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Week 2; Day 6 Notes: Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Polyatomic Ions.

by: Becca LeBoeuf

Week 2; Day 6 Notes: Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Polyatomic Ions. Chemistry 101

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh > Chemistry > Chemistry 101 > Week 2 Day 6 Notes Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Polyatomic Ions
Becca LeBoeuf

GPA 3.0

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About this Document

Here are the notes covered from Friday's class. These notes go into detail about covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and polyatomic ions.
General, Organic, Biological Chemistry
George Vater Olsen
#Chemistry #Chem101 #CovalentBonds #IonicBonds #PolyatomicIons
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Monday February 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chemistry 101 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by George Vater Olsen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Week 2:    Periodic Table:  ­ Green = metals.  ­ Orange = metalloids: metal/nonmetal.  ­ Blue = nonmetals.    Fluorine = most electronegative on periodic table.    Covalent Bond: ​ a bond formed by atoms SHARING electrons.  ­ Form from nonmetals and sometimes metalloids.  ­ No charge.  ­ No ions.  ­ Sharing electrons.  ­ Softer solid, liquids, or gases.  ­ Often not soluble in water.    Example 1: Single Bond          Example 2: Double Bond            Example 3: Triple Bond        Remember​ :   ­ Use prefixes.  ­ First element never starts with mono.  ­ All end in “ide”.    Electronegativity​ : the ability of an atom to ATTRACT shared electrons.    Example 1: ​    Hydrogen ­ 2.1  Oxygen ­ 3.5    The electrons are more attracted to the atom with the higher electronegativity. Electrons spend  most of their time around the stronger atom rather than the weaker atom. When the electrons  spend more time in one area of the bond it creates a slight negative charge. Which in  conclusion, creates a slight positive charge in the other.    Polarity:​ separation of charges.    Polar Covalent Bond​ : a covalent bond in which two atoms have DIFFERENT  ELECTRONEGATIVITIES, causing a SEPARATION OF CHARGES.              Non Polar Covalent Bond​ : a covalent bond in which the two atoms have IDENTICAL OR  VERY SIMILAR ELECTRONEGATIVITIES, so that the CHARGES ARE DISTRIBUTED  EVENLY.    Example 1: ​    Hydrogen ­ 2.1  Sulfur ­ 2.5    The difference here is so tiny that the electrons are still evenly distributed.    Covalent bonds are being shared.    Ionic Bond: ​ atomic bonds created by the attraction of two differently charged ions. Basically, a  bond formed by the TRANSFER of electrons from one atom to another.  ­ Has a cation (+) and anion (­) (m ​etal and nonmetal​ ).  ­ Charges need to be balanced.  ­ Needs lowest common denominator.  ­ Transition metal need roman numerals to show charge.  ­ Ending: second element ends in “ide”.  ­ Structure of bond is often rigid, strong, and often crystalline and solid.  ­ Soluble in water.    Example 1: ​    Sodium +1  Chloride ­1    These two create Sodium Chlori de​.    Example 2: ​    Magnesium +2  Nitrogen ­3     Mg3N2    These two create Magnesium Nitri de.​            Example 3: ​    Magnesium +2  Chloride ­1  MgCl2.    These two create Magnesium Chlor​ ide​    Example 4: ​    Sodium +1  Oxygen ­2    Na2O    These two create Sodium Ox​ ide.      This periodic table should help you determine what element has what type of charge.    Type Of Bond: Difference Of Electronegativity:  1. Nonpolar Covalent →  1. Zero  2. Polar Covalent →  2. Low  3. Ionic →  3. High    Polyatomic Ions: a group of atoms that has a charge.  Poly = many.    Example 1: ​    Ammonium      Protons (+): 11 Electrons (­): 10  So this has a positive charge of +1.    NH4+ → This is also called a ​ cation (positive ion).    Example 2:     Carbonate      Protons (+): 30 Electrons (­): 32    So this has a negative charge of ­2     CO3 2­ → This is also called an a​ nion​ (negative ion).    Polyatomic ions are ions which consist of more than one atom.    Example:  nitrate ion, NO3­    This polyatomic ion contains one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. Polyatomic  ions are usually covalently bonded to one another. They stay together as a single,  charged unit.    Rules:  ­ “ite” (2 oxygen) has the same charge but one less oxygen than the corresponding “ate”.  ­ “phate” and/or “fate” has 4 oxygen.  ­ “ate” has 3 oxygen.    The Most Common Polyatomic Ions:  ­ NH4+ : Ammonium  ­ H3O+ : Hydronium  ­ HCO3­ : Bicarbonate  ­ CN­ : Cyanide  ­ HSO4­ : Hydrogen Sulfate  ­ OH­ : Hydroxide  ­ NO3­ : Nitrate  ­ NO2­ : Nitrite  ­ ClO4­ : Perchlorate  ­ MnO4­ : Permanganate  ­ CO3 2­ : Carbonate  ­ CrO4 2­ : Chromate  ­ Cr2O7 2­ : Dichromate  ­ HPO4 2­ : Hydrogen Phosphate  ­ SO4 2­ : Sulfate  ­ SO3 2­ : Sulfite  ­ S2O3 2­ : Thiosulfate  ­ PO4 3­ : Phosphate 


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