat nose • posterior/caudal: rat tail dorsal: rat up • • ventral: rat down • early development: • germ layers • endoderm - viscera (internal organs) • mesoderm - bones, muscle contains somites: bulges on either side of tube • • ultimately become spinal cord • ectoderm - skin, nervous system (from neural tube) • first forms neural groove • groove walls (called neural folds) fuse dorsally to form tube • neural tube: makes entire nervous system hollow part of the tube becomes the vesicular system • • neural crest: cell bodies in PNS (formed by bits pinched off in the folding process) • • primary neurulation: processes by which neural plate becomes neural tube • brain and spinal cord to lumbar level formation 1. notochord: forms from mesoderm 16 days post-fertilization • • important for induction - causes overlying ectoderm to form neural plate • day 18 - neural folds form • day 20 - neural folds contact (folding up to touch each other) • folic acid helpful for complete closure of the tube • zipper-like from cervical levels day 24 - anterior neuropore (rostral) • • congenital defect (dysgraphic): if incomplete closure - anencephaly (no brain) OR cleft palate • day 26 - posterior neuropore • if there is incomplete closure: spina bifida • alar (dorsal) and basal (ventral) plates sulchus limitans: indentation dividing alar and basal plates • • secondary neurulation: sacral and coccygeal levels of spinal cord (begins day 20-42) • defects result in loss of sensation to legs, feet and bladder control • differentiation • phase 1: primary vesicle formation • rostral end of the neural tube - forms entire brain 3 vesicles (about 6 weeks) • • prosencephalon: forebrain • mesencephalon: midbrain • rhombencephalon: hindbrain • cellular proliferation and migration in second trimester which continues until term 1 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 • flexures between vesicles - ultimately become the point where they join • prosencephalon differentiation: look at slide pictures for structural info • • optic vesicles sprout to become optic stalk and optic cups (ultimately becomes optic nerve and retina) - paired • olfactory bulbs sprout off ventral surface • paired telencephalon bulges out and around diencephalon • end brain - ultimately becomes 2 cerebral hemispheres cells of telencephalon differentiate over development • • white matter system develops HERE • corpus callossum (communication between hemispheres) • below the cortex • internal capsule (between thalamus and cortex - bidirectional communication) • links cortex to brain stem (important for communication) cortical white matter - cerebral cortex • • lateral ventricles • thought, voluntary movement, language, reason, perception, etc • becomes: • cerebral cortex • basal telencephalon hippocampus • • amygdala • basal ganglia • diencephalon (unpaired) • becomes thalamus, epithalamus and hypothalamus • between brain • body homeostasis, hunger, circadian rhythms, sensory and motor integration • 3rd ventricle • ventricles: fluid filled space • lateral ventricles (associated with telencephalon) • 3rd ventricle (associated with diencephalon) • midbrain differentiation: • look at slide pictures for structural info • ALL info coming from forebrain and hindbrain pass through here • dorsal surface (top - like ceiling): tectum (sensory) • superior colliculi: visual info • inferior colliculi: auditory info • ventral surface (floor): tegmentum (movement) • substantia nigra - associates with basal ganglia (black lines near bottom) • red nucleus (red spots) • cerebral aqueduct between tectum and tegmentum • surrounded by periaqueductal gray • sensory information passes through • so do nuclei (groups of neurons) that control movement and contribute to sensory info • brainstem = medulla + pons + midbrain • hindbrain differentiation: • look at slide pictures for structural info • 2 main divisions (rostral): • metencephalon: pons and cerebellum (ROSTRAL) 2 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 • cerebellum more dorsal, pons more ventral • forms roof of pons functions in movement, balance, posture • • formed from rhombic lips • cerebellar peduncle: connects cerebellum to white matter • pons: continuous with medulla • important motor relay to and from cerebellum - most motor axons synapse here to get to cerebellum myencephalon: medulla oblongata (CAUDAL) • • medulla: somatic sensory relay, autonomic sensory and motor nuclei • contain cochlear nuclei • inferior olives: much larger, but below superior • superior olives: used to determine where you are in the brain stem • medullary pyramids at bottom of medulla motor axons (efferent) from the cortex cross (decussate) in pyramids • • functions in controlling breathing, HR, BP, digestion • medullary pyramids: motor information (ventral in spinal cord) • spinal cord differentiation: • caudal neural tube • gray matter - neurons (intermediate zone - between dorsal and ventral horns) dorsal horns: sensory • • somatic info up spinal cord to medulla where it crosses • ventral horns: motor • white matter: axons • dorsal columns: axons up dorsal side • lateral columns: corticospinal tract • ventral columns • pineal gland: makes melatonin • releases DMT in near-death experiences Ventricles, Choroid Plexus and Meninges • ventricular system • distorted by the growth of the brain • lateral ventricles on side, 3rd ventricle rostral, 4th caudal • follows the structure of the caudate nucleus development of ventricular system • • brain develops from the neural tube • neural canal (cavity of neural tube) becomes ventricles and central canal of spinal cord • choroid plexus: secretes CSF (which fills ventricles and subarachnoid space • develops from tufts of cells in first trimester • interventricular foramen (of Monroe): between lateral ventricle and 3rd ventricle cerebral aqueduct: between 3 and 4 ventricle • • hydrocephalus: lateral ventricles are filling up with CSF and there is nowhere for it to go • foramen of Lushka and Megendie: openings form in 4th ventricle that allow communication with subarachnoid space • allows the CSF to flow out from the lateral to the 3 or 4 ventricle 3 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 • after the first 2-3 months of development • for tests - just know labelling of ventricular system CSF circulation: • • released from choroid plexus • travels through ventricles • leaves through foramen • enters subarachnoid space and circulated around brain and spinal cord • gray part in diagram is the dura mater (protection for brain) meninges: membranous coverings surrounding CNS • • encased in skull and vertebral column • functions: • protect brain and spinal cord • no subdural space in brain area • support for arteries, veins and sinuses enclose the subarachnoid space - vital for brain survival • • dura mater • in brain: adheres to skull (no epidural space) • in spinal cord: separated from vertebrae by epidural space • almost leathery in texture • between the two hemispheres in the inter hemispheric fissure falx cerebri is the dura mater between the hemispheres (within the fissure) • • arachnoid membrane: • in brain: arachnoid villa allow CSF to flow to the blood • subarachnoid space filled with CSF • in spinal cord: no arachnoid villa • pia mater: • in brain: adherent to surface of brain • in spinal cord: adherent to surface pial specializations • development: • develop from cells of the neural crest and mesoderm • surround neural tube approximately 25-30 days into gestation • note flow of CSF • blood brain barrier: specializations of the walls of therein capillaries that limit flow of some ions and drugs into the extracellular space • endothelial cells surrounded by basal lamina • neurons in the brain sensitive to toxic substances • basal lamina wrap around the vessels • astrocytes also surround vessels and absorb glucose • functions: • 1. protects brain from foreign substances in the blood that may injure the brain • hard for large molecules to pass through • hydrophilic ( low lipid soluble) molecules don’t pass • small hydrophobic molecules (lipid soluble) pass through rapidly • 2. maintains constant environment for brain • molecules with high charge are slowed down • circumventricular organs: areas of brain WITHOUT BBB • pineal body(gland): controls melatonin and circadian rhythms • also produces DMT (spirit drug) • area postrema: vomiting center (caudal part of 4th ventricle) 4 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 • subfornical organ: regulation of body fluids • vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (OVLT): chemosensory area median eminence: anterior pituitary hormones • • sinuses: • superior sagittal (on top) • straight sinus: posterior • converge in back of brain (confluence of sinuses) 5 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Week 2 **there will be labeling on the test!!** Cerebrovascular System • **review figures 58, 60, 61, 62 in atlas (Hendelman)** • medial cortex: controls lower extremities • lateral cortex: controls upper extremities blood needed to supply oxygen to brain • • neuroanatomy • lateral surface: • central sulcus - divides frontal lobe and parietal lobe • lateral (Sylvian) fissure - divides temporal from frontal and parietal • more cortex inside if you open up this fissure (fold it up) called insular cortex: motivation/reward behavior, taste • • not a defined line between parietal and occipital lobe • precentral gyrus: motor cortex • lower limbs represent on medial side of the cortex • upper body represented on lateral side of cortex • postcentral gyrus: somatosensory cortex superior temporal gyrus: auditory • • lobes: • occipital lobe: vision • frontal: executive function • parietal: sensory inputs come together • temporal: hippocampus and amygdala (subcortical) medial surface: • • cingulate cortex: limbic system, decision making • lies right above the corpus calossum • calcarine sulcus: between occipital and temporal • concentration of primary visual cortex • parietooccipital sulcus cuneus: smaller lobe of occipital lobe - vision • • compromise of vasculature: • next 3 things can lead to stroke • 1. aneurysm: dilation of blood vessel • 85% cerebral aneurysms found in internal carotid system • often occur at branch points within the vessels ballooning out is a function of pressure and strain on the vessels • • circle of Willis: many arteries converge - oftentimes location of aneurysm • only bad if it bursts OR putting pressure on specific area • 2. embolism: blockage (occlusion) of cerebral artery (clot, bacteria, plaque, etc) • can lead to ischemia and ultimately infarction (tissue death due to loss of oxygen) • area of brain supplied by artery suffers - decline in fx of those brain areas 3. arteriovenous malformations: developmental dysregulation of formation of • communication between major arteries and veins • causes decrease of blood supply to brain • usually can be corrected by surgery • types of stroke: 1 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • ischemic: block of vasculature stops flow of blood to area of brain • hemorrhagic: blood spills out from vessel, leaks into brain tissue weakened or diseased blood vessels rupture • • blockage of internal carotid: lots more deficit than clot in middle of cerebral artery in brain (leads to less areas, so fewer areas affected by the loss of oxygen) • internal carotid major • brain uses about 20% of the oxygen absorbed by the lungs. • brain tissue deprived of oxygen for less than 1 minute can result in loss of consciousness after 5 minutes of blood deprivation, brain tissue may become permanently damaged. • • blood supply to brain • extremely rich vascularization in the CNS • cerebral cortex and subcortical gray matter very vascularized (less so in white matter) • arteries perforate from small # of arteries and divide into smaller arterioles • density highest in regions containing largest number of neurons and synapses 2 pairs of arteries are major blood supplies to brain: • • internal carotid • internal carotid system: branches into 2 main arteries • branches into middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery/anterior cerebral artery • anterior cerebral artery supplies anterior part, goes in between hemispheres supplies to circle of Willis • • vertebral arteries (run up the spinal cord - come together to form basilar artery) • vertebrobasilar system • supply blood to cerebellum and brainstem • converge near base of pons to form basilar • at midbrain, branches into posterior cerebral artery (brainstem) and superior cerebellar artery (cerebellum) • basilar artery supplies some blood to circle of Willis • circle of Willis: PUT CHART IN HERE • interior and basilar arteries supply blood to here • basilar —>posterior cerebral —> posterior communicating • internal carotid —> posterior communicating OR —> anterior cerebral —> anterior communicating • focus on blood supply • internal carotid enters dura near optic chiasm (brainstem) • major branches of internal carotid: • anterior cerebral artery (terminal branch): two sides • joined together by anterior communicating artery • area of aneurysms - 30-35% of intracranial aneurysms found on anterior communicating OR where if joins cerebral artery • aneurysms cause visual deficits due to proximity to optic chiasm • provides blood to MEDIAL surface of cerebral hemisphere (frontal and parietal lobes) • blood supply to anterior and posterior paracentral gyrus • anterior (lower extremity portion of motor cortex) 2 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • posterior (lower extremity part of somatosensory cortex) • bloody supply to optic chiasm and hypothalamus middle cerebral artery (terminal branch) • • branches: • inferior branch: temporal lobe blood supply • superior branch: frontal and parietal lobe blood supply (precentral and post central cortices) • provides blood to lateral surface of cerebral hemisphere AND insular cortex precentral gyrus: upper extremities of motor cortex • • postcentral gyrus: somatosensory • temporal gyri: auditory cortex • lenticulostriate arteries: supply striatum and thalamus areas (subcortical) • lenticular nucleus = putamen • posterior cerebral artery: supplies: • • back part of brain (posterior cerebral cortex) • occipital lobe/visual cortex • caudal part of medial surface • midbrain/pons • some of diencephalon calcarine artery: primary visual cortex • • branches from the basilar artery • minor branches: • ophthalmic artery: supplies blood to retina • compromise can result in visual loss • posterior communicating: part of circle of willis • anterior choroidal: supplies blood to choroid plexus of lateral ventricles • calcarine artery: important for visual cortex • vertebral artery: • supplies medulla, some cerebellum and posterior dura • basilar artery supplies: • ventral/lateral cerebellum • pons • choroid plexus of 4th ventricle • veins and sinuses: • venous blood from deep and superficial veins enters dural sinuses which empty into internal jugular vein (gets blood away from brain) • superior and interior sagittal sinus - attaches to free edges of fax cerebra • superior outlines dura mater on dorsal surface • inferior: outlines on ventral surface • straight sinus: where tantrum cerebella (dura mater between cerebellum and cerebrum)meets fall cerebri) • between cerebellum and cerebrum • come together at confluence of sinuses Telencephalon • 85% weight of brain 3 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • development: • derived from prosencephalon telencephalic vesicles (2) form about 5 weeks from gestation (wrap out and around • diencephalon) • lateral ventricles develop inside the vesicles • striatum (basal telencephalon) beings to form when diencephalon forms • from floor or lateral ventricles • internal capsule divides into caudate and putamen separates thalamus and striatum • • anterior commissure arises within lamina terminalis • lamina terminalis most rostral part of neural tube • disorders: • lissencephaly: smooth brain (no sulci or gyri) - failure of migration of radial glia • pachygyria: large gyri, but fewer microgyria: small gyri in great numbers • • lobes (6) • frontal • lateral surface: • Broca’s area: • inferior frontal gyrus - made up of the 3 pars: pars opercularis • • pars triangularis • pars orbitalis • left hemisphere • Broca’s aphasia: difficulty in expressing ideas or concepts into coherent sentences • medial surface: • cingulate sulcus - sulcus dividing frontal lobe from limbic lobe/cingulate gyrus • callosal sulcus - divides corpus callosum from cingulate gyrus • lamina terminalis - circumventricular organ which lacks BBB • runs from interventricular foramen down to the optic stalk • during development, the most rostral tip of the neural tube • ventral surface: • olfactory sulcus: divides orbital gyri from gyrus rectus • hold olfactory bulbs • gyrus rectus (more lateral) • orbital gyri (more medial) • parietal: polymodal area (brings together most sensory information) • lateral surface: • postcentral gyrus - holds primary somatosensory cortex • posterior paracentral lobule - most of the parietal cortex (that’s not post central) • angular gyrus - wraps around superior temporal sulcus • intraparietal sulcus - middle of lobe • different functions of areas around this sulcus - eye directed movement • Wernicke’s area (supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus) • Wernicke’s aphasia: cannot understand what they hear, can’t read or write, and make no sense when they speak • due to the closeness to the temporal lobe • medial surface: • precuneus - polymodal information 4 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • in front of cuneus in occipital lobe • temporal lateral surface: • • bounded by Lateral/Sylvian sulcus and collateral sulcus (ventral surface) • superior temporal gyrus - auditory information • superior temporal sulcus - separates middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus • middle temporal gyrus - visual information (outside of primary visual areas) inferior temporal gyrus - visual information (outside of primary visual areas) • • face and object recognition - ultimately feeds into hippocampus • ventral surface: • collateral sulcus - divides temporal from limbic lobe • occipitotemporal gyri • hippocampus occipital (most caudal portion) • • lateral • preoccipital notch • primary visual cortex at most caudal point of lateral surface • medial surface: • parieto-occipital sulcus - separates cuneus from precuneus (and parietal from occipital) • calcarine sulcus: separates cuneus fron lingual gyrus (on ventral side of occipital) • primary visual cortex - direct inputs from the thalamus to visual cortex • insular • cortical structure that is internal - see when open lateral fissure • gustatory information - taste • roles in reward circuitry • partner bonding and attachment functions • limbic • surrounds midbrain area • medial: • cingulate gyrus (right above corpus calossum - wraps around) • anterior cingulate gyrus • ventral • collateral sulcus • rhinal sulcus - olfactory information in rhinal areas • parahippocampal gyrus • uncus • sulci: • central - divides frontal and parietal • lateral (Sylvian) - divides temporal and frontal/parietal • parieto-occipital - divides parietal/temporal from occipital (more on medial surface) • preoccipital notch - divides temporal and occipital • draw line between pre occipital and parieto-occipitaq to really divide • not a real dividing line between temporal and parietal • lots of polymodal association areas - multi sensory function • white matter: connects gray matter • 1. association fibers connect various areas of cortex within same hemisphere • cingulum (medial surface) - connecting all the lobes, runs through cingulate gyrus 5 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • longitudinal fasciculi • superior (lateral surface) - connects frontal, parietal and occipital lobes inferior (medial surface) - connects ventral temporal lobe to occipital • • uncinate fasciculus- connects frontal lobe and tip of temporal • arcuate fasciculus -connects frontal and posterior temporal lobe • 2. commisural fibers: cross hemispheres to connect them • corpus callosum • anterior commisure - connects frontal and temporal lobes (on medial surface) hippocampal commissure (on medial surface) - communicates between two • hippocampi • 3. projection fibers: • internal capsule - communicates between cortex and thalamus • autism theory: white matter connections underdeveloped • could be why they are so smart still - their frontal lobes are fully developed but lack the connections to the rest of the brain • basal telencephalon • basal nuclei (basal ganglia) • thalamus is the most internal part, globes pallidus and putamen most external • collection of subcortical structures • 1. corpus striatum neostriatum: • • 1. caudate nucleus • lateral wall of 3 ventricle • wraps around diencephalon and follows corpus callosum • made up of head, body and tail • motor function, cognitive function • head degenerates in Huntington’s • 2. putamen - lies internal to caudate (2 segments) • paleostriatum: • globus pallidus (inernal to putamen) - wraps around thalamus • 2. nucleus accumbens - rostral • addiction circuitry • substantia innominata • parahippocampal gyrus: • subiculum • dentate gyrus • hippocampus proper - lies just ventral to tail of caudate • fornix: major output pathway (to rest of brain) • wraps around, follows lateral ventricle • fembria: arises from hippocampus • crus: where it turns • body: most ventral - right above corpus callosum • columns • amygdala: • almond-shaped structure at tip of hippocampus • stria terminalis: major output from amygdala to hypothalamus 6 Sunday, January 24, 2016 Week 3 Diencephalon • Hendelman figures 78A • 4 major subdivisions • 1. dorsal thalamus: largest component neurons project to all areas of cortex (sensory) • • some nuclei receive info from subcortical and cortical motor areas to send to cortex • participates in limbic system • axons travel in internal capsule (white matter between thalamus and cortex) • dorsal to hypothalamus • 2. hypothalamus connected to forebrain, brainstem and spinal cord • • controls autonomic nervous system function • hormone release • most ventral part of the brain • connects to hippocampus via fornix • connects to amygdala via stria terminalis 3. ventral thalamus • • subthalamic nuclei (motor nucleus important in basal ganglia function) • connected to basal ganglia • fx in motor circuitry • subthalamic nuclei: • inputs: motor cortex outputs: substantia nigra and globus pallidus • • 4. epithalamus • limbic system • pineal gland • gets info about visual stimuli (from retinal ganglion cells) • rhythmically produces/secretes melatonin (circadian over 24 hour period) develops from epiphysis • • habenula • habenular nuclei • medial nuclei • lateral nuclei • part of limbic system fiber tract: stria medullaris thalami • • development of diencaphalon: • from caudal prosencephalon • below telencephalon and above mesencephalon • center of the brain • develops in 7 weeks gestation (delayed after telencephalon) surrounds 3rd ventricle • • hypothalamic sulcus: divides future dorsal thalamus and hypothalamus • epithalamus: • formed from original epiphysis (ultimately becomes pineal gland) • habenula 1 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • pituitary: • infundibulum (early) becomes the neurohypophysis Rathke pouch (early) becomes adenohypophysis • • paired thalamus - like your fists together, thumbs are geniculate bodies • 3 generalizations: • all nuclei project to the cortex • projections are ipsilateral (left thalamus to left cortex, etc.) • no known projections between nuclei except Thalamic Reticular Nuclei (TRN) • dorsal thalamus: nuclear arrangement • external medullary lamina: myelinated axons surrounding thalamus on lateral sides • divides dorsomedial nucleus from anterior nucleus fibers that enter or leave subcortical white matter • • associated with thalamic reticular nucleus • internal medullary lamina: divides thalamus into cell groups • axons travel in internal capsule (white matter between thalamus and cortex) • internal capsule connects all nuclei to the cortex • bundle of axons communicating between thalamus and cortex internal nuclei: • • interior centromedian • ventral posterior • parafascicular nucleus • association nuclei: • mainly memory formation, limbic and executive functions connected diffusely with various areas of the cortex • • 1. anterior thalamic nuclei: • most rostral point of thalamus • important for memory formation (mostly spatial) 2 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • reciprocal inputs/outputs as well (not just inputs/outputs) • inputs: mammillary nuclei - via mammillothlamic tract • • medial temporal lobe/hippocampus - through fornix • output: cingulate gyrus • 2. dorsomedial nucleus • inputs: • prefrontal temporal • • amygdala • substantia nigra • output to prefrontal cortex • important in executive function • 3. lateral dorsal inputs: mammillary nuclei • • outputs: cingulate gyrus • 4. pulvinar • reciprocal connections: • superior colliculus (in tectum) - guiding attention and spatial map • visual association cortex - everything outside primary visual cortex in parietal lobe 5. lateral posterior • • reciprocal connections • superior colliculus • parietal cortex • relay nuclei: • 1. ventral posterolateral (VPL) • somatosensory information • inputs: • medial lemniscus tract (mechanoreceptors/touch information) • spinothalamic tract (pain/temp sensory input) • outputs: • somatosensory • insular cortex • 2. ventral posteromedial nuclei (VPM): • somatosensory information • inputs: • trigeminothalamic tract (cranial nerve V) - innervation from face • outputs: • primary somatosensory cortex • insular cortex • 3. lateral geniculate • inputs: • retinal ganglion cells (primary input)s • superior colliculus • outputs: primary visual cortex • 4. medial geniculate • inputs: • inferior colliculus • auditory brainstem 3 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • outputs: primary auditory cortex • 5. ventral anterior: motor nuclei reciprocal connection of premotor and supplementary motor • • planning of motor function • 6. ventral lateral: motor nuclei • primary motor and premotor areas (origination of corticospinal tract) • direct movement • nonspecific nuclei: function ambiguous intralaminar nuclei (internal thalamus) • • centromedian (internal thalamus) • motor function • inputs: globus pallidus • outputs: caudate putamen • parafascicular (internal thalamus) inputs: anterolateral system • • outputs: diffuse projections • chronic pain connections • midline nuclei: • inputs: poorly defined • outputs: amygdala and anterior cingulate thalamic reticular nuclei: • • inputs: cortex, other thalamic nuclei • outputs: other thalamic nuclei • intra-thalamic communication • surrounds thalamus (wraps around) • primarily GABAergic cells • model of visual system: • thalamic inputs: • retinal or driving afferents • “retinogeniculate projections” • glutamatergic (excitatory) onto relate neurons • 3 types in LGN (different inputs) • cortical afferents: • corticothalamic projections • glutamatergic (excitatory) • cells in LGN go to cortex • layer IV visual cortex (layer V for some cortical regions) • number of corticothalamic axons is ~10x number of retinogeniculate axons • strong reciprocity between thalamus and cortex - goes back from cortex to LGN • each CT axon innervates many thalamic neurons • most of the nuclei receive lots of modulatory inputs in thalamus • brainstem: • basal forebrain is cholinergic • locus coeruleus is noradrenergic • dorsal raphe: serotonergic • thalamic reticular nuelci (TRN) afferents • form shell around dorsal thalamus • inputs from cortex • GABAergic 4 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • interneurons (25% of cells depending on species) • intrinsic to dorsal thalamus GABAergic • • species-dependent • thalamocortical connections: • hypothalamus: base of the brain (most ventral) • sensory info about internal environment • principal modulator of autonomic system • regulates motor function at autonomic level • inputs: • fornix (from hippocampus) • stria terminalis (from amygdala) • outputs: • medial forebrain bundle • dorsal longitudinal fascilculus • 3 divisions: • lateral hypothalamic • no discrete nuclei • involved in cardiovascular function and food/water intake • medial hypothalamic • 9 main nuclei • regulates hormone release from pituitary • cardiovascular functions 5 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • circadian rhythms • body temp fod intake • • periventricular: caudal Hypothalamus • most ventral part of the brain • attached to pituitary • overview: • maintenance of homeostasis • regulate metabolism • temperature • food intake • glucose • blood flow, blood volume, blood pressure, blood salinity, blood oxygen, blood glucose • reproductive activity (sex behavior, sex cycles, childbirth) • stress response master gland of the body - coordinates autonomic reflexes of the brainstem and spinal • cord • outputs to anterior or posterior pituitary - release hormones into circulation that control various homeostatic functions • hypothalamic function: • OUTPUTS: hypothalamic control via efferents endocrine system - neuroendocrine cells via pituitary • • autonomic nervous system - preautonomic cells via brainstem and spinal cord • preautonomic cells: line hypothalamus, receive sensory info and then output to autonomic nervous system nuclei within the brainstem • connect via medial forebrain bundle and dorsal longitudinal fasciculus • olfactory info to hypothalamus to amygdala in median forebrain bundle (involved in reproduction, defense and feeding • visual inputs - suprachiasmatic nucleus = circadian rhythms • visceral sensations: sensory info from nucleus of the solitary tract • sensory info from cranial nerves 9 and 10 • reciprocal connections with afferents • INPUTS: hypothalamic integration via afferents ascending sensory signals from brainstem/spinal cord • • descending afferents from cortex and limbic system • connects to limbic system via fornix • integrates sensory, cognitive and emotional information to regulate endocrine, autonomic and behavioral response —> ultimately controls homeostasis • reticular formation and medullary control of cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal process • 3 broad zones • periventricular: neurosecretory nuclei, ANS function/control • lies just around 3rd ventricle • lateral: motivation, stress, sex, etc. 6 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • undefined nuclei • eating behavior medial: motivation, stress, sex, etc. • • nuclei: • supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (in posterior pituitary): • posterior pituitary • responsible for release of vasopressin and oxytocin • vasopressin: water and electrolyte balance Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates blood volume and salt concentration • • subfornical i • increases water permeability (antidiuresis) - water moves out of kidney via osmosis • urine is more concentrated to conserve water, thirst and water intake • AV3V and OVLT • circumventricular organ: vasopressin release response to hypovolemia: decreased blood volume (hemorrhaging) • • kidney secretion of renin • activation of vasopressin neurons • SON and PVN (supraoptic and periventricular) • asynchronous burst generation • water retention in kidney cellular information: • • body fluid is hyperosmol and volume low, adaptive behaviors are initiatied drinking and water conservation - also excrete NaCl • when blood pressure falls (less fluid) Kidney secretes renin • angiotensinogen produced by the liver is converted to angiotensin I by renin. Breaks down further into angiotensin II • angiotensin II has direct effects on the kidney and blood vessils which help increase blood pressure. • angiotensin II is also detected in subfornical organ – lacks bbb --activate vasopressin neurons • also activates cells in the lateral hypothalamus produces thirst and motvtes drinking behavior (AV3V and OVLT) • increase blood volume (water intake) – vasopressin levels decrease and dilute urine is excreted. • oxytocin: lactation and partuition • final stages of childbirth • uterine contraction • milk ejection reflex • paraventricular: stress • arcuate and paraventricular nuclei: food behavior and neuroendocrine functions • arcuate: hypothalamic releasing factors • leptin: regulator of body fat and food intake • ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei: release of growth hormone • suprachiasmatic nucleus: circadian clock • just above optic chiasm • anterior and preoptic areas • regulation of sexual behavior • sleep regulation • temperature regulation 7 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • neuroendocrine function: • pituitary gland: posterior lobe: neurohypophysis • • hypothalamus outcropping (part of the brain) • hormone secretion into general bloodstream • oxytocin and vasopressin released DIRECTLY into circulation • magnocellular neurons (neurosecretory) from supraoptic (only magnocellular) and paraventricular nuclei (multiple cell types) send axons to posterior pituitary (via median emminence and infundibular stalk) • and release neurohormones (peptides) • interact with neurons in AV3V and OVLT (CV organ) area postrema (CV organ), nucleus of the solitary tract, locus coeruleus to integrate peripheral stimuli and change fluid movement • anterior lobe: adenohypophysis ACTUAL gland • • releasing hormones released into PORTAL SYSTEM, which then go on to release directly • parvocellular neurosecretory cells of paraventricular nucleus and anterior areas send axons to communicate with portal circulation • fossicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - ovulation and spermatogenesis leutenizing hormone - sperm and ovarian maturation • • thyroid stimulating hormone - thyroxin secretion (metabolism) • ACTH - cortisol secretion • growth hormone - protein synthesis • prolactin - growth and milk secretion • hypothalamo-pituitary-portal circulation: parvocellular neurons secrete hypophysiotropic hormones into specialized capillary bed • controlled by releasing hormone cells in hypothalamic terminals in median eminence • Peptides stored in neurosecretory granule cells - enough stored in anterior pituitary to allow antidiuresis during dehydration for more than a week • portal blood vessels • pituitary hormone release into general circulation • regulation of adrenal glands under stress • negative feedback mechanism • when body senses stress, info sent to paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus • parvocellular project from PVN to median eminence and release CRH into portal circulation • travels to corticotropes in anterior pituitary to release ACTH • travels to adrenal cortex, which releases cortisol • feeding behavior, motivation • brain needs constant supply of glucose • integration of feeding behavior • central control: within hypothalamus • arcuate and paraventricular nuclei • lateral hypothalamus • peripheral control • act faster than specific hypothalamic mechanisms • obesity: 8 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • hormone leptin released by adipocytes (fat cells) to regulate body mass • important for regulation of body mass and control of appetite acts directly on the neurons of the hypothalamus that decrease appetite and • increase energy • humans that lack leptin crave food and have slowed metabolism – therefore morbidly obese • obesity is highly heritable • unless genetically lack leptin, obese people DON’T respond to leptin treatment results of hypothalamic lesions - areas important for feeding behavior • • bilateral lesions of lateral hypothalamus - anorexia • bilateral lesions of ventromedial hypothalamus - overeating and obesity • high leptin levels (well satiated, right after meal) • arcuate nucleus senses leptin (under 3rd ventricle) • propiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) paraventricular nucleus – regulates the release of TSH and ACTH • • also activated by POMC cells • PVN and arcuate neurons control the ANS • MSH diminishes appetite • POMC neurons (in arcuate) have alpha MSH • levels vary in proportion to the levels of the leptin in blood somatic response- decreases feeding behavior • • MSH neurons project to brain stem areas that control these • increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH and ACTH (from paraventricular) • act on thyroid and adrenal glands and increase metabolic rate in nervous system. • interacts with brainstem: visceromotor response • raises metabolic rate and raises body temperature • experimentally infuse alpha MSH into lateral hypothalamus, can inhibit feeding behavior • low leptin levels (hungry) • arcuate nucleus has NPY and AgRP neurons (agouti-related peptide • decreased leptin levels stimulate increase in the NPY and AgRP • connections with PVN and lateral hypothalamus • NPY and AgRP inhibit secretion of TSH and ACTH – stimulate feeding behavior • AgRP and MSH bind melanocortin (MC4) receptor in hypothalamus and PVN • MSH agonist at MC4R and reduces feeding behavior • AgRP and NPY is an antagonist • experiment: • used GABA antagonist to show that GABA used, not activation of MCR4 • activation of 800 AGRP neurons in mice evoked voracious feeding within minutes • POMC stimulation decreased body weight and food intake • dependent on MC4R • certain number of neurons needed to activate this response • increased food intake mediated by GABAergic inputs (increased intake upon stimulus) • not antagonism of MC4R by AgRP • activating GABA release is more important • lateral hypothalamus • MCH – melanin concentrating hormone • released from cells in the lateral hypothalamus • widespread connections in brain 9 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • monosynaptic connections with cortex – organize and initiate goal-mediated behavior orexin: stimulates feeding behavior • • MCH and orexin levels rise when leptin levels fall (in opposition with leptin) • satiety: peripheral signals • leptin released from endipocytnes • gastric distension: stomach wall innervated by mechanoreceptors via the vagus nerve (cranail nerve X, sends sensory inputs into solitary tract of brainstem) senses gastric distension • • activate neurons in the NTS - inhibits feeding behavior • CCK: cholecystokinin • released in response to intestinal stimuli • acts at sensory neurons of the vagus nerve (X) • ghrelin: released into bloodstream when stomach is empty activates AgRP and NPY cells of arcuate nucleus • • optogenetics video: • control behavior of cells by switching on light • can make heart beat to match with blinking light • neural circuitry underlying behaviors • specifically target group of cells in the brain and active or inhibit them Peripheral Nervous System • nervous system peripheral • • autonomic • sympathetic: fight or flight • parasympathetic: rest and digest • somatic: voluntary • central brain • • forebrain • telencephalon: cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala • diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus • midbrain • mesencephalon: tectum, tegmentum hindbrain • • metencephalon: pons, cerebellum • myelencaphalon: medulla • spinal cord • peripheral: • 43 pairs of nerves 12 cranial nerves - connect brain to periphery • • mainly arise from brainstem • cranial nerve X: vagus nerve • slows heart, contracts bronchi, stimulates stomach gallbladder and pancreas • 31 spinal nerves: connect spinal cord to periphery • named for levels from where they exit 10 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • 8 cervical • neck muscles, glands, upper body sensory: neck, shoulders, arms, hands • • 12 thoracic - chest and abdominal wall • 5 lumbar - hips and legs • 5 sacral - genitalia and lower digestive tract • 1 coccyx - tailbone • sensory: carries info from body to CNS (afferents - project TO CNS) motor: carries info from CNS to body (efferents - project AWAY from CNS) • • somatic: connects skin/muscle with CNS • voluntary • excitatory ONLY • required for activity • all-or-none response alpha motor neuron in ventral horn exits to innervate muscle fibers • • visceral/autonomic: connects viscera (organs, smooth muscle, cardiac glands) with CNS • innervation of organs, involuntary • excitatory OR inhibitory (more modulatory) • modulates ongoing activity, maintains homeostasis • graded responses, mostly controlled by hypothalamus sympathetic outflow: • • parasympathetic: • mainly arise from brainstem • hypothalamus projects BACK to spinal cord and brainstem • main output dorsal longitudinal fasciculus and medial forebrain bundle • most organs receive dual innervation (except blood vessels, sweat glands and erector muscles in the body wall and extremities) • in general, activity going on in both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system • autonomic nervous system: visceral control • parasympathetic: R and R, “brake” • arises from brainstem (mostly in pons/medulla) • edinger-westphal nucleus in midbrain - innervates ciliary ganglion which is important for pupil constriction • aka craniosacral: nerves arrive from cranial and sacral nerves • cranial nerves 3, 7, 9 and 10 have parasympathetic function • 3: oculomotor - pupillary constriction • 7/9: innervate glands for mucus and salivary secretion • 10: vagus - innervates heart, lungs, stomach, gallbladder (slows heart rate, constricts bronchi, increase GI activity, constricts bladder, causes erection) • maintains homeostasis • cells from superior and inferior salivary nucleus -> teregoplatine and submandibular (mucus and salivary secretion) • dorsomotor nucleus of vagus - vagal nerve function • increases • systemic artery diameter - relaxes them (arteries in periphery) • saliva and mucous secretion • gut activity • bladder tone • decreases: 11 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • HR • cardiac artery diameter bronchi diameter (constriction!) • • pupil diameter (constriction!) - mediated by cranial nerves • ganglia: within or close to organs that postganglion innervate • preganglionic axons are longer, postganglionic are shorter • preganglionic neurons come from brainstem or sacral portion of the spinal cord • pre AND postganglionic neurons use ACh as neurotransmitter may also co-release nitric oxide or vasoactiveantihisamine protein (VIP) • • viagra increases NO release to enhance erection - blood flow to penis (targets PNS) • sympathetic: fight or flight, “gas” • aka thoracolumbar system (nerves from thoracic and lumbar • preganglionic cells arises from spinal cord (interior mediolateral cell column - notch in gray matter) some postganglionic cells from sympathetic chain: paravertebral ganglion • • others arise from individual ganglia - prevertebral/collateral ganglia • postganglionic synapse onto effector • increases • HR • cardiac artery diameter bronchi diameter • • pupil diameter • sweat gland activity • adrenal gland activity - nerve DOES NOT synapse in ganglion, goes directly to gland • piloerector muscles - hair on arms standing up • decreases: • systemic artery diameter • saliva and mucous secretion • gut activity (GI system) • bladder tone • promotes ejaculation • ganglia: 2 chains of each side of spinal cord • preganglionic axons are shorter, postganglionic are longer • preganglionic cells arises from intermediolateral cell column in spinal cord • synapses on postganglionic cells in sympathetic chain (paravertebral) or prevertebral (aka collateral) • collateral ganglia: superior cervical (head and face) • ganglion generally fairly close to the spinal cord • preganglionic cells release ACh • postganglionic release norepinephrine • sometimes careless neuropeptide Y • NE receptors are slow, modulatory receptors • alpha and beta receptors (beta blockers block the sympathetic response from NE to calm person down • specific ganglia: • celiac ganglion—> foregut innervation (stomach, superior duodenum, liver, pancreas, gallbladder) • aorticorenal—> kidney innervation 12 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • superior mesencephalic —> midgut (duodenum, jejunum/ileum, ascending/ transverse colon) inferior mesencephalic —> hindgut (transverse/descending colon) and pelvic • (rectum, bladder, reproductive organs) • EXCEPTIONS: • adrenal medulla: direct sympathetic projection from spinal cord to adrenal gland • postganglionic fibers supplying sweat glands use ACh receptors: • • ACh receptors • nicotinic • fast, ligand-gated (either on or off) • on postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia • ON neuromuscular junction (on the muscle) - somatic nervous system muscarinic - in parasympathetic nervous system (postganglionic) • • modulatory – G-protein coupled (slower) • smooth muscle • cardiac muscle • gland cells • Norepinephrine sympathetic: • • alpha (α) - in arteries • divided into a1 and a2 (presynaptic - modulatory) • beta (β) receptors - in cardiac muscle and salivary glands • G-protein coupled • Smooth muscle • Cardiac • Gland cells • some eye muscles, skin sweat glands and erector hair muscles NOT activated by parasympathetic • sympathetic activation goes away, NOT targeted by parasympathetic 13 Monday, February 1, 2016 Week 4 Taste • sensory systems: • primary neuron comes in from periphery and synapses in brainstem or spinal cord • secondary neuron (in brainstem or spinal cord) projects to thalamus tertiary neuron goes to sensory cortex • • most of the olfactory input goes directly to cortex • perception of an environmental stimulus: • sensory receptors: transduce stimulus into action potentials • photoreceptors: light • mechanoreceptors: mechanical information chemoreceptors: chemical signals • • thermal receptors: hot or cold • proprioceptors: position of limbs and joints in space • nociceptors - pain • properties of stimulus • modality: which sensory neurons activated ex: which taste we’re talking about • • location: sensory regions organized according to incoming signals • adjacent sensory input processed in adjacent columns • preserves the topographic organization of receptors • not really associated with taste • duration: duration of action potentials intensity: encoded by number of action potentials or fibers activated • • hypotheses of sensory information processing (evidence for both, likely a combination of the two) • 1. labeled line: coding model in which peripheral neurons that respond the most robustly to a given sensory modality carry the information via segregated pathways (wire from periphery to cortex) ONE cell/nerve sends information to cortex • • 2. ensemble code: stimulus and intensity encoded by broadly tuned ensemble of neurons • MULTIPLE neurons • 5 taste sensations (used to be thought that tastes were sensed on different regions of the tongue, but actually just which receptors are present) • sweet - sugars (fructose, sucrose) triggered by organic ions • • bitter • triggered by organic ions • poisonous taste • quinine receptors • umami triggered by organic ions • • sour • triggered by H+ ions (acidic) • salty • triggered by Na+ ions 1 Monday, February 1, 2016 • oleogustus • triggered by fatty acids recent discovery (unsure if transduce as individual taste or not) • • taste is a combination of many things • olfactory sense also helps with taste (why mouth and tongue so close to nasal cavity) • regions of pharynx, palate and epiglottis also have taste receptors (in addition to tongue) • somatosensory information from mouth • heat sensed by cranial nerve V (trigeminal) papillae: taste sensitive structures • • each papillae has 1-100 tastebuds (tastebuds inside divot) • each taste bud has • 50-150 receptor cells • these taste cells synapse onto gustatory afferent axons • gustatory afferent axons basal cells • • taste pore: senses tastent and activates cells • receptors for taste on taste cells • substance binds to receptor by: • depolarizing taste receptor and allowing calcium influx • OR causes release of calcium from intracellular stores neurotransmitter for sour and salty is SEROTONIN • • bitter, sweet and umami use GPCR (ATP) • responsiveness of taste cells and gustatory axons: • 2 different cells episode to NaCl, quinine, HCl and sucrose • both cells respond differently to different substances • when cell depolarized, caused increase in action potentials in their axons • when hyper polarized, inhibits AP • most agree that each cell has a primary taste which is dependent on receptor type in cell • type 1 cells: express Na channels (for salty) • Na fluxes in through cell, depolarizes and releases serotonin • type 2: express GPCR (bitter, sweet and umami) • activate PLC which turns PIP2 into iP3 - increases calcium stores which allows for release of nt • type 3: express PKD2L1 (acid sensing sour) • unsure if this protein is a receptor for the H+ ions OR the cells that express this protein are just sensitive to hydrogen • taste transduction: • salty: simple influx of sodium • sour: influx of hydrogen closes potassium channels —> hyperpolarization • taste receptor proteins: GPCR (NOT neurons) • 30 bitter receptors - T2R • poison (bitter, bad) • attractive tastes - T1-R1, 2 and 3 (receptors come together as a dimer) • sweet: T1R2 and T1R3 • high energy • T1R3 may also be involved in tasting calcium • umami: combination of T1R1 and T1R3 • tastant induced activity in receptor cells in various KO animals (which are genetically modified to lack the receptor for that taste 2 Monday, February 1, 2016 • KO animals that lack the receptors show NO response to the taste • data supports specific receptor theory evidence for ensemble coding • • cranial nerves carry various taste sensations • CT and GSP are branches of facial nerve • large component of sweet and salty carried here (because these tastes on the anterior portion of the tongue) • GP: glossopharyngeal nerve carries info from the back 1/3 of tongue • • mainly bitter taste ??


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