assignments HS 201
Popular in Intro Appl Anat & Physiol
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Seidler on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HS 201 at Marshall University taught by McIlvain, Gary in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Intro Appl Anat & Physiol in Nursing and Health Sciences at Marshall University.
Reviews for assignments
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/15/16
Assignment 1 20 points Identify and label the structures in the above picture. Insert the correct term in the box provided below 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Stratum corneum 4. Basal layer 5. Hair follicle 6. Sebaceous gland 7. Sudoriferous gland 8. Subcutaneous tissue Answer the following in the corresponding table. Post when finished. Using your mouse, single left click in the table to begin typing. Save to your computer when finished and post. Using your book, label AS above in this chart A. Flagellum B. Nucleus C. Nuclear envelope D. Nucleolus E. Chromatin F. Ribosomes G. Cell membrane H. Rough endoplasmic reticulum I. Cilia J. Microtubules K. Lysosomes L. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum M. Microtubule N. Golgi apparatus O. Secretion vesicles P. Microvilli Q. Mitochondrion R. Centrioles S. Microtubules Using your book, label AG A. Glycolipid B. Glycolipid C. Bilayer of phospholipid molecules D. Hydrophobic fatty acid tail E. Hydrophilic phosphate head F. Transmembrane protein G. Cholesterol molecules Using your book, label AT of the skin A. Epidermis B. Dermis C. Subcutaneous layer D. Muscle layer E. Blood vessels F. Adipose tissue G. Lamellated corpuscle H. Merocrine sweat gland I. Hair follicle J. Merocrine sweat gland K. Arrector pili muscle L. Sebaceous gland M. Basement membrane N. Tactile corpuscle O. Dermal papilla P. Capillary Q. Stratum basal R. Stratum corneum S. Sweat gland pores T. Hair shaft Terminology Chapters 35 Define each word/term using your text book and/or video labeled “Krebs cycle – electron transport system” and label the pictures below and post. 1. Cell Membrane the selectively permeable outer boundary of a cell consisting of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. 2. Mitochondria organelle housing enzymes that catalyze the aerobic reactions of cellular respiration. 3. Passive Mechanisms of Movement Movements of substances into or out of the cells; do not require energy. The passive mechanisms of movement include: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration. 4. Active Mechanisms of Movement Transport of substances across the cell membrane; requires energy. The active mechanisms of moment include: active transport, endocytosis (pinocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis), and exocytosis. 5. Isotonic (with regard to fluid pressure) solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 6. Hypertonic (with regard to fluid pressure) Solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 7. Hypotonic (with regard to fluid pressure) Solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 8. Endocytosis molecules or other particles that are too large to enter a cell by diffusion or active transport are conveyed in a vesicle that forms from a portion of the cell membrane. 9. Exocytosis Reverse process of endocytosis; secretes a substance stored in a vesicle from the cell. 10. Phagocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solids. 11. Briefly describe the four cell phases of the cell cycle 1. Prophase: Stage when chromosomes become visible when stained and viewed under a microscope. 2. Metaphase: Stage when the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell. 3. Anaphase: Stage where replicated chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. 4. Telophase: Stage when newly formed cells separate. 12. Mitosis Division of a somatic cell, forming two genetically identical somatic cells. 13. Apoptosis Programmed cell death. 14. Anabolism Synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones; anabolic metabolism. 15. Catabolism The breakdown of larger molecules; catabolic metabolism. 16. Enzyme Protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction. 17. Oxidation Process by which oxygen combines with another chemical; removal of hydrogen or loss of electrons; opposite of reduction. 18. Glycolysis The energyreleasing breakdown of glucose to produce two pyruvate acid molecules and a net of two ATP. 19. ATP aka Adenosine triphosphate; is an organic molecule that transfers energy, used in cellular respiration. 20. ADP aka adenosine diphosphate; is an ATP molecule that has lost its terminal phosphate; organic molecule that is utilized during metabolism. This means energy has been released. 21. Aerobic respiration Complete, energyreleasing, breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen. 22. FAD aka flavin adenine dinucleotide; an important coenzyme (along with NAD), serving to carry chemical functional groups that are needed for enzyme activity. This molecule carries highenergy electrons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport system, where its energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. 23. NAD aka nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; an important coenzyme (along with FAD), serving to carry chemical functional groups that are needed for enzyme activity. This molecule carries highenergy electrons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport system, where its energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. 24. Genes Part of a DNA molecule that encodes information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or tRNA or rRNA; the unit of inheritance. 25. Genome Complete set of genetic instructions for an organism. 26. Briefly describe protein synthesis 1. Transcription: Before the synthesis of a protein begins, the corresponding RNA molecule is produced by RNA transcription. One strand of the DNA double helix is then used used as a template by the RNA polymerase, to synthesize a messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. During this step, mRNA goes through different types of maturation including one called splicing when the noncoding sequences are eliminated. The coding mRNA sequence can be described as a unit of three nucleotides called a codon. 2. Translation: The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG) that is recognized only by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating translation and releasing the complete polypeptide from the ribosome. 27. List the four major tissue types and briefly describe each Epithelial: tissue that functions to protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete. This tissue covers the body’s surface, covers and lines internal organs, and composes glands. Connective: tissue that functions as a support system, binds, protects, fills spaces, stores fat, and produces blood cells. The connective tissue is widely distributed throughout the body. Muscle: Tissue that helps aid in movement. This tissue is attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, and also in the heart. Nervous: tissue that conducts impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception. This tissue is located in the brain, nerves, and spinal cord. 28. Fibrocartilage The strongest and most durable cartilage; made up of cartilage cells and many collagenous fibers. 29. Hyaline Cartilage (articular cartilage) Cartilage that covers the ends of bones in synovial joints. Terminology Chapter 6 Define each word/term using your textbook (save to your computer and post when you are finished) 1. Epidermis Outer epithelial layer of the skin. 2. Dermis The thick layer of skin beneath the epidermis. 3. Subcutaneous Loose connective tissue layer that is mostly fat and beneath the skin. 4. Keratinization The process by which cells form fibrils of keratin and harden. 5. Melanin Special cells in the epidermis called melanocytes produce melanin, which is a pigment that provides skin color. It also absorbs uv radiation in sunlight. 6. Sebaceous Gland Contains groups of specialized epithelial cells and are usually associated with hair follicles. It secretes an oily mixture of fatty material and cellular debris called sebum through small ducts into their hair follicles. 7. Nails Are a protective covering on the ends of the fingers and toes. Each nail consists of a nail plate that overlies a surface of the skin called the nail bed. 8. Sweat Gland aka sudoriferous glands; are exocrine glands that are widespread in the skin. Each gland consists of a tiny tube that originates as a ballshaped coil in the deeper dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer. 9. Receptor A specialized cell that provides information about the environment. Also, called cell membrane proteins that binds specific molecules, called ligands, thereby sending a signal inside the cell. 10. Effector A muscle or gland that effects change in the body. Terminology Chapter 7 Define each word/term using your text book and/or video labeled “Joint Movements – Plane and Axis of Movement.” (save to your computer and post when finished) 1. Epiphysis end of a long bone. 2. Diaphysis shaft of a long bone. 3. Periosteum Dense connective tissue covering the surface of a bone. 4. Hyaline Cartilage Semitransparent, flexible connective tissue with an ultrafine fiber matrix. 5. Osteocyte a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted. 6. Osteoblast a cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation. 7. Osteoclast a large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing. 8. Medullary Cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity. 9. Endosteum is a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones. 10. Epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. The plate is found in children and adolescents; in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line. 11. Hemopoiesis The process of formation and development of the various types of blood cells and other formed elements. 12. Hemoglobin a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Its molecule comprises four subunits, each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group. 13. Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate. In humans, it consists of 80 bones and is composed of eight parts; the skull bones, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, the rib cage, sternum and the vertebral column. 14. Appendicular Skeleton is divided into six major regions: Pectoral girdles (4 bones) Left and right clavicle (2) and scapula (2). Arms and forearms (6 bones) Left and right humerus (2) (arm), ulna (2) and radius (2) (forearm). 15. Extremity a limb of the body. 16. Fibrous Joint These joints have no joint cavity and are connected via fibrous connective tissue. The skull bones are connected by fibrous joints. Sutures are found between bones of the skull. 17. Cartilaginous Joint are connected entirely by cartilage (fibrocartilage or hyaline). They allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint. 18. Synovial Joint are also known as diarthrosis, is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body. As with most other joints, synovial joints achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones. 19. Meniscus a thin fibrous cartilage between the surfaces of some joints, e.g., the knee. 20. Bursae a fluidfilled sac or saclike cavity, especially one countering friction at a joint. 21. Ball and Socket Joint a natural or manufactured joint or coupling, such as the hip joint, in which a partially spherical end lies in a socket, allowing multidirectional movement and rotation. 22. Condyloid Joint (also called condylar, ellipsoidal, or bicondylar) is an ovoid articular surface, or condyle that is received into an elliptical cavity. This permits movement in two planes, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction. 23. Gliding Joint A plane joint (arthrodial joint, gliding joint, plane articulation) is a synovial joint which, under physiological conditions, allows only gliding movement. Plane joints permit sliding or gliding movements in the plane of articular surfaces. 24. Hinge Joint (ginglymus) is a bone joint in which the articular surfaces are molded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in one plane. 25. Pivot Joint (trochoid joint, rotary joint, Lateral Ginglymus) is a type of diarthrosis. Inpivot joints, the axis of a convex articular surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the bone. 26. Saddle Joint a joint (as the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb) with saddleshaped articular surfaces that are convex in one direction and concave in another and that permit movements in all directions except axial rotation. 27. Flexion the action of bending or the condition of being bent, especially the bending of a limb or joint (ex. Bending of the knee) 28. Extension the movements by which the two ends of any jointed part are drawn away from each other (straightening the knee). 29. Dorsiflexion movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (rocking back on ones heel). 30. Plantar flexion movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking or standing on one’s toes). 31. Hyperextension A term sometimes used to describe the extension of the parts at a joint beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position); often used to describe an abnormal extension beyond the normal range of motion, resulting in injury. 32. Abduction – moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body). Abduction of the head and neck and bending of the trunk to the side may be termed lateral flexion. 33. Adduction Moving a part towards the midline (returning the upper limb horizontally to for a right angle with the side of the body). 34. Internal rotation the turning of a limb about its axis of rotation toward the midline of the body. 35. External rotation turning outwardly or away from the midline of the body, such as when a leg is extern ally rotated with the toes turned outward or away from the body's midline. 36. Ulnar deviation a position of the hand in which the wrist bends toward the little finger. Continued ulnar deviation positioning may cause a repetitive strain injury. 37. Radial deviation The neutral position of the wrist is that position where the wrist is in straight alignment with the forearm: no flexion, extension, radial or ulnar deviation. The wrist is at the midpoint between supination and pronation. 38. Lateral Flexion is the anatomical term for the movement of bending sideways at the waist. 39. Circumduction Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving a finger n a circular motion without moving the hand). 40. Pronation Rotation of the forearm so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position). 41. Supination Rotation of the forearm so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position). 42. Eversion Turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces laterally. 43. Inversion Turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces medially. 44. Retraction Moving a part backwards (pulling the head backward). 45. Protraction Moving a part forward (thrusting the head forward). 46. Elevation Raising a part (shrugging the shoulders). 47. Depression Lowering a part (drooping the shoulders). 48. Frontal Axis A line running transversely through the center of the eyeball. 49. Saggital Axis Plane or section that divides a structure into right and left portions. 50. Longitudinal Axis An axis along the lengthwise direction of the figure or body, usually passing through its center of gravity. 51. Frontal Plane Any plane parallel with the long axis of the body and perpendicular to the sagittal plane. 52. Saggital Plane A longitudinal plane that divides the body of a bilaterally symmetrical animal into right and left sections. 53. Transverse Plane plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior sections. Answer the following in the corresponding table. Post when finished. Using your mouse, single left click in the table to begin typing. Save to your computer when finished and post. Using your book, label AQ of the picture above A. Endosteum B. Nerve C. Blood vessels D. Compact bone E. Lacuna F. Osteocyte G. Canaliculus H. Nerve I. Perforating canal J. Blood vessels K. Central canal L. Nerve M. Periosteum N. Central canal containing blood vessels and nerves O. Osteon P. Compact bone Q. Spongy bone Using your book, label AK of long bone A. Epiphyseal plates B. Proximal epiphysis C. Diaphysis D. Distal epiphysis E. Periosteum F. Yellow marrow G. Medullary cavity H. Compact bone I. Spaces containing red marrow J. Spongy bone K. Articular cartilage Using your book, label AW of the skeleton in this table. A. Hyoid B. Vertebral column C. Carpals D. Metacarpals E. Phalanges F. Metatarsals G. Tarsals H. Fibula I. Tibia J. Patella K. Femur L. Ulna M. Radius N. Hip bone O. Ribs P. Humerus Q. Sternum R. Scapula S. Clavicle T. Vertebral column U. Sacrum V. Coccyx W. Phalanges Using your book, label AN of the skull A. Anterior fontanel B. Coronal suture C. Frontal bone D. Sphenoid bone E. Nasal bone F. Maxilla G. Zygomatic bone H. Mandible I. Sphenoid fontanel J. Temporal lobe K. Mastoid Fontanel L. Occipital bone M. Posterior fontanel N. Parietal bone Using your book, label AW of the vertebrae A. Bifid spinous process B. Vertebral foramen C. Superior articular facet D. Transverse foramen E. Transverse process F. Body G. Lamina H. Spinous process I. Transverse process J. Facet that articulates with rib tubercle K. Superior articular facet L. Vertebral foramen M. Facet that articulates with rib head N. Body O. Pedicle P. Lamina Q. Spinous process R. Superior articular process S. Transverse process T. Vertebral foramen U. Body V. Pedicle Using your book, label AG of the scapula A. Acromion process B. Coracoid process C. Spine D. Glenoid cavity E. Acromion process F. Coracoid process G. Glenoid cavity Using your book, label AK of the chest A. True ribs B. False ribs C. Floating ribs D. Vertebrochondral ribs E. Costal Cartilage F. Ribs G. Xiphoid process H. Body I. Manubrium J. Thoracic vertebra K. Sternum Using your book, label AP of the humerus A. Head B. Greater tubercle C. Intertubercular sulcus D. Lesser tubercle E. Deltoid tuberosity F. Capitulum G. Trochlea H. Medial epicondyle I. Olecranon fossa J. Trochlea K. Trochlea L. Lateral epicondyle M. Olecranon fossa N. Surgical neck O. Anatomical neck P. Greater tubercle Using your book, label AO of the forearm A. Olecranon process B. Trochlear notch C. Coronoid process D. Head of radius E. Radial tuberosity F. Radius G. Styloid process H. Ulnar notch of radius I. Styloid process J. Head of ulna K. Ulna L. Radial notch M. Coronoid process N. Trochlear notch O. Olecranon process Using your book, label AP of the hand A. Radius B. Ulna C. Lunate D. Hamate E. Triquetrum F. Pisiform G. Proximal phalanx H. Middle phalanx I. Distal phalanx J. Phalanges K. Metacarpals L. Carpals M. Trapezium N. Trapezoid O. Capitate P. Scaphoid Using your book, label AN of the pelvis A. Iliac crest B. Anterior superior iliac spine C. Ilium D. Pubis E. Ischium F. Obturator foramen G. Ischial spine H. Acetabulum I. Iliac crest J. Ilium K. Ischial spine L. Ischium M. Ischial tuberosity N. Pubis Using your book, label AJ of the femur A. Fovea capitis B. Neck C. Greater trochanter D. Head E. Lesser trochanter F. Medial epicondyle G. Medial condyle H. Lateral condyle I. Patellar surface J. Lateral epicondyle Using your book, label AH of the lower leg A. Lateral condyle B. Head of fibula C. Fibula D. Lateral malleolus E. Medial malleolus F. Tibia G. Tibial tuberosity H. Medial condyle Using your book, label AM of the foot A. Tarsals B. Metatarsals C. Phalanges D. Distal phalanx E. Middle phalanx F. Proximal phalanx G. Medial cuneiform H. Intermediate cuneiform I. Lateral cuneiform J. Cuboid K. Navicular L. Talus M. Calcaneus Terminology Define the following and save to your computer. Post your submission when you are finished. 1. Fascia Layers of dense connective tissue that separate an individuals skeletal muscles from adjacent muscles and hold it into position. 2. Aponeuroses Connective tissue formed by broad fibrous sheets. 3. Myosin Protein that, with actin, forms the filaments that interact 4. Actin Protein in a muscle fiber that forms filaments that slide between filaments of the protein myosin, contracting muscle fibers. 5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Membranous network of channels and tubules of a muscle fiber, corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells. 6. TTubule Aka transverse tubules; are a set of membrane channels that extend inward as deep invaginations of the sarcolemma which appears as a small tubule that runs transversely from the sarcolemma across the myofibril of striated muscle. 7. Acetylcholine (ACH) Type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted into the synaptic cleft at axon ends of neurons. 8. Oxygen debt Amount of oxygen required following physical exercise to react accumulated lactic acid to form glucose. 9. Oxygen deficit temporary oxygen shortage in cells resulting from strenuous exercise. 10. What is another name for tetanic contraction Complete tetanic contraction or tetanus. 11. Prime Mover Muscle that provides most of a particular body movement. Also called an agonist. 12. Agonist A muscle that causes a movement. 13. Antagonist Muscle that opposes an agonist. 14. Synergist Muscle that assists the action of an agonist. 15. Isometric The condition when the ends of a contracting muscle are held fixed so that contraction produces increased tension at a constant overall length. 16. Isotonic Pertains to a muscular contraction in which the muscle remains to be in a relatively constant tension while its length changes, as in isotonic muscle. 17. Isokinetic of or relating to muscular action with a constant rate of movement. 18. Eccentric During normal activity, muscles are often active while they are lengthening. Classic examples of this are walking, when the quadriceps (knee extensors) are active just after heel strike while the knee flexes, or setting an object down gently (the arm flexors must be active to control the fall of the object). 19. Concentric When a muscle is activated and required to lift a load, which is less than the maximum tetanic tension it can generate, the muscle begins to shorten. Contractions that permit the muscle to shorten are referred to as concentric contractions. An example of a concentric contraction in the raising of a weight during a bicep curl. 20. Proprioceptors are sensors that provide information about joint angle, muscle length, and muscle tension, which is integrated to give information about the position of the limb in space. 21. Muscle Spindles The muscle spindle is one type of proprioceptor that provides information about changes in muscle length. 22. Golgi Tendons Aka the Golgi organ (also called Golgi tendon organ, GTO) senses changes in muscle tension. 23. Neuromuscular Junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle. Answer the following in the corresponding table. Post when finished. Using your mouse, single left click in the table to begin typing. Save to your computer when finished and post. Using your book, label AO of skeletal muscle A. Bone B. Tendon C. Muscular fascia D. Epimysium E. Perimysium F. Endomysium G. Perimysium H. Nucleus I. Sarcoplasmic reticulum J. Myofibril K. Filaments L. Sarcolemma M. Muscle fiber N. Blood vessel O. Fascicle Using your book, label ACCC of the skeleton A. Trapezius B. Latissimus dorsi C. Serratus anterior D. External oblique E. Rectus F. Tensor fasciae G. Sartorius H. Rectus femoris abdominus latae I. Adductor longus J. Vastus Lateralis K. Fibularis longus L. Tibialis anterior M. Extensor N. Soleus O. Gastrocnemius P. Vastus medialis digitorum longus Q. Gracilis R. Brachioradialis S. Brachialis T. Biceps brachii U. Pectoralis major V. Deltoid W. X. Orbicularis oris Sternocleidomastoid Y. Masseter Z. Zygomaticus AA. Orbicularis BB. Frontalis oculi CC. Lateral head of DD. Temporalis EE. Occipitalis FF. triceps brachi Sternocleidomastoid GG. Trapezius HH. Deltoid II. Teres minor JJ. Teres major KK. Triceps brachii LL. Brachioradialis MM. Biceps femoris NN. Semitendinosus OO. PP. Gastrocnemius QQ Calcaneal RR. Soleus Semimembranosus tendon SS. Fibularis longus TT. Sartorius UU. Vastus lateralis VV. Gracilis covered by fascia WW. Abductor XX. Gluteus YY. Gluteus medius ZZ. External magnus maximus oblique AAA. Latissimus BBB. Rhomboid CCC. Infraspinatus dorsi
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'