Week 2; Day 6 Notes: Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Polyatomic Ions.
Week 2; Day 6 Notes: Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Polyatomic Ions. Chemistry 101
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chemistry 101 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by George Vater Olsen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Week 2: Periodic Table: Green = metals. Orange = metalloids: metal/nonmetal. Blue = nonmetals. Fluorine = most electronegative on periodic table. Covalent Bond: a bond formed by atoms SHARING electrons. Form from nonmetals and sometimes metalloids. No charge. No ions. Sharing electrons. Softer solid, liquids, or gases. Often not soluble in water. Example 1: Single Bond Example 2: Double Bond Example 3: Triple Bond Remember : Use prefixes. First element never starts with mono. All end in “ide”. Electronegativity : the ability of an atom to ATTRACT shared electrons. Example 1: Hydrogen 2.1 Oxygen 3.5 The electrons are more attracted to the atom with the higher electronegativity. Electrons spend most of their time around the stronger atom rather than the weaker atom. When the electrons spend more time in one area of the bond it creates a slight negative charge. Which in conclusion, creates a slight positive charge in the other. Polarity: separation of charges. Polar Covalent Bond : a covalent bond in which two atoms have DIFFERENT ELECTRONEGATIVITIES, causing a SEPARATION OF CHARGES. Non Polar Covalent Bond : a covalent bond in which the two atoms have IDENTICAL OR VERY SIMILAR ELECTRONEGATIVITIES, so that the CHARGES ARE DISTRIBUTED EVENLY. Example 1: Hydrogen 2.1 Sulfur 2.5 The difference here is so tiny that the electrons are still evenly distributed. Covalent bonds are being shared. Ionic Bond: atomic bonds created by the attraction of two differently charged ions. Basically, a bond formed by the TRANSFER of electrons from one atom to another. Has a cation (+) and anion () (m etal and nonmetal ). Charges need to be balanced. Needs lowest common denominator. Transition metal need roman numerals to show charge. Ending: second element ends in “ide”. Structure of bond is often rigid, strong, and often crystalline and solid. Soluble in water. Example 1: Sodium +1 Chloride 1 These two create Sodium Chlori de. Example 2: Magnesium +2 Nitrogen 3 Mg3N2 These two create Magnesium Nitri de. Example 3: Magnesium +2 Chloride 1 MgCl2. These two create Magnesium Chlor ide Example 4: Sodium +1 Oxygen 2 Na2O These two create Sodium Ox ide. This periodic table should help you determine what element has what type of charge. Type Of Bond: Difference Of Electronegativity: 1. Nonpolar Covalent → 1. Zero 2. Polar Covalent → 2. Low 3. Ionic → 3. High Polyatomic Ions: a group of atoms that has a charge. Poly = many. Example 1: Ammonium Protons (+): 11 Electrons (): 10 So this has a positive charge of +1. NH4+ → This is also called a cation (positive ion). Example 2: Carbonate Protons (+): 30 Electrons (): 32 So this has a negative charge of 2 CO3 2 → This is also called an a nion (negative ion). Polyatomic ions are ions which consist of more than one atom. Example: nitrate ion, NO3 This polyatomic ion contains one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. Polyatomic ions are usually covalently bonded to one another. They stay together as a single, charged unit. Rules: “ite” (2 oxygen) has the same charge but one less oxygen than the corresponding “ate”. “phate” and/or “fate” has 4 oxygen. “ate” has 3 oxygen. The Most Common Polyatomic Ions: NH4+ : Ammonium H3O+ : Hydronium HCO3 : Bicarbonate CN : Cyanide HSO4 : Hydrogen Sulfate OH : Hydroxide NO3 : Nitrate NO2 : Nitrite ClO4 : Perchlorate MnO4 : Permanganate CO3 2 : Carbonate CrO4 2 : Chromate Cr2O7 2 : Dichromate HPO4 2 : Hydrogen Phosphate SO4 2 : Sulfate SO3 2 : Sulfite S2O3 2 : Thiosulfate PO4 3 : Phosphate
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