Death and afterlife exam 1 lec 1 - lec 7
Death and afterlife exam 1 lec 1 - lec 7 01:840:112
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Death and afterlife in the earliest societies lec 1 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 2:45 PM All things will die. If there is birth there is death. Spoke, thought, and wrote about death and the afterlife. Soul, heaven, hell, purgatory, god, angels, resurrection, reincarnation-so many ideas when you think about d&a. Dna greatest mysteries and science has nothing to say about it. *people didn’t die naturally* Dna in earliest periods of history and early societies. -very familiar with death and happened all the time and this was because the early people had very little knowledge of medicine and didn’t know what to do when ppl got sick. -inadequate protection from predators. Didn’t have proper tools. Another reason they freq died. Ppl did not die naturally in early societies. Lifespan was usually 18yrs. No exp of natural life, death was premature -death was caused by either disease or accident. Freq by external agents(animals, humans) "ppl did not die, but were killled" didn’t die naturally. Bc people died so early they thought there was something after death. People after death leave spirits. They continue to live without bodies. -started to believe in spiritual world where people live without bodies. World of the dead. World of the spirits. This belief is believed in almost every culture. Believe ppl in spirit world have powers to where they can do things to those in the living world and influence those in the living world. Effect them. -this power can be good or bad. Benevolent or maleveolent. Can bless them, protect them and can also harm them. Some cultures believe that the spirits become ancestor spirits. Some believe the spirits still remain in the world, so came the idea of ghosts, roaming around in this world. Pan vitalism- belief that everything is alive in this world. Humans animals plants trees rivers etc. *death is not the end of everything, died but lived on in some other way. Made sure had all ness things to use in next life* Universe is huge room filled with life. Everythings alive. Early people noticed that everything lives, grows, and multiplies. Everything is manifestation or expression of life force Problem was if everything is alive, how do u understand death. They try to cope with reality of death. Solution they refused to except that when ppl die, that’s the end of everything. They believed that when they died they continued to live in some other way. After death there is some other life. Some are buried in a sleeping position so idea is that the person who died is just sleeping and they will wake up in some other life Buried in fetus position so they will have another birth, another life were buried with the things that they used in their life. So they can use those things in the next life Burial is taken v seriously, certain rituals to follow, certain practices, certain way to be buried. Began to appoint ppl to take care of the rituals and practices when ppl die. - this is the beginnings of religion. Probably began as rituals preformed when people died, or during the rituals of burial Animism-(comes from word animal)(meaning soul or spirit)-belief that everything in universe has a soul or a spirit. Can be found in many cultures and religions. (japanese, hindu, Buddhism) Understand death as the end of the body. The body dies and is gone, disappears. What happens to the soul? Sev answers depends on culture. o The bodies are buried and soul will stay in tomb Meaning the tomb should be respected and visited o Ppl die, souls leave tomb and become ancestor spirit, goes to world of spirits. Ancestor spirit should be revered. Can still influence living. o If had terrible lives, these spirits come out of tomb and roam earth as ghosts. Could be dangerous and esp to those who did harm to them. Belief in ghosts o Soul will leave body and enter another body Reincarnation Totemism-belief that ppl in society or tribe has special connection, spiritual connection or kinnship with another physical being. Physical being is usually an animal or a plant. (spirit animal) that physical being is the totem. It’s the symbol of the entire group. Totem unifies past pres and future Group obeys laws and do certain things bc of relationship with totem. Sacred bond btw group and totem. Taboo when they go against laws that are sanction with the totem. Taboo means forbidden. o Ex. If brother tries to marry sister that is called taboo and is forbidden. When ppl die they are merged into the totem. In the afterlife they are with the totem o Some if totem is rattlesnake then when they die they are reincarnated as a rattlesnake. Everyone Is reincarnation of totem in some cultures. So totem lives in everyone. Belief in totem can be found in many cultures. Diff btw pan and ani. Pan-everything has life Ani-everything is alive and everything has soul. What is tote-members of tribe have special connection with another physical being In the ancient societies there is no idea of salvation after death. There was no idea of a reward or punishment after death. Death and Afterlife lec 4 Ancient Mesopotamia Monday, February 1, 2016 3:00 PM Ancient meso-Region of present day iraq. Began 4000 yrs before Chirst Region of tygres and euphrates (rivers) Sustain the people and the land. Sometimes regions known as these rivers Arcadians, baboloyians, syrians, Practice poly something o Believed in many gods o Gods created and controlled the universe o Humans are created by gods to serve them Necessary to keep the gods happy because the gods give them everything Should be kept happy to keep getting these things from the gods o If anything bad happened in the world, god did it Meso gods have many similiarites with humans o Anthropomorphic They took human form. Needed food, drink, addicted to things, distracted, sleeping. Different from humans bc they are perfect in everything and very powerful. All seeing and all knowing, immortal o When they drew the gods they filled it with brightness, halo, Sight of gods inspired all with respect o Every city in meso had a patron god (male or female.) Worship o Built many temples and shrines o Preformed many sacrifices and rituals to the gods They were created by gods for gods (to praise the gods) Views on death and afterlife. Before 3000 bc When kings, queens, royalty were buried they were buried with retainers o Retainers are attendants or servants of the royal palace When they were living they were surrounded by the servants, all needs were taken care of. o Maybe they need these servants in the afterlife o Buried with attendants Killed people or drugged them or unconscious. Buried them with the kings and queens Dressed in full uniform, placed in couched sitting or standing position o King or queen may have sexual needs in afterlife Killed prostitutes and buried with them too This activity also found in ancient chinese In ancient meso this practice was discontinued. Don’t fine it after 2000 bc. o Limited to earliest period of ancient meso Their view of death and afterlife was negative, pessimistic o Dark, gloom, nothing to look forward to in the afterlife Had great difficulty in understanding death and deff afterlife o "No one can see death, no one can see the face of death, no one can hear to voice of death, but savage death snaps off mankind. Suddenly there is nothing. They the gods, est life and death." Belief of three forces in world o Gods Most powerful, control everything Greatest power, created life and death Gods in heaven, their nature is immortality o Demons Underworld, can come up to earth and do harm o Monsters In the world, much more powerful and evil than humans Humans nature is mortal beings o Are powerless. Myths about people trying to become immortal (meso) Gilgamesh o Had a friend who he was very much attached to enkidu o Enkidu died o Very upset, goes on the search for immortality o Through the hardwork: humans can never be immortal Man tried to go to heaven on the wings of an eagle A king married a goddess, thought he was part of the gods. When humans die o They become shade, shadows, ghosts o Shade or shadow has no substance and they go down to the underworld or netherworld Underworld-there is nothing, huge pit of darkness Land of no return House of shades No reality. No substance Afraid of death and afterlife that they didn’t even want to say the word death. Used expressions like o To cross the khubru River in the underworld o To go to ones fate o To go to the road of ones ancestors Burial practices Buried under the forces of houses Cemeteries Corpses wrapped in mats o Set in wood or clay coffins Buried with items o Food o Drink o Sandals o Other supplies It was thought that they were going to travel to the underwold Lamented o Spontaneous or specialists Mourning behavior o Torn hair from their bodies o Worn dirty clothes o Didn’t comb hair or didn’t shower o Scratched their bodies When someone died -shades, shadows, ghosts-> they go to underland Underworld o Entrance to underworld was on the western horizon Sun sets in the west Ereshkigal o Queen of the underworld o Filled with darkness and dust o Huge dark pit The sun travels to underworld everyday but the rays have no influence on the underworld o Forever dark o In the underworld all are ghosts=etemmu o Ghost stands alone not associated with body at all o There can be villages and towns Everything that can be seen in this world is reflected in the underworld Everything is ghostly, dark Believed there is no moral judgement after death o People are not rewarded or punished after death o Everyone goes to the same place, underworld o Connection between living and the shades in the underworld By family connections. People who died and the living are related. Living have responsibility to take care of those in the underworld Those in the underworld need to care and concern of the living Called mortuary cult Obligation Caring and feeding those who died Performance of rituals for the dead, remembrance for the dead and providing food and drink for those in the underworld Believed those in the underworld can become weak or strong depending on the care their receiving from the living world. o If dead not taken care of Ghosts of the underworld can turn against the living and do harm to the living Can do harm and persecute the living Can make unwelcome appearances to the living Create terrible fear to people who see them Ghosts of particular people can be especially dangerous Famine, murder, accident, violence victims May never settle in the underworld, harm those who made them suffer o Good ghosts Taken care of by living Benevolent and good ghosts that can help the living to protect against bad ghosts Would number of ghosts in underworld become too numerous? What if they outnumbered the living? o Solution: Ghost who remain in the underworld for a long period of time they all become one ghost. In general o View of d&a is negative o Practically nothing o They become ghosts and go into the dark dusty underworld netherworld o Live there without substance o Life Universe has three parts Heaven Inhabited by gods and are immortal, most powerful beings Underworld (under earth) Demons live there Earth Human beings live there After life they go down to underworld Condition of human beings, better than the demons Humans get to enjoy life but demons are always in the underworld o While there is time in this world enjoy your life Ancient eygpt lec 5 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 2:51 PM Polytheitiscs -gods in full control of everything -forces and elements of nature -religious practices to give the gods whatever they want and in return the gods provided them with whatever they needed in their lives -everything they did was in favor of the gods Religious practices o Centered around the pharaoh Believed descended from the gods Acted as intermediate between the gods and the people Important duties was to maintain the order in the kingdom and universe Provided the world with considerable writings, images, artifacts o Lot of documentation on Egypt o Religious beliefs on death and afterlife o Lots of monuments, pyramids, temples, statues. Death and afterlife o Life continues after death o Used to dig a whole in the desert and put the body in there. Also placed jars of food, drink and personal property. o Body should be preserved, the person will continue to live after death as long as the body is there o In the beginning Preservation of body was preoccupation, came very naturally to them. o Dry desert sand absorbs the moisture from the dead body and therefore is reserved. o Became more sophisticated with burial, shouldnt be left in sand but should be in coffin. When buried body in coffin in sand, the body decayed easily. How to preserve body in coffin? The process of mummification of the body o Best account was given by heroditus o Took 70 days o Several stages First stage All internal organs were removed DID NOT REMOVE HEART The heart is the central and most important organ, center of everything Organs were dried, wrapped and placed in jars. Once body is mummified they placed the organs back in. Brain was also removed( they didn’t know importance of brain) discarded it Placed bags of salt, both inside and outside of the body. Body was left for days with the salt, until all moisture was absorbed. Then they cleanse and clean the body with special oils Then the body was wrapped with bandages made with linen Placed funerary mask on the head Idealized portrait of the person Material mask depended on the financial situation from the dead person Kings and queens members of the royal families received masks of gold. Ready for burial Placed in coffin Material of coffin also depended on financial situation of the person Coffin was placed in stone sarcophagus- for the total protection of the coffin Only wealthy people could afford a sarcophagus Burial Buried in tomb structures Several rules in tomb structures Burial chamber Other rooms kept the provisions that the dead could use in afterlife Paintings on wall in the tomb structures, of family, pets, servants, Will be at home for eternity Thieves attacking the burial structures Always happened To stop it. Near the burial chamber they made a statue or two of the person who died. Placed in a way that always looking at the body Statues are substitute bodies. Body stolen? Person still there. Dead has a life beyond the tomb o In a personal there are physical and no physical elements (spiritual) o Theses elements are called -Ka, Ba, and Akh READ BOOK TO FIND OUT o The non spirtitual elements might leave the body and leave the tomb, it can go anywhere o Afterlife In the tomb and outside the tomb Physical is in the tomb and spiritual can go elsewhere Afterlife o The spiritual part of the person would leave the tomb and go up to the sky and join the sun o Will join the sun and join the cycle of life, east to west in the day and the underworld at night from west to east. o Reborn and well rested when it goes into the underworld o The dead person gains new life everyday with the sun o Sun is related and has intimate connection with the sun. the royal families will always go with the sun. 2nd afterlife explanation (The myth of Osiris) o The god king of the underworld but he was murdered by his brother seth. o The wife- isis- brought Osiris back to life, he life was restored by isis. o Nepthx- google o Osiris was resurrected, gained new life o Son Horus killed Seth o *Osiris gained a new life after his death. o When regular people die they go to the underworld and gain a new life with Osiris(reborn) The afterlife is in the underworld o Field of the Rushy Reed o Those who are in the underworld are given plots of land which they can cultivate as their sustenance o They also have servants in the underworld and they are called shabti o Means answers. o Life in the underworld is very nice and good. Order of Egyptian society continues in the underworld In contrast to meso, Egypt's underworld was very good. Most underworlds are bad. Summary -the person remains in the body that’s why they take so much care and spend so many on the body. Afterlife is in the tomb in the mummified body. People who die will remain in the tomb. -another idea, sun and the underworld. The myth of Osiris. People die and go in the underworld with Osiris Three visions of the afterlife o Contradict each other but all three coexist with each other and everyone believed in them Death and Afterlife in Zoroastrianism, in Ancient Greece lec 6 Monday, February 8, 2016 2:51 PM Zoroastrianism religion of persia (today is iran.) Zoroaster Beileved in polytheistic religion Ahura Mazda Creator of everything in the universe Suprem spirit and those spirits who are close to him are called Ahuras God of goodness In order to live happy in this life people should believe in Mazda Those who live good lives will go with mazda Aingra Mainyu Principal of evil Those who do bad will go to hell with aingra There is an afterlife with reward or punishment Human beings are composed of a mortal soul and a perishable body o Responsible for soul while they are in this world Death is followed by a judgement based on the actions in ones life. o When people die, the souls ascend to the Heaven o They have to pass through a bridge called Chinwat bridge Those who lead good lives in this world the bridge broadens so they can easily pass through to heaven Pairi - daeza (paradise comes from this word) House of heavenly song o Those who lead evil lives, the bridge narrows, as soon as they enter bridge they fall down easily They go to hell when they fall down. House of lies Madza does not pass the judgement, their own actions judge them o Ones actions are consequences o First religion to do so, so far as weve studied Death is actually the work of Aingra Maniyu and his evil spirits o The mortal soul leaves the body, body is possessed by evil spirits, dwelling place of demons o Becomes so polluted it cant be buried or thrown in the water or burn in fire bc it will pollute all these things. o Bodies are taken to the Tower Of Silence Towers of Silence o Circular walled building, kinda high. o Bodies are taken to top of structure to be left there to be eaten by vultures o The bones are left, bleached cleaned by exposition to sun o Gathered and placed in the center pit of TOS o Bones of all people crumble to dust in center the pit As world progesses the good spirits become more and more powerful and at the end of the world the evil spirits will die and be gone forever. The good spirits will rule the world End of world= final renovation o Evil will be completely destroyed and the good spirits will rule o All souls will be joined with their bodies and will live eternally in happiness o Perfect immortality. Good are the ultimate victorious and evil will be defeated Zoroastrianis in persia until 7th century. Then Islam came. Some are still around. Hinduism and Buddhism believe in Karma. Religions in Ancient Greece o Death and after life in ancient greek culture o Death and afterlife in greek philosophy Ancient Greek Culture o Iliad o Odyssey o Homer is the author. o Greeks have variety of idea on d&a When someone dies, their psyche=shade o Leaves body in a form of breathe or wind o Burial to be done according to greek customs Family was responsible for this - the women relaticves esp Proslthesis o Laying out and display of body Ekphora o Procession- funeral procession to the grave Internment o Burial Either body buried in tomb or if cremated then the ashes were buried in the tomb. Tomb was specially prepared for each person, each person who dies should have their own tomb. Depended on the financial situation of the person o Rich had not only tombs, but tomb structure o Ordinary people buried in common cemeteries o Poor people had to bury in their own family compound. All persons personal things were also buried with the body in the tomb Graves are filled with these objects, jewels and ornaments. Psyche of person is staying in the tomb o Family visit it, to have contact with the psyche o What remains in the grave after the body decays is the psyche and that is the shade bc the shade does not have a body. o Important to visit and remember If not it can harm the people If so, it can be helpful to the people Started to believe the psyche went down into the underworld. So now the afterlife is the underworld, good and bad peopl God of underworld is hades o Poweful, brother of zeus o House of hades or just hades is what the underworld is called o Became the destination of the dead o Cold damp dark place o Entrance theres a fierce 6 headed dog called cerberus o Let everybody in, but never let anyone out of hades When people die, the spirits of hades would come to the body of the person who died and would carry their psyche to the underworld The reach it, the psyche had to cross an unground river called Ackaron o Ferry man that would carry people across called Charon He had to be paid. When people died people were buried with a coin on their mouth for payment o First act was that hades would judge them Based on their good or bad actions o Psyche were given diff places in hades Neutral lives-assigned to central region of hades Dark damp and gloomy boring place but no suffering or enjoyment Bad lives- judged and sent to Tartatus Northern region place of suffering and punishment Various kinds of punishment and suffering Later became hell Good lives-sent to Elysium or Elysium Fields Higher region of hades, beautiful, nice place, tranquil Later became heaven Punishment and reward in hades In order to enter hades, one has to be properly buried following all rituals Those who were not properly buried, they would roam around the earth as ghosts o Unwanted, abandoned, forgotten and they can be dangerous to the living o Bad thing to deny a good burial to someone Psyches go down into hades (the underworld) They do not look forward to the afterlife they would rather stay here Achilles says this - I would rather be a day laborer working for a man of little property than..something about the underworld o Rather have a boring poor life here rather than going into the underworld and there being a god there. Fate is god who is in charge of everyone's destiny on earth Including that of gods, it was thought that fate was the most powerful god. Everyone's fates were already planned out, fate determines the things that happen to Zeus Fate is ultimate desire Fate 3 goddesses determined fate of every person Lec 7 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 2:51 PM Ancient Greek philosophy -philosophers Magicians, mathematicians, physicists and philosophers Physics saw the soul as something, subtle material, or primitive element Soul made of air or fire Believed in reincarnation o Metempsychosis or transmigration of souls o Soul will live through number of lives o Soul might escape reincarnation, will happen over a long period of time o As long as soul is in body it will reincarnate Philosophers Pythagoras o Mathematician and philosopher o First to have Speculated that soul will reincarnate Empedocles o Taught that at one time souls lived alone (w/o body) in origin pure state o And then became associated with bodies o The souls lost original bliss when associated with the body. Prisoners of the body. When they lost the bliss Humans began to eat meat Do get back to original state, they have to undergo purification and will be liberated from bodies. o Assumes there's a judgement after death, whether the soul is purified or not If purified it will go back to original bliss If still impure the soul will reincarnate, still attached to the body Teaching of original sin like, Christianity Socrates (409-399 bc) o Agnostic with religion/ afterlife Indifferent about religion and death and afterlife. " I don’t know, im not interested, I don’t care" o All knowledge comes from disciple of Socrates, and wrote a lot. o After death There is nothingness Or there is some kind of change of location of the soul Plato (428-348 bc) o Western views of death and afterlife o First philosopher who seriously discusses immortality and afterlife o Well known for works Dialogues Republic o Views on afterlife evolved overtime Plato's views on the soul o Western civilization got clear view of the soul o Everything in the world is incomplete, nothing is perfect, everything is constantly changing, in flux, no stability o All constant change requires a higher spiritual realm of perfection, completeness and stability Is basis of this world where everything is changing o Calls the spiritual world - world of forms, or world of ideas Perfect o Of there is goodness there is evil, no perfect goodness o But all humans have a basis of what goodness is, based on the world of forms. o No one who is always good, always beautiful, truthful, etc o Soul belongs to the world of forms but its in the body right now o Humans are composed of two separate elements Immortal Soul - perfect Perishable body- soul is limited and conditioned by the body, you will not see the perfection of the soul through the body o Taught dualism- two things Humans are composed of two elements, soul and body o Every soul there are three part Soul is like a chariot Chattier- logical part of the soul, element of reason Two horses- desire and emotions Should be controlled, driven by logic, reason. When these emotion are driven by logic the human is good, life is good If driver fails to control desire or emotions then there is disorder in the human, chaos in them. Struggle, strife. o In a constant cycle, in body for a period of time, world of forms then back to body etc. it can go on forever o Most important duty of human beings Maintenance or care of the soul Done by living life according to logic and reason, takes care of the soul. Don’t lead life of emotions and desires If soul taken care of, the soul will safely return to world of forms for good. If soul not taken care of, the soul will go back to world of forms but will come back immediately enter another body. Plato doesn’t talk about morality. o Talks about life according to reason and logic o Is there morality in Plato's system Speaks of controlling emotions and desires o May say the person who leads life according to logic and reason has good moral Plato's vision of the afterlife o When people die their souls gather at the acherusian lake. In last class we talked about ackeron river. o River ackeron empties into the lake. o Everyone goes down to the underworld and gather by the lake and there is a judgement there o Then sent to places of punishment or reward Incurable sinners (harden criminals) Sent to Tartarus which is the lowest part of hades and punishment, and will never come back Curable sinner are sent to Tartarus for a brief period of time about 1 yr If can get pardon from those who they’ve done wrong, they can come back to Tartarus. Then can be sent back to the world in another body Those who live good lives Immediately freed from the underworld and sent back to be reborn People who cultivated philosophy in their lives Best and highest people When they die they reach the lake and immediately go back to the world of forms and will not be reborn o When souls go back to the world of forms they stay in dwelling but they are beyond explanation to describe Plato o Immortality of the soul o The supreme value of philosophy Cultivate philosophy o The highest goal was to cultivate philosophy o Wisdom above morality
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