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intro into equine

by: Bella Kitchens

intro into equine 211

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > 211 > intro into equine
Bella Kitchens
LA Tech
GPA 3.0

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Notes from entire class
Intro to equine
Dr. Laura Gentry
equine, evolution, Horse
75 ?




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This 49 page Bundle was uploaded by Bella Kitchens on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 211 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Laura Gentry in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
intro into equine 12/16/2014 ▯ `Horses in Louisiana  Average amount spent to purchase horse in mid 2000’s was $6900  Average owner spends at least $4000/year on tack, feed, equipment, vet supplies and medicine  Estimated expenditures of $800 M with estimated total economic impact of $1.4 B Future of the horse industry  Major ag based industry combining business, sport, and recreation  More people involved than ever o Equestrian activities o Equine organizations o Books and videos o Equipment and apparel o Research ▯ ▯ Equine terminology/activities  mare  stallion  gelding  foal  filly  colt  weanling  yearling  herd  a band of broodmares  gait  near side- left side of horse  off side- right side of horse  farrier ▯ activities  recreation  showing  racing  rodeo  polo  fox hunting  driving  theraphy  gymkhanas  summer camps  4-H ▯ recreation  pleasure riding  trail riding – local, regional, and national associations ▯ horse show  what is a horse show o competition in which a variety of equine classes are found o class- a group of competitors competing under the same criteria and rules against one another  English o Hunter under saddle o Hunt seat equitation o Hunt seat equitation over fences o Working hunter o Jumper o dressage  hunter division o judge horse against certain requirements needed by fox- hunting animals o horse should be built to carry a rider comfortable and handily across country o working hunters perform either on the flat or over fences  jumper division o open to any horse of any breed size or gender o objective is to clear obstacles cleanly style and grace are irrelevant  saddle- horse division o gaited horses which perform at various gaits  harness division o horses pull light vehicles and display a flashy high actioned pace similar to gaited horse  dressage o the development of the horse’s physical and mental condition aimed at improving its natural gaits and perfect understanding with its riders. ▯ western  halter –confirmation is judged  showmanship- tests exhibitors ability to show their horse in the halter  western pleasure- judged on true and comfortable gaits, alert but calm disposition and a pleasurable ride  western riding – pattern involved changing gaits at a specific points in executed  western horsemanship (equitation)- tests riders body position, form, and how well they control their horse  trail- horses ability to cope with a variety of obstacles found on a trail ride  reining- horse demonstrates athletic ability and responsiveness needed to be a superior working stock horses  working cow horse- tests horses reining ability and cow sense  cutting- come from actual ranch work to separate a specific cow from the herd ▯ rodeo  Spanish for roundup  Over 500 professional rodeos sanctioned by the rodeo cowboys association o Bareback bronc riding o Saddle bronc riding o Bull riding o Bulldoggings (steer wrestling) o Calf roping o Timed events ▯ Gymkhana  Equestrian event consisting of speed and timed gaits Polo  Game which demands concentration timing and teamwork of the person as well as stamina and hardiness of the hors ▯ Fox hunting  146 hunt in U.S. and Canada in which fox are hunted from horseback with the use of dogs ▯ driving  horses served as driving animals in ag transportation and battle for 3000 years  now the sport of driving is flourishing ▯ 4-h horse clubs/ summer camps ▯ racing  began thousands of years ago o chariot racing  three types o flat o harness o steeple chase ▯ therapeutic riding  designed to offer the benefits of riding to people with disabilities  also called equine assisted therapy or adaptive riding  beneficial for a wide variety of cognitive physical and emotional conditions  programs all across the u.s ▯ work horses  law enforcement  ranch  amish ▯ breed  a group of horses that are selected for their common ancestry and their common characteristics ▯ breeding true  mean that the offspring will almost always have the same characteristics of the parents ▯ breed registries  are the organizations that track horses breeding true or with common ancestry ▯ classification of horses  light draft and pony o divided by use: riding, racing, driving, jumping, utility o classification depends on weight and height o height is measures in hands (4 inches)  hotblood, warmblood, or coldblood o refers to overall temperament o hotbloods  Arabians only true hotblood  Tb considered hotblood because directly descended from Arab blood o Coldblood  Heavy solid horses with calm temperments  Draft horses o Warmblood  Horses with some eastern blood  Some say all light horses  Some say between a hotblood and coldblood ▯ Warm bloods  Mixture between cold and hot in o Body o Temperament  Sport horses  Riding driving ect  3 phase eventing ▯ cob or hack  cob o sturdy placid horse standing 14.2-15.2 hands o usually draft cross  hack o enjoyable good riding or harness horse ▯ light horses  Arabian o Oldest and purest of all breeds o Characteristic refined head and dished profile  Andalusian/ lusitano o Originated in Spain and Portugal o Dressage, cattle work, mounted bullfighting  Appaloosa o Color breed-spotted  Leopard, spotted blanket, frost, snowflake, white blanket, marble o Traces back to Spanish conquistadors and were prized by the Nez Perce’ Indians  Lipizzaner o Spanish bloodlines of Austria o Best suited for dressage, pleasure, driving, and riding  Missouri fox trotter o Was bred to be suited to the conditions of the Ozark hills region of Missouri o Needed a horse that could be ridden for long periods over rough terrain  Morgan o Traces back to one stallion : Justin Morgan o Named after a music teacher in Vermont  Mustang o Wild horse of north America o Tough, adaptable, clever: trail riding  American quarter horse o Excels at racing short distances the quarter mile o Brought to America by the Spanish conquistadores and bred for all around work  Peruvian paso o Originated from horses introduced to South America by the Spaniard o Natural preference for lateral gait and the horses forelegs are out to the side as he moves  American standardbred o Harness racing o Foundation sire- messenger (English thoroughbred) o Used to upgrade trotters and pacers  Saddlebred th o Developed by early 19 century settlers in southern states of north America o Formerly known as the “Kentucky saddler”  Tennessee walking horse o Developed as an exceptionally comfortable riding horse o Flat foot walk, running walk, and canter are inherited  Thoroughbred o World supreme race horse o Byerley turk, darley Arabian, and godolphin Arabian-founding fathers of TB  Cleveland bay o Originally bred to produce a fine coach horse, renowned for its active pace and great stamina o Descends from horses bred in NE England since medieval times  Danish warmblood o Specifically developed for use in competitive sports such as dressage or show jumping  Dutch warmblood o Highly successful leisure and competition horse of the Netherlands o Quality horse with a very good temperament  Friesian o One of Europe’s oldest horse o Very noble so ideal for ceremonial occasions  Hanoverian o German warmblood developed from tb’s and trakehners o Noted for strength, used in dressage and show jumping  Holstein o One of the oldest of German warmbloods o Originally prized as tough, active carriage horses o Very successful in dressage and show jumping  Oldenburg o Germany’s heaviest type of warmblood o Count Anton Gunther von Oldenburg played a leading role in its development  Trakehner o Closest warmblood in appearance the Tb  Organized breeding started in 1732 in Prussia (now part of Poland)  ▯ Draft breeds  Cold bloods o Description: draft horse 14.2-17.2 hands 1400+ pounds o Temperament: much calmer/easier going than light breeds o Uses: farming driving and the police o Typical breeds: Clydesdale, percheron, English shire, Belgian draft horse  Belgian o Originated in Belgium o Known as the gentle giant due to a kind nature and a willingness to work  Clydesdale o From Scotland o Very docile elegant and exceptionally sound  Percheron o Originated in La Perche in the south of Normandy o Known for great strength and courage o War, carriage, and field  Shire o Descends from the medieval warhorse known as the “great horse” and is England’s most magnificent heavy horse o Characteristic roman nose and docile expression  Suffolk o Britians oldest heavy breed o Also called the Suffolk Punch o All come from a single stallion “Crisp’s horse of Ufford” ▯ Pony breeds  Ponies o Lass than 14.2 hands between 500-900 pounds o Temperament dependent on breed and individual o Riding driving o Shetland welsh pony of the Americas  Haflinger o From Austria o Small powerfully built o Always chestnut colored due to inbreeding  Exmoor o Oldest of britians mountain breeds o One of the oldest breeds in the world o Very strong and hardy  Shetland pony o Smallest of british native breeds o One of the strongest in the world in relation to its size o Strong willed but intelligent  Welsh cob pony o Larger version of the welsh mountain pony o Tough sound spirited and courageous  Connemara o Considered the best performance pony in the world o From Ireland  Fjord o From Norway o Both mane and tail have black hairs in the center and silver on the outside ▯ Miniature horses  To be register they have to be less than 34 inches  ▯ Horse colors  Appaloosa o Mottles skin o Vertically stripped hooves o Shorter thinner mane and tail o Coat patterns  Blanket  Leopard  Other variations  May occur with any body color  Palomino o Color breed o Dilution of chestnut o Golden body but may range from very light to dark golden o Flaxen mane and tail  Paints- tobiano o Usually has head markings like a solid colored horse regular and distinct markings round or over patterns  Paints- overo o Will often have a bald face: tail is often one color, white does not cross the back o White is splotchy or irregular  paints- tovero o dark pigment around ears and mouth; spots on chest and or flank; one or more blue eyes  buckskin o dark points o dorsal strip? It is not necessary for registering your buckskin but is allowed o dun? Just a lighted shade of buckskin so says the registry more of a color and not a color breed  dun o dilution of a dark bay or seal brown o sooty yellows to yellow red body o black points and usually a dorsal stripe o is a dilution  buckskin o dilution of lighter shades of bay o clear to light yellow to dark cream with black points  genetics  basically all horses are genetically black or red other genes modify or the expression of those colors(modifier genes) diluting them or adding white markings  black  no brown at muzzle or flanks EVER  relatively rare  most black horses should really be registered as dark bay or brown  brown/seal brown  modification of black  brown hairs on flank muzzle eyes tips of ears  hints of red hair can be light or dark seal brown  bay  dark points  reddish brown appearance  can be dark bay blood bay light bay  chestnut/sorrel  chestnut – tb term  sorrel – qh term  reddish color  points are not black  grey  mixture of white and colored hairs  dappled  flea-bitten  born solid, dark color  get whiter with age  roans  uniform mixture of white hairs with other solid color  blue roan  red roan  bay roan  white  born white – always white  pink skin under the white; evidence around the eyes  eye color can be brown, hazel, or blue  modifications/ dultions  cremello: modified chestnut  perlino: modified black or bay  grulla: dilution of black hairs(black horse with dun gene)  buckskin: dilution of bay (lighter body) or brown  dun: dilution of bay(dark body)  palomino: yellow body  grulla  dilution of black and seal brown not a mixture of black and white hair  black points and usually have a dorsal stripe  perlino  double dilution of bay  off-white or pearl body color with rust color on tips of mane and tail and sometimes on lower legs  cremello  double dilution of chestnut  off-white or cream body with lighter mane and tail o Genetics and alleles  W(W,w) o Determines pigment o W=horse not able to form pigment o W_ = pink skin white hair blue brown eyes albino o All non-white horses are ww  G(G,g) o G_= causes horses to become grey  If horse not gray or white then must decide if it has black pigmented hairs  E(E,e) o Controls black hair; contains instructions for placing black pigment in hair o E= black pigment in the hair(black or bay) o e= no black pigment in the hair(red)  A(A,a) o Determines distribution pattern of black hair o Decided if E horse is black or bay  A_E_ = bay  aaE_ = not bay(black)  __ee = Red  C = cream, causes pigment dilution o Palomino o Buckskin o Cremello o Perlino  D= dun o Dilutes body color only, not points  Dilution genes o RN = roan o Apl = appaloosa o TO = controls Tobiano o F = flaxen mane and tail o Determining age  Best way is with good records  Using teeth to determine age is an old practice o Becomes harder as the horse ages o Feed, environment, heredity, disease o Stabled horses appear younger than range horses (usually)  Should look at desired use  Prime age is 4-12 years  Average lifespan 24 years but can live to be 30+  4 key changes in the teeth o occurrence of permanent teeth o disappearance of cups o angle of incidence o shape of surface teeth  occurrence of permanent teeth o horses have two sets of teeth  temporary and permanent o temporary ot baby and milk teeth o temporary incisors erupt at 8 days 8 weeks and 8 months  temporary teeth o more refined neck where crown and root meet at the gum line o whiter in color o more rounded and shorter  permanent incisors erupt o first pair central 2.5 years o second pair intermediate 3.5 years o last pair corners 4.5 years  canines or tusks o appear at 4-5 years between incisors and molars of geldings and stallions but seldom mares  disappearance of cups o disappearance of cups  cups= deep indentures in the center of the surfaces of young permanent teeth o order of smoothness in cups  lower central, intermediate, corners o 6.7.8  upper central, intermediate, corners 9, 10 ,11  smooth mouth= 11 years some say 9  as cups disappear dental stars appear o angle of incidence  refers to the angle at which the upper and lower incisors meet o 160-190 degrees in young horses o less than right angle in older horses (incisors slant forward and outward o shape of surface of teeth  shape changes greatly with wear and age  broad and flat around 3-5  oval 6-9  round 9-15  triangular 15-20 o galvayne’s groove  a longitudinal depression which appears at the gum line on the surface of the upper corner incisor at 9-10 years  15 years extends half way down the tooth  20 years extends all the way down  25 years half way gone from tooth  30 years disappears from tooth o measuring horses  height and weight are influence by age breed, type, sex, nutrition  height measures in hands o 1 hand is four inches o measured on level ground from top of withers to ground with the horse is set up square o can use height stick or measuring tape  weight o influenced by breed, type, age, nutrition o importance for determining:  amount of feed needed and adequacy of feeding program  potential health issues  optimal training and competing  proper medication  proper deworming o most people underestimate weight o use scale (horse or truck), weight tape, girth measurement tables, formula:  [(HG^2 x L)/330] = body weight in pounds for adults  HG – 25.1/0.07 = body weight foals 1-6 weeks of age  ** heart girth(HG) and length(L) measured in inches o heart girth can be used  some tapes give a direct reading of girth to weight or can use a table to get estimate  nomograms – 2D diagram allowing approximate graphical computation of a function o seeking help/advice  friends  4H club leaders/extension  vets  farriers  ranchers  trainers  proffessors/teachers o locating a horse  friends  advertisements  dealers  trainers  farms o things to consider  level of involvement o own a horse  own residence  boarding facility o take lessons o rent a horse o lease and board a horse o taking ownership  are you experience or inexperienced? o Inexperienced  Disposition, training, soundness will be important o Experienced  Pedigree and performance may be most important  Performance record – record of actual ability and production of the horse or its offspring o Must ask – why are you purchasing a horse? For investment or pleasure? o Investment  Race, show prospect for breeding  Should use a professional with well respected credentials and trustworthy o Pleasure  Money spent for enjoyment not profit. Horse require daily upkeep so selecting the right horse is very important  o Parasites and diseases (not on test for Thursday)(for test 3) o o Thursdays  Breeds  Colors and marking  Age height and weight  Selection and buying  Basic genetics  Vet care  Breed id o o Disease  Infectious o Pathogen in the environment o Other animals o Parasitic, bacterial, and viral  Non-infectious o Environmental condition; management o Genetic o Nutritional o Often not cured by medication  Examples o Herda  Skin falls off o rain rot o hypp o disease control  sanitation o keep flies away o keep facilities clean o change out feed and water buckets daily o wash feed and water buckets at least weekly o disinfect stalls regularly, especially after a horse moves out of a stall, or after and illness  isolation o new arrivals o sick horses  cleaning bits, grooming equipment, tack, ect. o Respiratory illness  Lethargy  Nasal discharge  Pus in eye  Cough  Fever o Common respiratory diseases  Rhinopneumonitis o Equine herpes virus types 1 and 4  Nasal discharge  Abort in the 8 or 11 month or weak foal  Influenza o High fever o Cough o Nasal discharge  Rhodococcus o Foal pneumonia  Strangles o Streptococcus bacterium  Young horses most susceptible  High temperature  Abscesses  Vaccination when epidemic  Tetnus o Lock jaw o Caused by clostridium tetani o Nerve-tissue poison  Botulism o Clostridium botulinum o Shaker foal syndrome o Adults exhibit paralysis o Staggers  Encephalomyelitis o Sleeping sickness o Fever o Trouble seeing o Stagger o (wee, eee, vee) Western, eastern, Venezuelan  equine infectious anemia (eia) o swamp fever o viral disease o fever o anemia o weight loss o edema o death o coggins test o supposed to incinerate the corpse and supposed to euthanize the horse o test for the antibodies not the virus  west nile virus o systems develop between 3-14 days after being bitten by affected mosquito o ataxia o depression o weakness of limbs o partial paralysis o death  equine protozoal myeloencephalitis o water and feed contaminated by protozoa o muscle atrophy ataxia o similar to other problems o treatment is very expensive common vaccines Eastern western encephalomyelitis annual tetanus Annual and time of injury rhinopneumonitis 5,7, and 9 months of OB, annually West nile virus Check for epidemic, annual influenza Annually or more often in high risk situation ▯ equine notes you missed: ▯ ▯ ▯ Parasites-  small organisms that live on or in a host organism and derive their food from it.  Can be beneficial or detrimental  Must control harmful parasites ▯ ▯ Parasite infestations  Symptoms- o weight loss, o behavior, o see them in manure, o rub their butts, o real bushy tail head, o fever, o dull hair coat, o hair loss, o bloated, o etc., o pot belly, o weakness, o poor body condition, o emaciation o tucked up flanks, o rough hair coat, o slow growth. ▯ Can cause death. ▯ Reduced growth ▯ Reduced performance ▯ Reduced digestive efficiency ▯ Lower visual appeal ▯ Damage to organs ▯ Can be fatal ▯ ▯ ▯ Types of parasites ▯ Internal ▯ External ▯ ▯ ▯ Internal: ▯ Ascarids (roundworms)  Among the largest parasites.  Problem in young horses, older horses develop immunity.  Damage the liver, heart, lungs and can block small capillaries and blood vessels.  Coughing and nasal secretions seen in infected foals.  Ascarid eggs very resistant to environmental conditions and can live for years.  Keep environment free from egg contamination and deworm. ▯ ▯ ▯ Strongyles  54 species of large and small strongyles infest horses.  Small strongyles less pathogenic than large species.  Large strongyles cause arterial damage and development of small blood clots in arteries.  Control is based on life cycle  Grazing with cattle and sheep helpful  Routine deworming ▯ ▯ ▯ Pinworms ▯ Not very damaging to the horse. ▯ Causes itching sensation around the anus area, so horse rubs tail. ▯ ▯ ▯ Threadworms ▯ Foals very susceptible. ▯ Causes "foal heat scours" (diarrhea) in young foals. ▯ Disappears when foal acquires immunity (~6 months old). ▯ ▯ ▯ Stomach worms ▯ Attach to stomach wall (or remain free). ▯ Responsible for "summer sores". ▯ ▯ ▯ Stomach bots ▯ 3 species of botflies affect horses ▯ Cause damage to stomach ▯ Adult botfly ▯ Bot infestation in stomach ▯ Fatal peritonitis due to bot infestation ▯ ▯ ▯ Tapeworms ▯ Infestation frequency is low in most areas. ▯ Horse doesn't usually show clinical symptoms. ▯ ▯ Parasite control  Fecal removal and disposal  Regular deworming  Pasture rotation and management  Keep fly populations to a minimum ▯ Dewormers  Ivermectin very populate, kills invading larvae  Benzimidazoles (fenbendazole etc) very good except for bots and stomach worms  Organophosphates good for bots and stomach worms  Resistance is always a threat ▯ External parasites o Ticks  lice  mites  chiggers  gnats  mosquitos  flies ▯ ▯ general nutrition ▯ ▯ nutrition  the science of ho w the body uses nutrients in feed to sustain life and for productive purposes ▯ nutrient  any chemical substance in the diet that supports or maintains life processes  essential nutrient o a nutrient that is required in the diet o carbohydrates (cho) (energy) o protein (energy) o fats/lipids (energy) (2.25x) o vitamins o minerals o water  proper nutrition is essential for proper functioning of various activities in the body. Nutrition influences growth, reproduction, lactation, carcass traits, and general health of the animal ▯ water (general)  most abundant/cheapest nutrient  sources include o drinking it o feedstuff o metabolic water (by products of reaction in cells) ▯ water (functional)  transport nutrients/compounds  biochemical reactions in the cell  regulation of body temperature  solvents for solid components  lubricates and cushions the joints ▯ carbohydrates (CHO)  includes sugars, starch (easily digestible), cellulose (structural, so less digestible)  stored as glycogen in animals  primary use is to provide the animal with energy ▯ protein (general)  long chains of amino acids (building blocks)  made up of C, H, O2, N and S  crude protein o %N in feed x 6.25 o protein is ~16% N so (100/16) = 6.25 o protein is the most expensive nutrient  non protein nitrogen sources o urea o biuret o feed to ruminants to make a protein but only in ruminants ▯ protein (functions)  basic structural unit  components of lean tissue  metabolism o enzymes o protein hormones o immune system  energy ▯ lipids/fats (general)  esters of fatty acids and glycerol  provide 2.25x more energy than carbohydrates or proteins on an equal weight basis  essential fatty acids ▯ lipids/fats (functional)  energy supply  heat, insulation, and protection  provides essential fatty acids  necessary for the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins o D o A o E o K ▯ Vitamins (general)  Organic compounds  Needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance of animals  Necessary for metabolic reactions in cell (coenzymes or prosthetic groups) ▯ Vitamins (functions)  Fat soluble vitamins o Regulation of body functions o Vision (a) o Blood clotting (K) o Tissue maintenance (e) o Bone development(d)  Water soluble o Body metabolic regulation ▯ Minerals  Inorganic components (bones/teeth)  Very important part of the body’s enzyme systems (Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, P)  Serve in mineral/vitamin inter-relationships (vita. E/Se; B12/Co)  Maintain acid-base balance (Na, Cl, K) ▯ The gastrointestinal tract and nutrition  Steps in digestions o Prehension  Process by which the animal brings food into its mouth by biting and grasping o Mastication  Process of chewing food to mechanically reduce size of food particles o Salivation  The mixing of saliva with food during mastication o Deglutition  The passing of food to the stomach by peristaltic waves of muscle contraction o Digestion  Stomach and intestines  In the stomach HCl and various enzymes are secreted  Mixed with food to begin chemical breakdown of feed  Peristaltic contractions cause a churning of food to create a mixing effect  Once food passes stomach it enters the small intestine where further digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs  MAJORITY OF DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OCCURS IN SMALL INTESTINE ▯ Small intestine  Duodenum o Bile and pancreatic enzymes are secreted and is a major site of chemical breakdown of food  Jejunum o Longest part of the small intestine o Main function is absorption of nutrients into the blood stream  Ileum o Some absorption occurs, but primarily it serves as the connection to the large intestine ▯ Large intestine  Consists of three parts o Colon o Caecum o Rectum  Function is to scavenge water, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and VFA’s (volatile fatty acids) ▯ HORSE IS A NON RUMINANT HERBIVOR OR A HIND GUT FERMINTER ▯ ▯ Monogastric digestion  Chewing o Some amylase added through saliva  Stomach o Acid breakdown of food particles. Some protein degradation through action of pepsin (enzyme) secreted in gastric juices  Small intestine o Pancreatic secretions include trypsin and peptidase degrades protein to amino acids o amylase maltase and sucrose converts starch and sugars into glucose o lipase converts fats into fatty acids o bile also aids in fat and fat soluble vitamin absorption ▯ horse digestion  stomach o small so feeding is frequent in contrast to ruminants  small intestine o major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients  large intestine (cecum/colon) o microbial fermentation takes place o hindgut fermenter o vfa’s absorbed and used for energy o microbial protein not utilized much by horse ▯ 30-70% of horses energy needs can be met through VFA’s ▯ ▯ coprophagy  eating feces by horse usually due to severe protein deficient diet ▯ horse is less efficient than ruminants in feed utilization and therefore must have better quality feed (protein) ▯ ▯ horse behavior ▯ ▯ temperament  temperament is an important quality why?  Qualities of a good tempered horse o Obedient o Intelligent o Trainable o Courageous o Confident o Calm ▯ How can we determine a horse temperament  Observe it  Handle it  Ask (owner, trainer, breeder)  Number of previous owners ▯ Temperament types  Quiet  Interested  Nervous  Extremely nervous  Stubborn  Treacherous ▯ Quiet  Usually sluggish and uninterested in its surrounding  Good for very inexperienced horseperson or for rental stables  Seldom trained to a high level  Lacks style and spirit ▯ Interested  Most desirable  Horse pays attention to surrounding but isn’t freakish  Trainable and willing  Usually shows style and some spirit  Good for most riders with some experience ▯ Nervous  Easily excitable  Responds to training  Needs experienced rider  Usually gets better as gets older and with more exposure to things ▯ Extremely nervous  Need very experienced horseperson with lots of patience  Usually has no concern for own safety or that of the handler  Hard to change ▯ Stubborn  Difficult to train o Slow to learn o Becomes sullen when tired or scared  Requires a lot of patience ▯ Treacherous  Mean and resentful o If previously abused, motivated by fear and gives lots of warnings before trying to hurt o If spoiled, motivated to get its way and doesn’t give much notice before strikes!! Usually due to inexperienced handler ▯ Ethology  The study of the behavior of animals in their natural surroundings with focus on innate behavior o A relatively new area of animal science o Need to apply ethology to handle animals  Understanding behavior means safety  Address animal welfare issues ▯ Basic behavioral traits (livestock in general)  Gregariousness  SDO (social dominance order)  Promiscuous matings  Precocial young  Adaptability  Limited agility/ docile temperament ▯ Areas of study in animal behavior  Communication  Aggression and social structure  Biological rhythms and sleep  Sexual behavior  Maternal behavior ▯ Reactive behavior  Simple reflex  Communications o Visual o Auditory o Tactile o Olfactory  Shelter seeking  Visual o Field of vision ~220 degrees for each eye  Blind spots directly in front and behind o Horses see out of each eye independently (monocular) o Generally have poor vision so raises and lowers head to increase range of vision  Trouble judging height and distance  ▯ Reactive behavior  Hearing o Very good in most horses  Rotate ears o Can hear high tones we can’t hear  Touch o Horses skin very specialized  Can detect cold hot hard soft etc  Some can detect electric fencing with lip hairs o Most sensitive spots are mouth feet flanks neck and shoulders  Use different grooming supplies on different areas of body  Smell o Most animals have a very good sense of smell o Stallion can detect mares in estrus from far away o Good idea to let them smell you, tack, surroundings, ect before attempting to train or use ▯ Aggression and social structure  Involved in obtaining food, mates, securing place in the herd. “pecking order” or “alpha” animal o Dominance hierarchies  Introduction of two strange horses  Head high, tails up, necks arched, ears erect and then flat, nostrils flared. May squeal, rear, strike, kick  Make introductions slowly  Once dominance established, only subtle threats needed to maintain it ▯ Social structure  Social attachments occur and can become very strong o If very strong, can be quite traumatic if separated o Hard to manage so should try to keep the attachments from becoming too strong ▯ Sexual behavior  Involves courtship, mating, and maternal behavior  Controlled by hormones, but some is learned  Can be affected by way animals are reared or the environment ▯ Epimeletic/ et- epimeletic behavior  Epimeletic – care giving or attention  Et-epimeletic- signaling for care and attention o Both are very common in horses  Epimeletic behavior o Displayed several ways  Mutual grooming: nibble each other in areas of neck, base of neck, withers, back, croup. Most tend to have regular grooming partners, useful for handling untrained horses  Standing head to tail: swat flies for each other  Huddle together: had weather or danger  Et-epimeletic behavior o Used by all age groups o Most frequently observed when horses are separated from each other  Mares with foals  Horses with strong attachments/bonds Grooming behavior  Love to roll then stand and shake  To remove insects or flies o Contract muscles o Use head on legs, shoulder, belly o Use tail o Use hind leg and fore legs o Rub on fixed object or scratch itself with teeth or hind legs ▯ Investigative behavior  Horses inspection of environment by use of the senses and movement  Most horses are very curious o Will either investigate or flee o If not allowed to investigate will be nervous and apprehensive ▯ Elimination/urination behavior  Urinates every 4-6 hours o Most will urinate in stall or trailer but some wont o Some will urinate in same location because it becomes soft and doesn’t splatter  Defecates every 2-3 hours o Increases when nervous o Stallions tend to defecate in a small area mare/geldings have no preference ▯ Mimicry  Mimicry is common among horses o Learn to copy other horses at young age o Could be good or bad  When one group starts playing others start playing  Wind sucking, chewing wood, becoming hard to catch can be learned from others ▯ Play behavior  Horses enjoy playing o Running bucking tossing head chasing other horses o Play with objects in stall or pasture  Sticks balls hanging objects ▯ Sleep behavior  Horses sleep standing up o ~3 hours per day o stay apparatus: system of tendons and ligaments that lock their legs o survival mechanism  horse spends about 2 hours per day lying down o off and on ▯ abnormal behavior  vices (bad habits) o aggressive vices  charging  kicking  biting  bucking  striking o flights responses  rearing  balking  shying  halter pulling  running away o stall vices  kicking  wood chewing  cribbing  weaving  stall walking  bolting feed  pawing  tail rubbing  eating bedding/ dirt ▯


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