PAGES 122-151 LOTS OF INFO
PAGES 122-151 LOTS OF INFO Psychology 110
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Sensation and Perception p 122- 151 Illusion- when the way something is perceived doesn’t match reality Sensation- when things are detected by our sensory organs Perception- interpretation of sensation by the brain Naïve realism leads us to believe our senses are infallible Transduction- process where nervous system converts stimuli into electrical signals for our brain Sense receptor- a specialized cell that transduces stimuli Sensory adaptation- when a sense detects something strongly at first but over time adjusts to where it barely notices it o Ex: someone tapping a pen on a desk behind you Psychophysics- study of how we notice sensory stimuli based on physical characteristics Absolute Threshold- lowest level of a stimuli we can notice o Ex: A single candle 30 miles away. 50 odorant and molecules (which is like a piece of garlic the size of the tip of a pen) Just Noticeable Difference (JND)- smallest change in stimulus we can notice o Weber’s Law- there is a proportional relationship between intensity and JND. Ex: If sound is really loud, it takes a lot to notice it being turned up or down. If it is really quiet, it only takes a tiny change to notice a difference. Signal Detection Theory- how we try to detect a signal in a difficult situation (when there might be a lot of unrelated background signals) In 1826 Johannes Muller proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies- even though there are many obvious sensory energies, the sensation we experience is based on the activated sense receptor, not the stimulus o McGurk Effect: visual input or lack of visual input change what we hear (Da, Ba, Tha) o Rubber Hand Illusion- stroking a rubber hand on top of a table with a paintbrush at the same speed and time you stroke a subject’s real hand under the table makes the rubber hand feel like it is the subject’s real hand o Synesthesia- a rare condition where people experience cross-pollination senses (colored hearing, tasting colors) Grapheme-color synesthesia- numbers each have a color Lexical Taste Synesthesia- words have tasted or letters have personality traits Parallel Processing- attending to many senses at once Bottom- Up Processing- constructing the whole stimulus from its parts (like a baby) go left to right on the list below Feature – letter – word – phrase – comprehension Top-Down Processing- starts with our beliefs and expectations and processes raw stimuli last (like most adults) go right to left on the list above Perceptual Sets- when what we want influences our perceptions (top-down) Perceptual Constancy- when we see stimuli consistently across varied conditions o Shape constancy- we still see something as itself despite if it changes position o Color constancy- we still see the same color despite different lighting and backgrounds Selective Attention- allows us to pick and choose which stimuli we pay attention to with the RAS ( Reticular Activating System) o Donald Broadbent (1957) Filter Theory of Attention- views our attention as a bottleneck where only so much info can get through o Dichotomy Listening- showed that ignored info was still absorbed on some level, although broken up o Cocktail party effect- ability to pick up important info in a crowd, like our name, and then senses spring into action Inattentional Blindness- describes our poor ability to detect stimuli when our attention is focused elsewhere o Change blindness- failure to detect obvious changes in environment Binding problem- different regions of our brain process different parts but bind them together (apple is red, sweet, smooth, crunchy...etc) We can detect stimuli completely subliminally Subliminal perception- processing sensory information that happens below our awareness (limen). 2 Subliminal Persuasion- when our thoughts and opinions are influenced by subliminal perception. Some people believe that even reversed (backwards) messages can be subliminally persuasive Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)- (Joseph B. Rhine 1930) the idea that we can perceive things outside of the standard levels of sensation o Precognition- predicting things before they happen o Telepathy- mind reading o Clairvoyance- detecting things that are hidden from view o Rhine’s research was flawed and not replicable. Also disproved by fMRI. o Ganzfield technique- placing subjects in a stimuli- silent environment to allow easier detection of ESP o Experimenter Effect- tendency of skeptical experimenters to inhibit ESP o Decline Effect- Tendency for initial positive ESP results to disappear over time o Psi Missing- when results are much worse than even chance. Some believe that Psi missing proves that subjects are deliberately sabotaging ESP results, proving ESP as a real thing. o The truth is the illusory effect probably best explains our belief in ESP, plus we just don’t realize how likely some situations are that seem unlikely. Multiple End Points- many psychics make predictions that are open to being correct in multiple possible ways Cold Reading- persuading people we just met that we know all about them. They do this by saying they aren’t correct about everything and then giving you generic information that applies to anyone, asking leading questions, looking for physical hints, flattery, props and population stereotypes. 3 Physical Properties of Senses (VISION AND HEARING) VISION Light- electromagnetic energy. Visible light has a wavelength between 400 and 700 nanometers Brightness- directly related to the wavelength of the light reflected back at our eye, white reflects all wavelengths and is the brightest, black reflects none and is the darkest Hue- color of light Additive Color Mixing- mixing different amounts of the three primary colors (red, yellow, blue) to make other colors Subtractive Color Mixing- mixing equal amounts of the three primary colors to make white Sclera- white of the eye Iris- colored part of the eye o Colored by two pigments, melanin (brown) and lipochrome (yellowish brown) Pupil- circular hole in the eye which light passes through o Pupillary Reflex- when the pupil automatically changes size to accommodate less or more light (occurs simultaneously in both eyes even if only one eye is exposed to light, unless there is brain damage) o Dialation- expansion of the pupil. Occurs when we try to process something complex or when we find someone physically attractive. Cornea- curved, clear layer covering the Iris and pupil that bends and focuses light Lens- clear disk that changes shape to focus light o Accommodation- what it’s called when the lens changes shape to adapt to varying distance Myopia/Nearsightedness- cornea is too steep, making it hard to see distant objects Hyperopia/ Farsightedness- cornea is too flat, making it hard to see close objects Retina- considered part of the brain, a thin membrane at the back of the eye o Fovea- center part of the retina, creates acuity Acuity- sharpness of vision o Rods- long, narrow sensory cells that work in low light to construct basic forms 4 Dark adaptation- 30 minutes or so that it takes for rods to reach greatest sensitivity to light o Cones- cells responsible for color vision and detail o Photopigments- chemicals that change after being exposed to light Rods contain rhodopsin Ganglion Cells- cells in the Retina that bundle their axons together to create the optic nerve Optic nerve- travels from the retina to the brain Optic Chiasm- fork in the road after the optic nerve Superior Colliculus- a structure in the midbrain that are important in creating reflexes Blind spot- area w/ no vision where the optic nerve connects to the retina. This is constantly filled in by the brain 1960s Huber and Wiesel studied cat reactions in visual cortex o Simple cells- cells restricted to one orientation and one location o Complex cells- restricted to one orientation but no specific location Feature Detection- ability to use minimal patterns to recognize things Feature Detector cells- detect lines and edges Gestalt Principles- rules determining how we perceive objects as wholes in their context o Proximity- objects physically close together tend to be seen as a whole o Similarity- similar objects tend to be seen as a while o Continuity- we still see an object as whole even if part of it is blocked by another object o Closure- when only part of an object is seen, our brains will fill in missing pieces o Symmetry- symmetrical things are seen as a while o Figure-ground- we tend to make a quick choice of what is the figure and then ignore the background Subjunctive corners- the hint of corners can cause us to perceive a complete shape Bistable image- an image that can be seen two ways Emergence- when our brain pieces together an image and suddenly we understand it Face recognition– recognizing faces when given little information Phi phenomenon- illusion of movement discovered by Max Wertheimer produced by flashing images in succession 5 Color blindness- when someone can’t see all 3 colors o Monochromats- people who see no color (.0007% of the population) o Dichromats- most colorblind people, people missing only one type of color cone. Most mammals are dichromats (other than humans, apes and some monkeys) Afterimages- when we stare at one color for a long time, look away and see a different color Opponent Process Theory- theory that we see colors in 3 pairs of opponent cells (red or green, blue or yellow, black or white). This explains negative afterimages. Trichromatic Theory- theory that our color vision is based on 3 colors (blue, green and red) and we have 3 types of cones, one for each It turns out our nervous systems use both types of color vision, but different neurons rely on one type more than the other Depth perception- ability to see space in 3 dimensions Monocular Depth Cues- rely on single eye o Pictorial Cues- give us a sense of what is where Relative Size- distant objects look smaller Texture Gradient- texture is less apparent for distant things Interposition- closer objects block view of objects behind Linear perspective- outlines converge in the distance (vanishing point). Impossible figures by M.C. Escher break this concept. Height in plane- distant objects appear higher Light and Shadow- shadows give us an idea of 3D form Motion Parallax- distant objects seem to move slower (like when riding in a car) Binocular Depth Cues- require both eyes, what each eye sees is compared in the brain to determine depth o Binocular disparity- left and right lenses of binoculars (left and right eyes) each transmit a very different image o Binocular convergence- where our eye muscles move our eyes inward to focus on something close Babies between 6 and 14 months already have depth perception, they won’t crawl over a “visual cliff” a surface that appears to drop off but doesn’t Illusions 6 o Moon illusion- nobody really knows why the moon looks bigger when it is closer to the horizon, but it’s not because the atmosphere magnifies it o Ames Room Illusion- uses a trapezoidal room to create the impression of a giant person in a tiny room o Muller-Lyer Illusion- two lines the same length will appear to be different sizes if arrows posting opposite ways are placed on the ends of each line, two in on one, two out on the other o Ponzo illusion- converging lines surround two objects of the same size but the one closer to the point of convergence seems smaller o Horizontal- Vertical Illusion- causes us to see the vertical part of an upside down T as longer than the horizontal part even if they are equal o Ebbinghaus- Titchener- makes a circle look bigger when surrounded by smaller circles and smaller when surrounded by large ones Blindness- vision that is 20/200 or less Motion Blindness- when a person cannot string together all of their visual images seamlessly Visual agnosia- when a person has a problem perceiving objects Blindsight- phenomenon where blind people can make a correct guess about the appearance of things around them HEARING Audition- sense of hearing Pitch- corresponds to frequency, how high or low something sounds Loudness- amplitude corresponds to Loudness Timbre- quality or complexity of the sound, different instruments have different Timbre but can play the same pitch and Loudness Outer ear o Pinna (cartilage and skin) and ear canal (tube) funnel sound to eardrum Middle Ear- contains ossicles 3 smallest bones in the body (hammer, anvil and stirrup) o Eardrum- membrane that reverberates in response to sound o Ossicles vibrate to transmit sound to inner ear Inner Ear- contains cochlea o Cochlea- corkscrew bony piece filled with fluid that converts vibration to neural activity 7 o Organ of Corti and Basilar Membrane- covered with hair cells that have protruding cilia that transduce acoustic info into the auditory nerve Place theory- Different hair cells in different areas of the basilar membrane and organ of Corti are excited by different tones Frequency Theory- the rate when neurons fire action potentials repeatedly to reproduce pitch (works up to 100Hz but then neurons go no faster) Volley Theory- works up to 5,000Hz, where neurons fire as fast as they can, slightly out of sync to reach a combined speed of up to 5,000Hz Localization of Sound- some axons go directly to the brain while others cross over to the other side, which makes them arrive at different times. o The time it takes is then compared binaural cue o Loudness difference is also compared. Ear farthest away has a sound shadow (sound created by our head) o Monaural cue- heard from one ear only Echolocation- where animal or object emits a high pitched sound and measure how it comes back to locate objects Conductive deafness- malfunction of the ear (ossicles and eardrum) Nerve deafness- damage to Auditory nerve Noise-induced hearing loss- damage to hair cells, usually comes with tinnitus (ringing and other noise in ears) 8
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