CIV201 Week 3 Notes
CIV201 Week 3 Notes CIV 201
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CIV 201 at Murray State University taught by Robert Irvin Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations I in Environmental Science at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
CIV201 Notes 2/8 Not a Great Power: Arzawa Kingdom west of Hatti Egyptians attempt to prop up Arzawa as a balance against the Hittites; Hittites respond by crushing them annexing the kingdom Alashiya Kingdom of Cyprus Thinks of himself as a great power, but only Egpyt recognizes him and Egypt gets their bronze trade Myceneans Several kingdoms/cities in Greece Attempts to assert their authority; variously rebuked and supported by Hatti and Egypt First International Age: International System Starts with a system of equality. All kings are brothers, and therefore equal Begin trading with each other because they realize they need things not provided by their land First time these kings realize trading is an option- before they just took what they need Boundaries and borders of kingdoms are recognized for the first time International Justice begins: Ex: Babylonian King hold Egyptian Pharaoh responsible for his merchants being robbed in Egypt's territory Ancient Apocolype in 1200 BC collapse due to several disasters in the Mediterranean coast Tablets asking for help when palace fell Primary cause:" Sea People" Other possible causes: Volcanic eruption: Evidence of this, but possibly several different eruptions over time Climate Change: historians noticed drought moved through region at the same time the sea people moved through the region Migrations & Invasions: Dorians, Moschoi, Philistines, Phoenicians, Isrealites, Sardinians, all new people in the Iron Age New Warfare Styles: kill leaders too, not just the lower warriors Canaanite Revolt Systemic Collapse: (All of the above) Economic and political system becomes so complicated and interconnected minor change in any one factor destroys the entire system. Main Effects: Fall of high kingdoms, and emergence of new people New Canaanites: The Philistines the "Sea People" according to the Egyptians Called Philistim aka Invaders to Israelites Tied to early Greeks (weaponry, armor, pottery styles) Split into 5 city-states, each lead by a serran, "captain" Bring Iron weaponry & work, which is easier to work with and keep weapons sharp New Canaanites: The Phoenicians From Pre-collapse canaanites move to the coastal regions Among several city-states with no king Hegemony: One city-state rises to prominence over the others First Byblose (1200-1000 BC) then Sidon (1000-900 BC) and Tyre (800- 500) Phoenician alphabet starter to Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and others including English spread it throughout Mediterranean Regions they trade with Isreal: Legendary Origins 12 sons of JAcob/Isreal form the 12 tribes sons from first wife: Leah Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon sons from second wife: Rachel sons from Rachel's servant, Bilhah sons from Leah's servant Original Tribal ConfederationL Southern Core Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah Secondary expansion and agglomaeration: Nothern core Joseph's tribes out of Egypt Additional Foreign Tribes over time (son of servants) Dan and Naphtali Gad and Asher Worship of Single God (YHWH or YaHWeH) Other Gods acknowledge Only YHWH to be worshipped, other are unworthy YHWH singular source of all power Tribe of Levi Descended from Levi, son of Jacob/Israel Part of southern core Not assigned territory, spread between all of the territories Perform all ceremonies for YHWH, only ones allowed to do them Judges Military leaders that rise in times of crisis They begin searching for a King Philistines are main enemy Sal steps up because he is big and strong Sal is unsuccessful and eventually killed David steps up and collapses several cities and creates Jerusalem Becomes new military and religious center Reunites Israel CIV201 Notes 2-12 Indus River Valley Geographical Isolation because it is between 2 rivers Monsoon season July-October Million Square Miles Basin Lots of natural resources, but poor soil due to mismanagement Harappan Civilization (2500-1500 BC) 1st Urban civilization in Indus Valley 70 plus city-states (small & large scale) ruled by interconnected priests class, not kings Food cultivation, cattle breeding, & cotton trades 1st area that domesticates cotton evidence of trade with china, Mesopotamia, Burma, and Elam Central structure with series of barracks or servant quarters central authority no clear records All cities built the exact same way with no evidence of communication No building identified as temples High value placed on cleanliness (gutters, several "pools" & house with bathrooms) Heavily fortified, but no apparent evidence of warfare Harappan Collapse 1700 BC Mass evacuation & abandon city, but not destroyed Suggested reasons: lack of monsoons, earthquake causes break in dam & flood, or outstripped the resources via overpopulation (during good times, breed faster, but don't slow down when resources lessen, and quickly completely run out of resources) Jhukar civilization (1700-1500 BC) Harappan survivors live in harappan ruins small groups, no attempt to rebuild or reuse of Harappan sites Aryan Invasion Indo-european speaking people Related to Hittites, Mitanni, Greeks, Romans, Celts, Germans White people bringing "civilization" to regions Nomadic bands lead by war-chiefs No architecture, writing, or early art Armed with horses, chariots, bronze axes, iron swords, powerful bows Didn't know how to farm, and learn all this from the Indians Settle in N. Indus River Valley, gradually move SE into Harappan territory Moved into Harappan cities and kicked Jhukars out Aryan Society Brahamans: Priestly Cast Perform sacrifices, provide gifts to Gods Kshatriya: Warrior Cast Provide defense, raid others, provide gifts for people Vaishya: Merchants & peasants Supply food and goods through peaceful means Shudras: Workers Didn't own property, not quite slaves, but not free. Needs representatives for them to be counted as member of a tribe. People added to tribe, not born into it. Aryan Political Structure Jana (Tribal Nation) Divided into Clans & Families Raja (King) Elected to position, defends people Rashtra (the people) Vedism (Religion) All religious activities overseen by Brahman caste Gods of nature: phenomenon & elements No temple, but caves and spaces transformed into sacred places To worship God of fire, build a fire Dharmashastras Religious law code (outline duties & rights of the religious caste) Kshatriyas can't look weak Brahmans act as arbiters between them to avoid warfare & blood-feuds List of how Brahmans should make decisions Reincarnation created, and Brahmans can "upgrade" the Shudras if they serve them well Aryan Expansion (1200 BC) Now Urbanized Adopt & Integrate native poeples' ways of life The Dasa (their greatest enemy) Named by Aryan as native people of the Ganges plain Fortified cities captured and enslaved by the advancing Enemy is each other, not the natives. They fight each other for the same land Bharata War (900BC) Aryan version of Illiad Longest Epic poem in any language See aryans have change because the whole idea is about a dynastic debate, something earlier aryans do not have because their kings were elected CIV201 Notes 2-10 Dark Ages Mycenaean Period (1600-1200BC) Dark Ages (1200-800 BC) Homer-Iliad 770 BC first written text after the Dark Ages Writes about a day that doesn't exist anymore After the dark ages, there are no more kings Kings are broken by phelinxs fighting Hesiod -works and days 750 BC Farming manual for Aristocracy Aristocracy organizes people into Phelinxs and fought off the king, destroying the pyramid system Tyrants: politicians in Greece to take over the king position. Since people no longer need protection because the phelinxs can protect. People need this position to organize and make everyone happy. These are trusted by both Aristocracy and the people Democracy: people in charge Oligarchy: Aristocrats in charge Aristocrats either compete or support each other because the greatest challenge to an aristocrat is another aristocrat If system works, population will increase, and the system will break down because each person can't have the same amount of stuff anymore To solve this problem, colonize! Send people to independent cities and let them prosper there. Metropolis: mother city. If surplus in new colonies, then will be sent here. Greece becomes a massive network of informal ties of family between all of the city states They also hate each other, and set aside a portion of the year to fight Politeia: Citizenship. Give people certain rights and responsibilities to that city no matter how stripped the resources become. Gives loyalty to that city via patriotism (Greeks call it Politeia) Greeks are seen as greeks, but specifically as a city state.
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