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Analyzing the Sound of Language Notes 2051

by: Clarence Johnson

Analyzing the Sound of Language Notes 2051 LING 2051

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Linguistics and Speech Pathology > LING 2051 > Analyzing the Sound of Language Notes 2051
Clarence Johnson

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These notes cover all of the material we have been through so far.
Analyzing the Sounds of Language
Qingyang Yan
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Clarence Johnson on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to LING 2051 at Ohio State University taught by Qingyang Yan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Analyzing the Sounds of Language in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
Fundamental frequency­ reflects rate of vocal folds vibration Pitch­ perceived/heard difference in fundamental frequency Dispersion types Standard deviation­ measures amount of dispersion/variation from the mean Standard deviation is never negative First quartile­ separates bottom 25% of sorted values from top 75% Second quartile­ separates bottom 50% of sorted values from top 50% (median) Third quartile­ separates bottom 75% from top 25% Interquartile range­ range of middle 50% of data found by the difference between quartile 3 and 1. Boxplot­ graph used to make visualization of Interquartile range easier Symmetric distribution­ when the left half of a histogram is roughly equal to the right half In Boxplot median line should be close to center Skew­ when data is not symmetrically distributed Skewed to the right means positively skewed  Right tail should be longer when positively skewed  In Boxplot for positive skews the median line should be closer to the left, aka quartile 1 Skewed left means negatively skewed  Everything is opposite of being skewed right  Median line should be closer to quartile 3 in Boxplot Expected value­ number you predict to see in a data set, due to numbers you already have in your data set Central Tendency­ method used to find expected value  (mean, median, and mode) Mean­ aka average, calculated by adding all values and dividing the total by the number of values Median­ "middle value" in the sense that half the values in data set are above it and the other half are below it! Mode­ value that occurs most frequently in data set Mean is heavily effected by outliers! Outlier­ extremely low or high value in a data set Median and mode are outlier resistant Histogram­ special barplot with numerical variable on the x­axis and token counts ( frequency ) on y­axis Difference in duration­ subtract the duration of the latest token from the duration of the first token Positive x­value= first token is longer than later token (reduction) Negative x­value= later token is longer than first token Population­ complete collection of all individuals to be studied Sample­ subcollection of members from population, observations we actually make Random selection Variable­ one dimension along which observed data vary Categorical variable­ set of observations of group/ category membership  Ex: gender or major Numerical variable­ set of observations ordered upon a number scale  Ex: height or age Types­ distinct categories of observations aka levels Tokens­ observations of a particular type  Individual data points Consonants­ produced with constriction in the vocal tract, impeding airflow  1. Voicing: Is the sound voiced or voiceless? 2. Place of articulation: Where is the airstream constricted? 3. Manner of articulation: How is the airstream constricted? Bilabial­ using closing movement of both lips Labiodental­ using the lower lip and upper teeth Interdental­ tip of the tongue protruding between the teeth Alveolar­ tongue tip at or near the alveolar ridge Manner of articulation  Stops­ complete obstruction of the airstream; a release Fricatives­ produced by forcing the air through a narrow passage formed by articulators Affricates­ 1. Complete obstruction of the airstream  2. Release the articulators slightly  Ex: ch and ge Manners of articulation Nasals­ complete closure in oral cavity along with lowered velum to allow airflow through nasal cavity  Ex: [n], [m], [nj] Discrete numerical variables­ numeric variables that cannot be subdivided  Ex: (1,2, 3) but not  (1.2, 1.5, 1.7) Continuous numerical variables­ subdivision can be done Histogram­ special kind of barplot with numerical variable on x­axis and token counts  (frequency) on y­axis 


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