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PRTM 3260

by: Cameron Dunker

PRTM 3260 PRTM 3260

Cameron Dunker
GPA 3.68

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About this Document

These notes cover different types of brain injuries.
Recreational Therapy Implementation and Evaluation: Physical Health Conditions
Dr. Townsend
Physical Health Conditions, brain injuries
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Cameron Dunker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PRTM 3260 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Townsend in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Recreational Therapy Implementation and Evaluation: Physical Health Conditions in Business, management at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Physical Health Conditions January 25, 2016  Accessibility and Legislation  Definition of Disability  According to the American with Disability Act legally a person with disability is someone who:  has a physical, mental or cognitive impairment that substantially limits one or more major life functions or activities.  has a record of such impairment; or  is regarded as having such an impairment (when somebody has anything going on in their life that has any stigma attached to it; the way that society treats an individual)  Civil Right Act 1964  Non-discrimination based on race/ethnicity, religion, gender.  Architectural Barriers Act of 1968  The Rehab Act of 1973 Section 504 states: “No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, as defined in section 705(20) of this title, shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service.”   Provides equal access for people with disabilities through the removal of  Architectural barriers  Employment barriers  Technology barriers  Transportation barriers  Had no regulations for implementation or enforcement Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 1974  Ensures students with disabilities are provided a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that is tailored to their needs.  Air Carriers Act of 1986  Can not discriminate in air transportation based on disability  Requires accessibility in the aircraft  Movable arm rests  Accessible bathrooms  Wheelchairs on board some flights  Stowable space for folding wheelchairs  Aisle chairs  Allowing medical equipment on board (oxygen tanks)  Ensures priority boarding  Airports must also be accessible, assistance to get from gate to gate, etc.…  Being obese and being pregnant is considered a disability  Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988  Amendment to the Civil Rights Act,  Prohibits discrimination in sale, rental, or financing or dwellings based on race, color, religion, gender, national, origin, disability, or familial status (pregnant or kids under 18).  Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990  Provides for physical and programmatic access in these areas:  Title I: Employment  Title II: Public Services: State and local government services  Title III: Public Accommodations: Areas of public service  Title IV: Telecommunication  Title V  Terms  Accommodation:  Modification:  “Reasonable” Accommodation:  “Reasonable” Modification:  Expectations to ADA: undue financial burden: if it cost too much to build something or obtain something and the facility will go broke, then they can apply for ADA’s undue financial burden. Traumatic  Brain  Injury       • Traumatic  Brain  Injury:  alteration  in  brain  function  caused  by  an   external  force.   o Diffuse  Axonal  Injury:   is  a  brain  injury  in  which  damage  in  the   form  of  extensive  lesions  in  white  matter  tracts  occurs  over  a   widespread  area.  DAI  is  one  of  the  most  common  and   devastating  types  of  injury,  and  is  a  major  cause  of   unconsciousness  and  persistent  vegetative  state  after  head   trauma.   o Concussion:  temporary  unconsciousness  caused  by  a  blow  to   the  head.  The  term  is  also  used  loosely  of  the  aftereffects  such   as  confusion  or  temporary  incapacity.   o Contusion:  a  region  of  injured  tissue  or  skin  in  which  blood   capillaries  have  been  ruptured;  a  bruise. o Coup-­‐contrecoup:  In  head  injury,  a  coup  injury  occurs  under   the  site  of  impact  with  an  object,  and  a  contrecoup  injury   occurs  on  the  side  opposite  the  area  that  was  hit.   Coup  and  contrecoup  injuries  are  associated  with  cerebral   contusions,  a  type  of  traumatic  brain  injury  in  which  the  brain   is  bruised. o Second  Impact  Syndrome: Second-­‐impact  syndrome  (SIS)   occurs  when  the  brain  swells  rapidly,  and  catastrophically,   after  a  person  suffers  a  second  concussion  before  symptoms   from  an  earlier  one  have  subsided.   o Penetrating  Injury:  Penetrating  trauma  is  an  injury  that   occurs  when  an  object  pierces  the  skin  and  enters  a  tissue  of   the  body,  creating  an  open  wound.  In  blunt,  or  non-­‐ penetrating  trauma,  there  may  be  an  impact,  but  the  skin  is   not  necessarily  broken.   o Shaken  Baby  Syndrome:  injury  to  a  baby  caused  by  being   shaken  violently  and  repeatedly.  Shaking  can  cause  swelling  of   the  brain,  internal  bleeding,  and  detached  retinas  leading  to   blindness,  mental  retardation,  and  death.   o Locked-­‐In  Syndrome:  a  medical  condition,  usually  resulting   from  a  stroke  that  damages  part  of  the  brainstem,  in  which  the   body  and  most  of  the  facial  muscles  are  paralyzed  but   consciousness  remains  and  the  ability  to  perform  certain  eye   movements  is  preserved. • Acquired  Brain  Injury:  injury  to  brain,  which  is  not  heredity,   congenital,  degenerative,  or  induced  by  birth  trauma.   o Anoxic  Brain  Injury:  injury  to  the  brain  due  to  a  lack  of   oxygen.  Hypoxia  is  the  term  to  describe  low  oxygen.  Brain  cells   without  enough  oxygen  will  begin  to  die  after  about  4  minutes. o Hypoxic  Brain  Injury:  when  the  brain  isn't  getting  enough   oxygen.  This  can  occur  when  someone  is  drowning,  choking,   suffocating,  or  in  cardiac  arrest.  Brain  injury  and  carbon   monoxide  poisoning  are  other  possible  causes  of  brain   hypoxia.     • Open  Head  Injuries   o Depressed  skull  fracture:  is  a  break  in  a  cranial  bone  (or   "crushed"  portion  of  skull)  with  depression  of  the  bone  in   toward  the  brain. o Compound  skull  fracture:  involves  a  break  in,  or  loss  of,  skin   and  splintering  of  the  bone.   o Basilar  skull  fracture:  is  a  fracture  of  the  base  of  the  skull,   typically  involving  the  temporal  bone,  occipital  bone,  sphenoid   bone,  and/or  ethmoid  bone.  This  type  of  fracture  is  rare,   occurring  as  the  only  fracture  in  just  4%  of  severe  head  injury   patients.   o Battle’s  sign:  is  an  indication  of  fracture  of  middle  cranial   fossa  of  the  skull,  and  may  suggest  underlying  brain  trauma. o Raccoon  eye:  is  a  sign  of  basal  skull  fracture  or  subgaleal   hematoma,  a  craniotomy  that  ruptured  the  meninges,  or   (rarely)  certain  cancers.   o Diastatic  skull  fracture:  is  a  break  in  one  or  more  of  the  eight   bones  that  form  the  cranial  portion  of  the  skull,  usually   occurring  as  a  result  of  blunt  force  trauma.   o Cribriform  plate  fracture:  is  a  fracture  of  the  cribriform  plate,   which  is  a  sieve-­‐like  structure  between  the  anterior  cranial   fossa  and  the  nasal  cavity. • Closed  Head  Injuries   o Impact  to  the  head  but  the  skull  does  not  fracture  or  displace  


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