PED 101-212 Chapter 13 & 14 Due 2/18
PED 101-212 Chapter 13 & 14 Due 2/18 PED 101 - 212
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Lyda Walker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PED 101 - 212 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Lindsey Nanney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 1464 views. For similar materials see Cardio/Fitness/Core in Physical Education at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Lyda Walker rrrrrrrr 14 2 0 1 6 P E D 1 01212 Chaters 13 amp Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 14 Hmewrk 1 Part A 0 Alcohol consumption varies by age sex raceethnicity educational level and geography Each of these factors affects alcohol consumption and can help us recognize trends in alcohol consumption in the United States Review the following and then sort each description into the appropriate bin based on the likelihood that the individuals would be current drinkers o More likely to drink alcohol A 22 year old native American male who lives in the West A 17 year old male living in the Northeast A 22 year old Caucasian college male student 0 Less likely to drink alcohol An Asian female college graduate living in the Midwest An African American female attending college in the South A 36 year old male college graduate 0 Unable to determine A person who works in a factory A 45 year old woman who works in an office Part B o In college almost 40 of students report binge drinking Binge drinking is a pattern of drinking alcohol that results in a blood alcohol concentration of 008 or above Drinking ve or more alcoholic drinks within two hours for men and four or more within Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 two hours for women is binge drinking as de ned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Movies TV and advertising have depicted binge drinking as a normal activity in college even though not all college students binge drink Unfortunately binge drinking increases the risk of health and personal safety issues because it results in a high level of intoxication Being legally drunk is de ned by a blood alcohol concentration of 008 or above and is a factor in 60 of fatal burn injuries drownings and homicides It is also a factor in 50 of severe trauma injuries and sexual assaults and 40 of fatal motor vehicle crashes suicides and fatal falls Choose the best answer to complete the following statement Binge drinking is more common for college students because 0 They belong to a speci c age group that is subject to peer pressures to quotpartyquot that uses binge drinking as a rite of passage or part of gamescustoms on campus and that is susceptible to advertising and promotions directed at college campuses Part C Blood alcohol concentration BAC is the percent of ethyl alcohol in a certain volume of blood after drinking alcoholic beverages In the United States a BAC of 05 means that there is 05 or 05 grams of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood Beer and wine contain ethyl alcohol fermented from grains and grapes with water added to dilute it Hard liquor is made by heating and cooling the ethyl alcohol fermented from grains or fruits to increase the concentration of the alcohol Each alcoholic beverage has a proof value that is equal to double the actual alcohol percentage in the drink For instance 100 proof bourbon has 50 alcohol by volume Red wine has usually around 13 alcohol content or a proof value of 26 Our bodies metabolize alcohol to transform it into energy 1 gram of alcohol 7 kilocalories If we consume too much alcohol or consume it more quickly than the liver can metabolize it the alcohol circulates throughout the body via the bloodstream A standard drink size is determined by the amount of each type of alcoholic beverage that has 14 grams 12 tablespoons or 6 uid ounces of pure alcohol A 5ounce glass of wine a 15ounce shot of liquor and a 12ounce can of beer are all quotstandardquot servings containing the same amount of pure alcohol Pictured are approximate standard servings of alcohol including wine in a wine glass 5 ounces beer in a glass 12 ounces whiskey in a shot glass 15 ounces Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 vodka in a toasting glass 15 ounces a bottle of Blue Moon Beer 12 ounces and a bottle of Seagram s wine cooler 12 ounces Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right Not all terms will be used 0 When you drink an alcoholic beverage metabolism of the Ethanol starts in the stomach where the enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase and other enzymes break down some of the alcohol into acetaldehyde then to acetate and eventually into carbon dioxide and water Since some of the alcohol is absorbed in the Stomach Food there will slow the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream Most of the alcohol is absorbed in the Small Intestine and carried to the Liver where most of the alcohol is metabolized However the liver can only metabolize one standard drink per hour The additional alcohol not metabolized by the liver enters the bloodstream and travels throughout the body It can be excreted in the urine sweat and Breath As unmetabolized alcohol reaches the Brain the individual will become intoxicated Part D Alcohol effects are varied based on the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream It is important to understand that the concentration of alcohol in the blood can be a measure that predicts the effects of alcohol and therefore de nes intoxication The amount of alcohol present in blood measured in grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood is the blood alcohol concentration BAC A concentration of 008 indicates the person has 8 parts of alcohol per 10000 parts blood in the body A person with a 008 BAC is considered legally intoxicated This level of alcohol concentration in the blood is not just determined by the amount of alcohol consumed but by factors such as height weight sex food consumption and emotional state Drag the appropriate situations to their respective bins o BAC Indicates Always Impaired A woman weighing 140 pounds who has had 5 drinks in 1 hour on a full stomach and who is on oral contraceptives A woman weighing 103 pounds who has had 2 beers in the last hour and who is not eating because she wants to offset the calories of the beer A 175 pound man who has had 6 shots of tequila in 15 hours and is having difficulty standing Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 A man weighing 180 pounds who has had 4 carbonated alcoholic drinks in 1 hour after pulling an allnighter for a math exam 0 BAC Indicates Sometimes or Usually Impaired A man weighing 160 pounds who has had 2 drinks in 1 hour on a full stomach A woman weighing 120 pounds who has had a vodka and cranberry juice within the last hour and who took aspirin for sore muscles after a long run A man weighing 168 pounds who has had 2 beers and a shot of whiskey in the last 3 hours A 155 pound woman who has had 2 frozen margaritas on an empty stomach within the last 2 hours A 162 pound man who has had 1 hot toddy in the rst hour after a full day of skiing and is feeling relaxed o BAC Indicates Not Impaired A 200 pound man who sipped 1 beer after dinner while watching his favorite movie on television Part E 0 Alcohol consumption exposes the body to the toxic substance ethanol Ethanol or ethyl alcohol affects several body systems and can result in both short and longterm negative consequences These effects depend on drinking habits and health circumstances Alcohol consumption can affect health status and quality of life Place the phrases in the correct bin according to whether they are shortterm effects longterm effects or not an effect of alcohol consumption Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins o ShortTerm Effect Slurred speech as well as impaired judgement Decreased pulse and respiratory rate Stomach irritation and nausea o LongTerm Effect Increased risk of birth defects for pregnant women Increased risk of osteoporosis Increased risk of mouth stomach and pancreatic cancer 0 Not An Effect Improvement in reaction time Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 Pa rt F 0 Courtney mentions some of the negative consequences she and her friends have experienced She discovered that injuries and spending too much money on drinking are two of the negative effects of drinking irresponsibly There are many more negative effects that aren39t mentioned including drunk driving resulting in death and injury unprotected sex resulting in sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy depression academic difficulty and even suicide Moreover drinking irresponsibly can lead to a lifethreatening dependence on alcohol Alcohol abuse and alcoholism affect 176 million adults in the United States and cost billions of dollars Alcoholism can be characterized by Select all that apply 0 Loss of employment due to drinking 0 Incarceration multiple times for drunk driving convictions 0 Severe physical symptoms that appear when the individual stops drinking that may be lifethreatening o Damage to family relationships and problems with law enforcement due to drinking 2 Part A Addiction is a complex condition that affects both the physical and the psychological aspects of health According to the American Psychiatric Association addiction is a mental disorder Addiction is de ned as a continued involvement with a substance or activity despite ongoing negative consequences An addiction involves a substance or activity that has the potential to produce positive mood changes or euphoria over time With continued use however the person becomes dependent on the substance to function normally despite knowing the harm that it is causes him or herself and others The addiction becomes a cycle of behavior that is difficult to break and this behavior is the hallmark of the condition Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences about addiction on the right oOne of the aspects of addiction is Physiological Dependence or the state of the brain and body processes that occurs with regular addictive behavior and results in physical withdrawal symptoms when the addictive substance is withdrawn As the addict uses the substance the body develops Tolerance and the addict must consume more of the substance to achieve the same effect If the addict abruptly stops taking the addictive substance the body and brain can rebel causing Withdrawal or negative Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 physical and mentalpsychological symptoms In addition to the physical symptoms there is also Psychological Dependence withdrawal symptoms include anxiety irritability or cravings This cycle of addiction is characterized by four common symptoms The rst is Compulsion which is the overwhelming need to obtain and use the substance Included in this rst part of the cycle is Obsession or an excessive preoccupation with the addictive substance to the detriment of positive behavior and in spite of negative consequences The second part of the cycle is Loss Of Control or the inability to distinguish between healthy and damaging behavior The third step in the cycle is the tolerance of Negative Consequences Examples of these are physical damage legal trouble nancial problems academic failure and family dissolution The fourth and last step is Denial or the inability to perceive that certain behavior is self destructive Part B The brain is a very complex organ that operates with amazing ef ciency The imbic system of the brain senses and regulates emotions and communicates with the parts of the brain that are involved in memory perception thought and consciousness Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry signals from one neuron to another neuron or another kind of body cell One of the primary neurotransmitters in the imbic system of the brain is dopamine When dopamine is released and available it causes us to feel pleasure and that pleasure is a motivator for behavior For instance when we make a good decision about our lives we feel good about ourselves This feeling helps to reinforce that behavior Feelings of pleasure are essential to our survival since they reinforce the need to eat exercise develop relationships and have selfef cacy Drugs of abuse interfere with the normal action of dopamine They block its production enhance its effects or suppress its actions For instance cocaine changes the normal chemical balance in the brain and can affect judgment decision making emotional perceptions and other brain functions since it interferes with normal dopamine action Adam is a cocaine addict and has used for ve years He has tried to quit but experiences severe depression and inability to concentrate that interferes with his doing his job as a stock analyst when he stops using cocaine He believes that the Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 cocaine is enhancing his abilities and that he needs to continue using in order to function in his fastpaced work environment What effects of cocaine on dopamine production and activity in the brain is Adam experiencing o Cocaine is preventing dopamine from being reabsorbed by the neurons so that there is more present in the brain and the brain has become dependent on this increased concentration to produce pleasure and stimulate brain funcUon Part C Overthecounter and prescription drugs are designed to help us live better lives by for example managing pain and in ammation alleviating insomnia or improving concentration When they are used within the intended guidelines and for the intended purposes they can be very effective However they are too often misused and abused Teenagers young adults and people over 65 are the most vulnerable to the abuse of sleep aids cold medicines cough syrups and diet pills in order to get high Prescription drugs especially opioids like Vicodin Percodan and OxyContin Oxy are abused by more than 18 million Americans About 6 of college students report using these kind of painkillers when they were not prescribed to them in the past 12 months This abuse results in hundreds of thousands of emergency department visits annually and thousands of overdose deaths These drugs are used to treat pain by blocking the sensation of pain but can cause respiratory depression coma and death when taken incorrectly Prescription drugs used to manage attention de cit hyperactivity disorder are misused Some college students are using Adderall Ritalin and Concerta when they don t have a prescription for them About 8 of students report using these kinds of stimulants without a prescription in the past 12 months These drugs are stimulants that increase blood ow and levels of neurotransmitters in the brain and improve concentration and attention Some students abuse these drugs in an effort to improve their academic performance Studies show that these drugs do not necessarily contribute to better academic performance and they can have serious side effects Large doses of these drugs can cause psychosis seizures and increased or erratic heart rates that can lead to heart attack or stroke Even in small doses they can disrupt normal sleep patterns and cause nervousness headaches decreased appetite and fever Perhaps most Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 importantly they are highly addictive When students stop taking them withdrawal symptoms can include exhaustion depression anxiety insomnia and thoughts of suicide Read the scenario and choose the statements that best describe the outcomes of misuse and abuse of prescription drugs jayna is a serious college athlete who is struggling to maintain her grades during the busy soccer season She is used to living and playing with pain after multiple ankle injuries in junior high high school and college She has four leftover bottles with pills in them from prescriptions for Vicodin and OxyContin for treatment she received after injuries over the last six years She has developed a tolerance to the painkillers and has to take twice as much as was originally prescribed to get the pain relief she needs to keep up in practices and games Without the prescriptions she can t get through a typical day In addition she is very worried about passing her class on American history She has never been good at remembering historical facts and has shared her worries with her teammates Katie has ADHD and was prescribed Ritalin by her physician to help her control her symptoms This semester Katie has given jayna some of the Ritalin to take the night before exams to help her study so she can perform better in history They both think thatjayna s taking the Ritalin is working since jayna passed her last exam Select all that apply 0 Although the painkillers may be a problem forjayna the use of Ritalin is just as serious since combining the use of stimulants and pain management drugs increases her risk of negative health outcomes 0 jayna ts the description of a drug addict because she has developed a tolerance to pain killers and requires them to perform her normal functions Part D Illegal drug use is an expensive societal problem in dollars and lives Approximately 24 million Americans ages 12 and older currently are using illegal drugs Marijuana is the most common illegal drug in states where its use has not been legalized in any form followed by prescription drugs that are not being used for the reasons the physician intended or are not being taken in the recommended dosages as indicated by the prescription Marijuana and other illegal drugs fall into speci c classes with unique negative health effects but all have the same potential to lead to serious addiction Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 0 Meth is a highly addictive stimulant with dental damage as a telltale sign of its use it causes users to experience serious side effects including paranoia and is very resistant to treatment and recovery Molly is used to heighten social experiences and results in feelings of warmth and friendliness but when mixed with alcohol places users at risk for severe dehydration and increased core temperature which may lead to death Abuse of prescription pain killers is one of the gateways to Smack since it is readily available and cheaper than the prescription drugs It is responsible for many of the drug overdose deaths Opioids are common in our society and some say are overprescribed for many sorts of pain conditions Oxy is the street name for one type of prescription opioid that causes euphoria dreaminess and lack of coordination Although Pot is considered relatively harmless by the uninformed it can be addictive and increase the risk of lung cancer Addictive stimulants such as Crank increase alertness and improve mood but are also associated with erratic and violent behavior Many times Benzos are used by those addicted to stimulants to come down from the intense high of amphetamines or meth since they are essentially tranquilizers Part E Ana used Alcoholics Anonymous AA and Narcotics Anonymous NA to help her deal with her addiction problems These are both 12step programs that focus on group support and education to address addiction There are other options for treatment such as medical interventions with drugs like methadone and Suboxone as well as personal and group counseling available through private health centers community groups and university resources In many communities court sentences include treatment and recovery strategies as they deal with the legal consequences that drug addicts face Public awareness campaigns and drug testing are two prevention strategies that are widely used to help people avoid addiction However we still have much to learn about addiction and how to effectively treat it When an addict seeks recovery he or she faces many barriers Which is the most signi cant barrier from the list below Choose the best answer Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 0 High insurance deductibles inability to qualify for Medicaid andor lack of available effective treatment programs are the most signi cant barriers 3 Part A 0 There are speci c conditions that must be met for an infection to occur These steps must all be present and occur in a speci c order Watch the following video on The Chain of Infection As you saw in the video it is not enough to be in the presence of a pathogen like a bacteria or virus there also needs to be an environment in which the pathogen can grow a way for the pathogen to exit its current host or hospitable environment a way to travel to the next host an avenue to enter the new host and a receptive host whose defenses against infection are diminished and who has a hospitable environment that will allow the pathogen to thrive Drag each of the following items into the bin that best describes that item s role in the chain of infection 0 Infectious Agent Bacterium Virus 0 Hospitable Environment Stagnant water An infected animal 0 Portal of Exit Sneeze Sweat or tears 0 Mode of Transmission Mosquito Infected blood Door knob in the bathroom 0 Portal of Entry Dry cracked skin Inhalation oSusceptible Host Immunocompromised body Undernourished body Part B o The human body has many defenses against infection including physical and chemical defenses The skin is the rst line of defense and keeps many organisms from invading the body as long as it is intact Enzymes in the body secretions such as sweat destroy microorganisms by producing inhospitable pH levels The mucous membranes in the respiratory tract trap and Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 destroy organisms Cilia are hairlike projections in the lungs and respiratory tract that sweep invaders up and away from the lungs Nose hairs tears earwax and other secretions also help to isolate and remove invaders from the body The immune system is complex and is made up of nonspeci c immune response and speci c immune response Nonspeci c immunity is the body s global defense against many pathogens and the toxins they produce The speci c response works to isolate and destroy pathogens but in addition it teaches the immune system to respond more quickly and ef ciently if the pathogen invades the body again in the future Drag the appropriate term into the paragraph below to correctly describe both the nonspeci c and the speci c immune responses Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right 0 When an antigen such as a Virus enters the body the immune system responds in two ways The nonspeci c response mobilizes white blood cells to surround and destroy the invading antigens Those white bloods cells release Chemical Signals to attract other white blood cells to the area to increase Blood Flow to the area which increases redness and Heat and to induce capillaries to become leaky which creates swelling and pain The speci c immune response also mobilizes by using Lymphocytes or B cells and T cells found in the lymph system of the body The B cells release Antibodies that bind to the antigen and target it for destruction Other cells called T cells work in four different ways One type of T cell kills the virusinfected cells in the body Another T cell called the helper Tcell secretes cytokines that attract antibodies killer T cells and other cells which destroy the virus Once the virus has been destroyed Regulatory T Cells turn off the speci c immune response Finally memory T and B cells are created These cells will recognize the virus if it appears again and the speci c immune response will be able to respond quickly and ef ciently The ability of our immune system to remember a virus and eliminate it is called Immunity Vaccinations contain weakened forms of the virus that are introduced to the body in order to stimulate the speci c immune response and create antibodies memory B cells and memory T cells so that the virus will not be able to infect the body in the future Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 Part C 0 When we think of infectious illness most of us imagine a cold the u or an infected wound There are other types of pathogens other than viruses and bacteria however Most pathogens fall into ve categories bacteria viruses fungi protozoans and parasitic worms There are also prions which are misfolded proteins that can replicate on their own by causing other proteins to misfold These specialized molecules cause diseases like quotmad cowquot disease It is important to be familiar with the common types in order to appreciate how they are transmitted the nature of the infections they cause how they can be treated and their impact on public health Sort the following diseasesorganisms into the correct bin thereby indicating the type of pathogen involved Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins o Bacteria Strep Throat Gonorrhea MRSA o Viruses HIV Flu Genital Herpes o Fungi Vaginal Yeast Infection Ringworm o Protozoans Malaria Giardia o Parasitic Worms Tapeworm Pinworms Part D 0 There are more than 30 different sexually transmitted infections Some are bacterial some viral some fungal and some are parasitic infections There are approximately 20 million people in United States that acquire a sexually transmitted disease every year costing nearly 16 billion heath care dollars Forty percent of sexually active teens have a sexually transmitted infection STI Because many cases go unrecognized and untreated signi cant longterm health problems can result Sexually transmitted infections like other infections are subject to the rules of the Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 chain of infection They too require an infectious agent a hospitable environment a portal of exit a mode of transmission a portal of entry and a susceptible host Consider the following statements and place them in the bin that best describes how risky the behavior is Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins 0 High Risk Behavior For All STI s Vaginal sex using withdrawal as birth control with a woman who is HIV positive Oral sex with male partner who has a milky penile discharge and has been complaining of burning urination Anal sex with lubricant when one partner is HIV positive Vaginal sex using oral contraceptives with someone who has a rash on the skin and in the mouth and who had a chancre on his penis a few months ago 0 Moderate Risk Behavior For All STI s Vaginal sex with a condom when one partner has the bacterial infection chlamydia Oral sex using a dental dam with a partner who has had the herpes virus 0 Low Risk Behavior For All STI s Mutual masturbation when there are no injuries to the hands or genitals of either partner 0 No Risk Behavior For All STI s Phone sex with partner Part E It is estimated that over 65 million people worldwide have been infected with human immunode ciency virus HIV since the early 19805 HIV causes AIDs or acquired immunode ciency syndrome In the United States over 11 million people are currently infected many unaware of their infection HIV infection and AIDS are not curable but they are treatable especially when diagnosed early Read and choose all of the correct statements below about HIV Select all that apply 0 Behaviors that put an individual at risk for contracting HIV include participating in unprotected vaginal anal and oral sex and sharing needles 0 HIV is transmitted via bodily uids such as semen blood and vaginal secretions Lyda Walker February 14 2016 PED 101212 0 After the primary infection stage someone may seem symptomfree for many months or years before realizing he or she has contracted AIDS
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