Intro To Social Psych Notes
Intro To Social Psych Notes PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Social Psych Notes Attitudes • Positive or negative evaluation ◦ Perosn ◦ Object ◦ Idea • Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components ◦ Ex: miley cyrus you have thoughts, feelings, and find yourself listening to her music consequently Measuring attitudes • Selfreport measures ◦ Attitude scales ◦ Bogus pipeline political beliefs we may not always be honest about; attitudes toward racial prejudice • Physiological machine they hook them up to and tells them it's a lie detector ▪ Makes people more honest • Covert measures ◦ Facial electromyograph (EMG) • Electrical activity in the face, faint electrical impulses that you can't see outwardly • The IAT ◦ Implicit association test Source of attitude • Conditioning ◦ Classical conditioning • Repeated pairing with NS and a pos or neg stimulus ◦ Operant conditioning • Punishment and reward • Balance theory ◦ Cognitive consistency theory argue we have pressures towards consistencies in our attitudes • Genetic • Social roles ◦ Acquire the attitudes of other people in that role you take up Classical conditioning • Before conditioning ◦ NS mothballs = no response ◦ US grandma visis = UR happiness • During conditioning ◦ CS mothballs ◦ US grandma visits ◦ Both = UR happiness • After conditioning ◦ Pp Operant conditioning • Behavior influenced by reinforcement or punishment ◦ Associate behavior with outcome Balance theory • Cognitive consistency between people • Ex: attitude toward a person and the person has an attitude toward something else • Eaerliest consistency theory (Heider) ◦ Consistency within the person ◦ Involves the perceiver, another person, and an attitude object • Ex: jill and dan are friends, jill like saints so he might like them too; multiply the positives or negatives between each to see if it's balanced • Ex: dan and jill are friends, dan hates vikings so jill has to hate to balance • Ex: jill and anna are friends, anna likes falcons and jill doesn’t; unbalanced Genetic influences on attitudes • Pp chart • Identical twin correlation is stronger than fraternal suggests there's a genetic component Social roles • Stanford prison study • Zimbardo had to halt experiment because everyone's behavior was getting out of line What functions do attitudes fill? • Object appraisal ◦ Attitudes categorize stimuli ◦ Approach vs avoidance • Value expression ◦ Represent our identity What functions do attitudes fill? • Social adjustment ◦ Facilitates relationships • Ego defensive ◦ Attitudes can defend the self from potentially threatening events Homophobia as egodefense • Adams, wright, and lohr • Homophobia protects their ego by convincing them that their straight • Brought straight men into lab, measured homophobic attitudes into two groups (high or low), had them watch porn (heteroxesual, lesbian, gay), measure their sexual arousal by report, used a penal paciprograph???: measure circumfrence of penis ◦ Nonhomophobic increase for het and les but not to gay men ◦ Homophobic increase to all porn Do attitudes = behavior? • We usually believe they should ◦ Fundamental attribution error judge ppl's internal states based on their behaviors and don’t take into situational accounts • Cognitive consistency ◦ Strive for coherence, meaning; we want the two to align bc it's consistence • Ex: if we think smoking is harmful and we smoke, it may cause anxiety • Strom thurmond ◦ South carolina senator ◦ Against race mixing ◦ His daugther was black When attitudes predict behavior • Self awareness • Strong attitudes ◦ Direct experience ◦ Rehearsed • Stable attitudes ◦ Measured at same time When attitudes predict behavior • Relevant to behavior ◦ Specific vs general attitude ◦ Birth ocntrol study (davidson and jaccard) • Attitude measure ▪ Atttiude toward birth control (diff forms) ▪ Att. Towrd birth control pills ▪ Att. Toward using birth control pills ▪ Att. Toward using birth control pills over next two years • Attitudebehavior ▪ .08 ▪ .32 ▪ .53 ▪ .57 Why behavior affects attitudes • Cogntivie dissonance theoy (festinger) ◦ Behaviorattitude mismatch is uncomf ◦ Need to reduce dissonance ◦ Magnitude of dissonance is key ◦ Results in changed attitude • Festinger ◦ Brought participants to lab and had them do a boring task for an hour where they sat at a peg board and turned them; when it was over them told some of the people how expectation influences task and asked if they would lie and tell them it was interesting; some offered $20 to tell them, others offered $1 and third group didn't lie at all; how much did you enjoy the study? • No lie low • $20 lie slightly higher • $1 lie really high • Argument is that they only got a dollar and were like why did I lie, cognitive dissonance made them convince themselves that it was fun • Insufficient justification • Festinger and carlsmith • Initiation study (aronson and mills) ▪ Boring conversation about animal sex and then If you can read through a list of vulgar words or super vulgar words to an older man ▪ Sever initiation liked most ▪ Mild initiation liked medium ▪ No initiation liked least • We need to justify why we went through what we did, that's why they liked it more • The tension that arises when on is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions is called: cognitive dissonance • ____ argue that when our attitudes are weak or ambiguous we infer them by looking at our behaviors and the circumstances under which they occur. Other word we deduce our attitudes in the same manner as would an outside observer ◦ Selfperception theory • Bem ▪ Reran original festinger and Carlsmith study ▪ You just learned about someone else that participated in the study • The ppl who guessed the participants liked the study the most was when they were paid $1 • Both theories now offered an explanation • We use behavior as a que; look to our behavior and infer our attitudes • Observe own behavior • Infer attitude • Offers alternative explanation why you might go through cognitive dissonance Comparing theories • In most circumstances, cog diss and self perc theory make same predictions • Critical diff ◦ Cog diss = arousal causes attitude change ******* PP SLIDE Are people the same everywhere? • Sleep ◦ Biological phenomenon ◦ Cultural phenomenon • Does everyone need self esteem? ◦ Americans vs asians • Stronger in america and manifests differently ◦ Better than avg effect • Natural selection ◦ Process whereby those members of a species that survive and reproduce most effectively are the ones that pass along their genes to future generations • Evolutionary psych ◦ The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection • Cultural perspectives ◦ Culture: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next ◦ How are people different and how cultures create differences ◦ Ppl are integrated cultural perspectives with evolutionary perspectives ◦ Infectious disease study rules on protection Evolved for culture? • Baimeister ? • Language • Progress • Division of labor • Network of trade and exchange Social norms • : standards for accepted and expected behavior • All cultures have norms ◦ Cultural similarities • Incest, it's taboo ◦ Cultural differences • Personal space, those closer to the equator can tolerate less personal space than those away from it • Punctuality ▪ What is considered late? • Brazil = 33.5 min / CA = 19 min ▪ What is considered early? • Brazil = 54 minutes / CA = 24 min • Pace of life ▪ Accuracy of bank clocks ▪ Speed at which pedestrians walk ▪ Time to sell a stamp Social roles • All cultures have social roles • Social roles are a set of norms defining how ppl in a given social position ought to behave ◦ High status • Ex: a teacher • This person will usually be the one to suggest for a relationship to become more informal ◦ Low status • Ex: a student ◦ Across all cultures, gender is an important social role Gender vs Sex • One (outdated?) view: ◦ Sex = biologial category ◦ Gender = a social constructed notion of what is feminine and masculine • Not perfect agreement sex vs gender distinction and definitoins among scholars • For this class: ◦ Gender is the characteristics, whether bioligcal or socially influenced, by which ppl define male and female (Myers) Gender and the Self • Children know own gender at 23 years, can label others' gender by 45 • Transgender ◦ Ppl whose gender identity does not match the gender that they were assigned at birth Gender typing • :process of categorizing ppl and things as masculine or feminine • Automatic process • Gender typing begins before birth (names) ◦ 90% of infants dressed in gender typed clothes ◦ Continues through childhood and adulthood Gender stereotypes • : beliefs about the personal attributes of females and males • Women ◦ Pp • Men ◦ Pp Activating gender stereotypes • Amount of info ◦ The less we know, the more likely we use stereotypes ◦ Experiment on a baby in a diaper with a jack in the box, startle response, if they think it's a girl: scared, if boy: angry • Salience of group membership ◦ Ex: solo status (if you're a man, "what do you think about men", vice versa) • Power and stereotypes ◦ Powerful more likely to stereotype Dangers of gender stereotypes • Some are wrong • Stereotypes exaggerate differences bt groups, minimize differences within groups • They can become self fulfilling prophecies • Study: male and female psychologists into a lab and did emotion recognition on pictures of faces, when men were reminded about stereotypes they did worse Gender stereotypes and performance evaluations • Early research showed men evaluated more positively than women • Gender typing of the task • Depends on information available about the person Gender similarity • Despite stereotypes, men and women more similar than different • Gender differences more than similarity focus of research ◦ 18,000 studies Gender differences: theoreticla perspective • Biology • Socializationi • Soial roles proposed by alice egly to take account that previous two could both be responsible • Social situations Genes, Culture, and Gender Explanations for gender differences • Biology (evolutionary psych) • Socializaiton (cultural psych) • Social role theory • Situational Woman in Leadership • 35% of physicians and surgeons, but 16% of medical school deans • 16% of directors, producers, writers on topgrossing films • 18% of us house, 20% of senate, 10% of governors Social role theory • People infer qualities of groups based on different roles that members of a group occupy ◦ Segregation by roles stereotypes ◦ Women = communal (concern for others, kind, nice) ◦ Men = agentic (assertive, competitive, dominant) Implications of gender role beliefs • Roles create both prescriptive (to do) and proscriptive (not do) stereotypes (not tested on) • Agentic women ◦ Face backlash (rudman and glick, 2001) • If competent, respected but not liked ◦ Experience prejudice and discrimination in traditionally masculine domains (ex STEM and leadership) The "double bind" for female leaders • Too feminine ◦ Criticized as insufficiently decisive and authoritative • Too masculine ◦ Criticized as insufficiently nice and considerate Role congruity theory of leadership (eagly and karau, 2002) • Incongruity bt "take charge" and "take care" prejudice • Seen as less capable leaders and evaluated less favorably for leadership positions (hot, simon, and inella, 2011…) Media images contribute to problem (who did this exp?) • Viewed two sets of advertisements (stereotypical vs counterstereotypical) • Selected as the leader of a 3 person group • Compared to stereotypical ads, after viewing counter stereotypical ads ◦ Women felt significantly better about themselves ◦ Women reported significantly higher leadership aspirations • Media images may also be solution Implications of social role theory • Biology is not destiny ◦ Social roles can vary and change • Today, women make up half of the US workforce • As roles change, people's aspirations change and stereotypes and prejudice can change too Sex differences • Aggression ◦ Big gender differences in physical aggresion • Ex: FBI crime statistic: 85% of violent crime committed by men ◦ Why differences? ◦ Verbal aggression = no gender difference ◦ Relational aggression = women slightly higher • Conformity ◦ Traditional roles dictate that men be less easily influenced than women • Small tendency for women to be more easily influenced than men • Results vary largely from study to study ◦ May depend on gendertyping of task • Nonverbal communication ◦ Metaanalysis revealed that most, but certainly not all, studies show women are better at nonverbal communication ◦ Gender differences are: • Larger for reading facial expressions • Next largest fo rreading body cues • Smallest for decoding voice tone • Sexuality ◦ Men have more permissive attitudes about casual sex ◦ Differences have decreased since 1960, but still exist ◦ Evidence suggests men stronger sex drive • Mating preferences ◦ Women more likely to be attracted… ◦ PP • Personal entitlement ◦ What people believe they deserve for their work ◦ Men have more personal entitlement ◦ Why? • Think about how much their male friends make • Women think about other women • Part of the difference in what ppl think they deserve has to do with the social comparissons ◦ Implications: women are content with less • Or men require more to be content Changing roles for men and women • Roles vary across culture ◦ Ideas of an ideal marriage ◦ Number of women in management ◦ Gender typing of jobs ◦ Gender tpying of clothes • Roles vary across time Division of labor • In us the proportion of married women in the paid workforce has doubled bt 19601998 • Number of women I college now surpasses the number of men • Earnings ◦ Women earn lower salaries Housework/childcare • Housework gap is narrowing ◦ Working women spend less time on housework than homemakers • Hetero men do more housework/childcare if: ◦ They have nontraditional sex role attitude ◦ Are needed because of mother's work schedule ◦ They have incomes similar to wife • Gay couples ◦ Gay men divide up chores based on preference ◦ Lesbian women share tasks Wrapping it up • Human similartiy and diff across cultures • Gender diff ◦ Explanation for diff ◦ Diff in aggresison ,sexuality, etc • Changing roles for men and owmen ◦ Across times and culture
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