Assignment 3 HS 201
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Seidler on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HS 201 at Marshall University taught by McIlvain, Gary in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro Appl Anat & Physiol in Nursing and Health Sciences at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Terminology Chapters 35 Define each word/term using your text book and/or video labeled “Krebs cycle – electron transport system” and label the pictures below and post. 1. Cell Membrane the selectively permeable outer boundary of a cell consisting of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. 2. Mitochondria organelle housing enzymes that catalyze the aerobic reactions of cellular respiration. 3. Passive Mechanisms of Movement Movements of substances into or out of the cells; do not require energy. The passive mechanisms of movement include: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration. 4. Active Mechanisms of Movement Transport of substances across the cell membrane; requires energy. The active mechanisms of moment include: active transport, endocytosis (pinocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis), and exocytosis. 5. Isotonic (with regard to fluid pressure) solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 6. Hypertonic (with regard to fluid pressure) Solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 7. Hypotonic (with regard to fluid pressure) Solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution (usually body fluids) to which it is compared. 8. Endocytosis molecules or other particles that are too large to enter a cell by diffusion or active transport are conveyed in a vesicle that forms from a portion of the cell membrane. 9. Exocytosis Reverse process of endocytosis; secretes a substance stored in a vesicle from the cell. 10. Phagocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solids. 11. Briefly describe the four cell phases of the cell cycle 1. Prophase: Stage when chromosomes become visible when stained and viewed under a microscope. 2. Metaphase: Stage when the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell. 3. Anaphase: Stage where replicated chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. 4. Telophase: Stage when newly formed cells separate. 12. Mitosis Division of a somatic cell, forming two genetically identical somatic cells. 13. Apoptosis Programmed cell death. 14. Anabolism Synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones; anabolic metabolism. 15. Catabolism The breakdown of larger molecules; catabolic metabolism. 16. Enzyme Protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction. 17. Oxidation Process by which oxygen combines with another chemical; removal of hydrogen or loss of electrons; opposite of reduction. 18. Glycolysis The energyreleasing breakdown of glucose to produce two pyruvate acid molecules and a net of two ATP. 19. ATP aka Adenosine triphosphate; is an organic molecule that transfers energy, used in cellular respiration. 20. ADP aka adenosine diphosphate; is an ATP molecule that has lost its terminal phosphate; organic molecule that is utilized during metabolism. This means energy has been released. 21. Aerobic respiration Complete, energyreleasing, breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen. 22. FAD aka flavin adenine dinucleotide; an important coenzyme (along with NAD), serving to carry chemical functional groups that are needed for enzyme activity. This molecule carries highenergy electrons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport system, where its energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. 23. NAD aka nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; an important coenzyme (along with FAD), serving to carry chemical functional groups that are needed for enzyme activity. This molecule carries highenergy electrons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport system, where its energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. 24. Genes Part of a DNA molecule that encodes information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or tRNA or rRNA; the unit of inheritance. 25. Genome Complete set of genetic instructions for an organism. 26. Briefly describe protein synthesis 1. Transcription: Before the synthesis of a protein begins, the corresponding RNA molecule is produced by RNA transcription. One strand of the DNA double helix is then used used as a template by the RNA polymerase, to synthesize a messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. During this step, mRNA goes through different types of maturation including one called splicing when the noncoding sequences are eliminated. The coding mRNA sequence can be described as a unit of three nucleotides called a codon. 2. Translation: The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG) that is recognized only by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating translation and releasing the complete polypeptide from the ribosome. 27. List the four major tissue types and briefly describe each Epithelial: tissue that functions to protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete. This tissue covers the body’s surface, covers and lines internal organs, and composes glands. Connective: tissue that functions as a support system, binds, protects, fills spaces, stores fat, and produces blood cells. The connective tissue is widely distributed throughout the body. Muscle: Tissue that helps aid in movement. This tissue is attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, and also in the heart. Nervous: tissue that conducts impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception. This tissue is located in the brain, nerves, and spinal cord. 28. Fibrocartilage The strongest and most durable cartilage; made up of cartilage cells and many collagenous fibers. 29. Hyaline Cartilage (articular cartilage) Cartilage that covers the ends of bones in synovial joints.
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