Module 2: Chapters 5, 6 & 7.
Module 2: Chapters 5, 6 & 7. Nursing 200
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The First Two Years: Biosocial Development: Growth In Infancy: ● Body Size: ○ Birth weight doubles by month four and triples by 1 year. ○ Average weight at birth: 7.5 pounds. ○ Average length: 20 inches. ● Birth CatchUp: ○ Small babies experience extra gain to catch up to the norm. ● Norms: ○ Defined standards of typical performance by which a child’s development in a variety of domains can be measured. ○ These numbers are norms or average measurements; individuals vary. ● Percentile ○ Number that indicates rank compared to other similar people of the same age. ○ Percentiles range from zero to 100. ● Eat & Sleep: ○ The rate of increasing weight in the first weeks of life makes it obvious why new babies need to be fed, day and night. ● Brain Growth: ○ Twoyearolds are totally dependent on adults, but they have already reached half their adult height and threefourths of their adult brain size. ● HeadSparing: ○ Biological mechanism. ○ Protests the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. ○ Brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition. The Developing Cortex: ● Frontal Cortex: The front part of the cortex assists in planning, selfcontrol, and selfregulation. It is very immature in the newborn. ● Cortex: The crinkled outer layer of the brain is the cortex. ● Auditory Cortex: Hearing is quite acute at birth, the result of months of eavesdropping during the fetal period. ● Visual Cortex: Vision is the least mature sense at birth because the fetus has nothing to see while in the womb. ● The infant’s cortex consists of four to six thin layers of tissue that cover the brain. It contains virtually all the neurons that make conscious thought possible. Hello? Is Anybody There? ● The infant brain actually contains billions of neurons, each with one axon and many dendrites. ● Every electrochemical message to or from the brain causes thousands of neurons to fire each synapse to neighboring neurons. How Two Neurons Communicate? ● Neuron Main part. ● Dendrites Receive messages from other neurons. ● Axon Sends messages to other cells. ● Myelin Covering the axon speeds up transmission of neural impulses. ● Synapse Inbetween the axon and dendrite. Neurotransmitters carry information from one neuron to another. Brain Development: ● Exuberance & Pruning: ○ Specifics of brain structure and growth depends on genes and maturation, but even more on experience. ○ Expansion and pruning of dendrites occur for every aspect of early experience. ○ Unused dendrites whither to allow space between neurons in the brain, allowing more synapses and thus more complex thinking. Experience Shapes The Brain: ● Examples From Twin Studies: ○ Until about 10 months, experienceexpectant circumstances not influenced by SES. ○ After 10 months, genetics vary more than context in highSES families. ● Examples From Bird Brains: ○ Birds inherit genes that produce the brain cells they need to learning new songs or finding hidden seeds. ○ For the dendrites and neurons to connect, birds depend on specific experiences with songlearning or seedfinding. Harming The Infant Brai ● Infants Need Stimulatio ○ Playing, allowing varied sensations, and encouraging movement necessary for brain connections. ● Stress And The Brain ○ Overabundance of stress hormones damage later brain functioning. ● Infants Need Protectio ○ Shaken baby syndrome is a lifethreatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth. This motion ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections. Face Recognition: ● Fusiform Face Area Of Brain: ○ Makes newborn infant adept at face recognition. ● Experiences: ○ Refine face perception and trigger immediate recognition. ● OwnRace Effect: ○ Apparent before first birthday and persists throughout life. Sleep: ● Sleep Specifies Vary Because Of Biology And The Social Environment ○ Newborns sleep about 1517 hours a day, in one to threehour segments. ○ Newborns’ sleep is primaractive slee . ○ Newborns have a high proportionoEM sleep. ● Sleep Problems: ○ First born infants typically receive more attention and this may contribute to sleep problems. ○ Onefourth of parents of children under age three reported sleep problems. ○ Parent reactions to infant sleep shape the baby’s sleep patterns, which in turn affect the parents. ● CoSleeping: ○ Asian and African mothers worry more about separation; European and North American mothers worry more about sex. ○ Pros: ■ Easier response time. ■ Less parental exhaustion. ■ More convenient for breastfeeding. ○ Cons: ■ Higher SID. ■ Ghosts in the nursery phenomenon. ● Awake At Night: ○ Why The Disparity Between Asian And NonAsian Rates Of CoSleeping? ■ It may be that Western parents use a variety of gadgets and objects monitors, night lights, pacifiers, cuddle cloths, sound machines to accomplish the same things Asian parents do by having their infant next to them. Perceiving And Moving: ● Sensory Development: ○ Typically precedes intellectual and motor development. ● Sensation: ○ Response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus. ● Perception: ○ Mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. ● Perception Follows Sensation ○ Infants’ brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and perception occurs. ○ Infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range. ○ The parts of the cortex dedicated to the senses develop rapidly. ● Hearing ○ Develops during the last trimester of pregnancy. ○ Most advanced of the newborn’s senses. ○ Speech perception by 4 months after birth. ● Seeing: ○ Least mature sense at birth. ○ Newborns focus between 4 and 30 inches away. ○ Experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition, visual scanning, and details. ○ Binocular vision at 3 months. ● Smell And Tasting: ○ Function at birth. ○ Rapidly adapt to the social world. ○ Related to family and cultural preferences. ○ May have evolutionary function. ● Touch: ○ Sense of touch is acute in infants. ○ Although all newborns respond to being securely held, soon they prefer specific, touches. ● Pain And Temperature: ○ Pain and temperature are often connected to touch. ○ Some people assume that even the fetus can feel pain. ○ Others say that the sense of pain does not mature until months or years later. Motor Skill: ● Motor Skill: ○ Learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelid. ● Course Of Development: ○ Cephalocaudal (headdown) and proximodistal (centerout) direction. ● Gross Motor Skill: ○ Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping. ● Dynamic Systems Underlying Motor Skills: ○ Three Interacting Elements Underlying Motor Skill ■ Muscle strength. ■ Brain maturation. ■ Practice. ○ The Entire Package Of Sensations And Motor Skills Furthers Three Goals ■ Social interaction. ■ Comfort. ■ Learning. ● Fine Motor Skill: ○ Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin. ○ Shaped by culture and opportunity. Surviving In Good Health ● Statistic : ○ As least 9 billion children were born between 1950 and 2010; more than 2 billion of them died before age 5. ○ World death rate in the first five years of life has dropped about 2 percent per year since 1990. ■ Improvement in clean water, nourishing food, immunization, and medical treatment. Success And Survival: ● Immunization: ○ Primes in the body’s immune system to resist a particular disease. ○ Contributes to reduced mortality and population growth; herd immunity. ● Successes: ○ Smallpox. ○ Polio. ○ Measles. Rotavirus. Surviving In Good Health ● Immunizations Are Unsafe: ○ Embryos exposed to rubella. ○ Newborns. ○ People with compromised immune systems. ● Problems: ○ No effective vaccine found for AIDS, malaria, cholera, typhoid, and shigellosis. ○ Many rural areas of world not reached. Nutritio ● Adequate Nutrition: ○ For every infant disease (including SIDS) breastfeeding reduces risk and malnutrition increases it, stunting growth of body and brain. ○ Breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies, asthma, obesity, and heart disease. ○ As the infant gets older, the composition of breast milk adjusts to the baby’s changing nutritional needs. Surviving In Good Health ● Malnutritio: ○ ProteinCalorie Malnutritio : ■ Condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind that can result in several illnesses, severe weight loss, and even death. ○ Stunting ■ Failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition. ○ Wasting: ■ Tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition. ● Additional Effects Of Chronic Malnutriti: ○ Brains may not develop normally. ○ Protection against common diseases may be reduced. ○ Some diseases result directly from malnutrition. ■ Marasmus. ■ Kwashiorkor. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) : ● Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): ○ Situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, usually between 2 and 6 months old, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep. ○ Beal: Studied SIDS death in South Australia and concluded factors related to increased risk. ■ Sleeping position (back is best). ■ Maternal smoking. ■ Bedding type. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor Intelligence ● Piaget’s term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development. ● Piaget: ○ Infants are active learners. ○ Adaption is the core of intelligence. ○ Cognition develops in four distinct periods. ● Assimilation: ○ Type of adaption in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas. ● Accommodation : ○ Type of adaption in which old ideas are restructured in include, or accommodate, new experiences. ● Stages One And Two: Primary Circular Reactions; Infant’s Responses To His Or Her Own Body : ○ Circular Reactions Interaction of sensation, perception, and cognition. ○ Primary Circular Reactions Two stages of sensorimotor intelligence involving the infant’s own body. ■ Stage 1 (birth to 1 month: Stage of reflexes. ■ Stage 2 (1 to 4 months: First acquire adaptations or habits. ● Infant adapt reflexes through information from repeated responses. ● Stage Three And Four: Secondary Circular Reactions; Infant’s Response To Objects And People: ○ Secondary Circular Reactions: Interaction between baby and something else; mirror neurons begin to function. ■ Stage 3 (4 to 8 months: Attempts to make interesting things last. ■ Stage 4 (6 to 12 months: New adaptation and anticipation; means to the end. ● GoalDirected Behavior purposeful action that benefit from new motor skills resulting from brain maturation. ● Object Permanence : realization that objects or people continue to exist when they are no longer in sight. ● Stages Five And Six: Tertiary Circular Reactions; First With Action And Then With Ideas: ○ Tertiary Circular Reaction: Involves active exploration and experimentation; exploration of range of new activities and variations in responses as way of learning. ■ Stage 5 (12 to 18 months): New means through active exploration. ■ Stage 6 (18 to 24 months): Mental combinations; intellectual experimentation via imagination. Piaget Reevaluated: ● Many infants reach the stages of sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted. ○ Small sample size. ○ Simplistic methods. ○ Unseen brain activity. Some Techniques Used By Neuroscientists To Understand Brain Function: ● EEG (electroencephalogram): Measures electrical activity in the top layers of the brain, where the cortex is. ○ Limitations: Especially in infancy, much brain activity of interest occurs below the cortex. ● ERP (eventrelated potential): Notes the amplitude and frequency of electrical activity in specific parts of the cortex in reaction to various stimuli. ○ Limitations: Reaction within the cortex signifies perception, but interpretation of the amplitude and timing of brain waves is not straightforward. ● fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging): Measures changes in blood flow anywhere in the brain. ○ Limitations: Signifies brain activity, but infants are notoriously active, which can make fMRIs useless. ● PET (positron emission tomography): Also revealed activity in various parts of the brain. Locations can be pinpointed with precision, but PET requires injection of radioactive dye to light up the active parts of the brain. ○ Limitations: Many parents and researchers hesitate to inject radioactive dye into an infant’s brain unless a serious abnormality is suspected. Information Processing: ● Information Processing Theory: ○ Modeled on computer functioning. ○ Involved incremental details and stepbystep description of the mechanisms of thought. ○ Adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age. Affordances: ● Gibson and Gibson: ○ Perception requires selectivity. ○ Affordances provide opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment. ● Selection of which affordance is perceived and acted upon is related to four factor: ○ Sensory awareness. ○ Immediate motivation. ○ Current development. ○ Past experience. ● Selective perception of affordances is also characteristic of every age and every cultur. Research On Early Affordances: ● Visual Cli: ○ Experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another. ○ Infant performance depends on past experience, including social context. Movement And People : ● All Babies Are Attracted To Two Kinds Of Affordance : ○ Things That Move: ■ Dynamic Perception: Focus on movement and change. ○ People: ■ People Preference: Universal principle of infant perception; tied to evolution. Information Processing ● Infant memory is fragile but can be activated with reminders, repetition, and retrieval cues. ● According to class developmental theory, infants store no memories in their first year. ● Developmentalists now agree that very young infants can remember if the following conditions are met: ○ Experimental conditions are similar to real life. ○ Motivation is high. ○ Special measures aid memory retrieval. Memory : ● Reminders, repetition, and age: ○ Reminder session provides time for infants to retrieve stored information. ○ Repeated reminders are more powerful than single reminders. ○ Context is crucial, especially for infants younger than 9 months. ● Infant ○ Can process information and store conclusions. ○ Can remember specific events and patterns. ● Early researchers underestimated infant memory. ○ Failure to differentiate betmplici andexplic memory. Language: What Develops In The First Two Years? ● Listening And Responding: ○ Before birt: Language learning via brain organization and hearing; may be innate. ○ Newborn: Preference for speech sounds and mother’s language; gradual selective listening. ○ Around 6 months: Ability to distinguish sounds and gestures in own language. ● Language Development: ○ Babbling ■ Involves repetition of certain syllables, such as bababa, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old. ■ Is experienceexpectant. ■ Begins to sound like native language around 12 months. ● Language: ○ Gesturing ■ All infants gesture. ■ Concepts with gesture are expressed sooner than speech. ■ Pointing emerges in human babies around 10 months. ● Language Learning ○ First Words: Gradual Beginnin : ■ At about 1 yea Speak a few words. ■ 615 months: Understand 10 times more words than produced. ■ 12 months: Begin to use holophrases; recognize vocalization from universal to languagespecific. ○ Naming Explosion: ■ Once spoken, vocabulary reaches about 50 words, it builds quickly, at a rate of 50 to 100 words per month. ■ 21montholds say twice as many words as 18montholds. ○ Cultural Differences In Language e: ■ Cultural and family variation exists in childdirected speech. ■ Infants seek best available language teachers. ■ Music tempo is culture specific. ○ Cultural Differences In Language Use: Parts Of Sp ech: ■ Ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives varies. ■ Infants differ in use of various parts of speech. ■ Young children are sensitive to the sounds of words. ○ Cultural Differences In Language Use: Gramm r: ■ Includes all the devices by which words communicate meaning. ■ Becomes obvious in holophrases between 18 and 24 months. ■ Correlates with size of vocabulary. ○ Language Learning: Grammar: ■ Mastering Two Languages: ● Quantity of speech in both languages the child hears is crucial. ● Children implicitly track the number of words and phrases and learn those expressed most often. ● Bilingual toddlers realize differences between languages, adjusting tone pronunciation, cadence, and vocabulary when speaking to a monolingual person. ○ Theories Of Language Learning: ■ Theory 1: Infants need to be taught. ● B.F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced. ● Parents are expert teachers, and other caregivers help them teach children to speak. ● Frequent repetition of words is instructive, especially when the words are linked to the pleasures of daily life. ● Welltaught infants become wellspoken children. ● If adults want children who speak, understand, and read well, they must talk to their infants. ■ Theory 2: Social impulses fosters infant language. ● Infants communicate because humans have evolved as social beings. ● The emotional messages of speech, not the words, are the focus of early communication. ● Each culture has practices that further social interaction, including talking. ● The social content of speech is universal, which is why babies learn whatever specifies their culture provides. ■ Theory 3: Infants teach themselves. ● Language learning is innate; adults need not teach it, nor is it a byproduct of social interaction. ● Language itself is experienceexpectant, although obviously the specific language is experiencedependent. ■ Chomsky: ● Language too complex to be master through stepbystep conditioning. ● Language acquisition device (LAD) is innate. ● All babies are eager learners, and language may be considered one more aspect of neurological maturation. Which Perspective Is Correct? ● All perspectives offer insight into language acquisition. ● Hybrid Theory: ○ Some aspects of language learning may be best explained by one theory at one age and other aspects by another theory at another age. ○ Multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues contribute to early language. ○ Different elements of the language apparatus may have evolved in different ways. Language And Video : ● Since language learning is crucial, many parents hope to accelerate such learning. ● Commercial companies often name and make claim about educational value of childdirected videos to entice parent purchase. ● Scientists consider such an advertisement deceptive and believe the truth is opposite the commercial claims. ● Most developmentalists find that videos during infancy are not substitutes for loving, facetoface relationships. The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development: Emotional Development: Infant Emotions: ● Early Emotions: ○ High emotional responsiveness. ○ Reactive pain and pleasure to complex social awareness. ● Smiling And Laughing: ○ Social smile (6 weeks): evoked by viewing human faces. ○ Laughter (3 to 4 months): often associated with curiosity. ● Anger: ○ First expressed at around 6 months. ○ Is healthy response to frustration. ● Sadness: ○ Appear in first months. ○ Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol. ○ Is stressful experience for infants. ● Fear: ○ Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations. ● Stranger Wariness: ○ Seen as infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close. ● Separation Anxiety: ○ Tears, dismay, or anger occur when a familiar caregiver leaves. ○ If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder. Developing Emotions: ● Birt: Distress; contentment. ● 6 Weeks: Social smile. ● 3 Months: Laughter; curiosity. ● 4 Months Full, responsive smiles. ● 48 Months: Anger. ● 914 Months: Fear of social events (strangers, separation from caregiver). ● 12 Months: Fear of unexpected sights and sounds. ● 18 Months: Selfawareness; pride; shame; embarrassment. Toddler Emotional Development: ● Toddlers Emotions: ○ Anger and gear become less frequent and more focused. ○ Laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating. ○ Temper tantrums may appear. ● New Emotions: ○ Pride. ○ Shame. ○ Embarrassment. ○ Disgust. ○ Guilt. ● SelfAwareness: ○ Person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people. ○ First 4 months: Infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers. ○ 5 months: Infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers. ○ 1518 months: Emergence of the meself. ○ Sense of self as the “object of one’s knowledge.” ● Emotional Development: ○ Mirror Recognition: ■ Classic experiment (M. Lewis & Brooks, 1978). ■ Babies aged 924 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses. ■ None of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them. ■ 15 to 24 month olds showed selfawareness by touching their own noses with curiosity. Brain And Emotions: ● Experience And Culture: ○ Promote specific connections between neurons and emotions. ○ Shape functional anatomy of selfrepresentation. ● Emotional Social Impulses: ○ Directly connected to maturation of the anterior cingulate gyrus and other parts of the limbic system. ○ Related to development of preferences for specific others. ● Brain Maturation And The Emotions: ○ Stress: ■ Impairs brain particularly in areas associated with emotions. ■ In highly stressful environment, babies (at 7 months) have higher cortisol levels in relation to challenges (MillsKoonce and colleagues). ○ Synesthesia: ■ Occurs when one sense triggers another in brain. ■ Crossmodal perception more common in infants; may be basis for early social understanding. Emotional Development: ● Temperament : ○ Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and selfregulation. ○ Temperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes but affected by childrearing practices. ● New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS): ○ Started in the 1960s. ○ Found 4 categories of temperament. ● Overall Conclusions: Apparent Dimensions. ○ Effortful control (able to regulate attention, balanced). ○ Negative mood (fearful, angry, unhappy). ○ Surgency (active, social, not shy, exuberant). ○ Each of these dimensions is associated with distinctive brain patterns as well as behavior, and each affects later personality. ● Temperament : ○ Temperamental traits are thought to be inborn, some developmentalists seek to discover which alleles affect specific emotions. ■ For example: 7repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR gene, when combined with the 5HTTLPR genotype, results in 6montholds who are difficult. ● Longitudinal study of infant temperament (2001): ○ Grouped 4montholds into three distinct types based on responses to fearful stimulation. ■ Positive (exuberant). ■ Negative. ■ Inhibited (fearful). ○ Less than half altered their responses as they grew older. ■ Fearful infants were most likely to change. ■ Exuberant infants were least likely to change. ■ Maturation and child rearing has effect on inborn temperament. Emotional Development: Goodness Of Fit: ● Goodness Of Fit: ○ Similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community. ● Big Five Dimensions Of Personality: ○ Childhood temperament is linked to parent genes and personality. ○ Personality often assessed using five dimensions. Development Of Social Bonds: ● Synchrony: ○ Coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant. ● Synchrony In The First Few Months: ○ Becomes more frequent and elaborate. ○ Helps infants learn to read others’ emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction. ○ Usually begins with parents imitating infants. Development Of Social Bonds: ● Both Partners Are Active: ○ Symbiosis of adultinfant partnerships is a powerful learning tool. ○ Synchrony begins with adults imitating infants with tone and rhythm and responding to nuances of infant facial expressions and body motions. ○ Particularly evident in Asian cultures; also viewed in Western cultures. ● Synchrony lets infants and caregivers communicate the crucial messages that one person seeks to share with another. Experiments Using The StillFace Techniques: ● Experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in facetoface interaction with an infant. ● Babies are very upset by the still face and show signs of stress. ○ Conclusions: ■ Parent’s responsiveness to an infant aids psychological and biological development. ■ Infants’ brains need social interaction to develop to their fullest. Development Of Social Bonds: ● Attachment: ○ Involves lasting emotional bond that one person has with another. ○ Begins to form in early infancy and influence a person’s close relationships throughout life. ○ Overtakes synchrony. ○ Demonstrated through proximityseeking and contactmaintaining. ● Stages: ○ Birth to 6 week Preattachment. ○ 6 weeks to 8 months: Attachment. ○ 8 months to 2 year: Classic secure attachment. ○ 2 to 6 year: Attachment. ○ 6 to 12 year Mutual attachment. ○ 12 to 18 year: New attachment. ○ 18 years and on: Attachment revisited. Sign Of Attachment: ● Infants show their attachment in several ways: ○ Proximityseeking: Approaching and following their caregivers. ○ Contactmaintaining: Touching, snuggling, and holding. ● Attachment: ○ Universal part of inborn social nature of the human species. ○ Specific manifestations vary depending on the culture and age of the people who are attached to each other. Attachment Types: ● Secure Attachment: ○ Relationship (type B) in which infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver. ● InsecureAvoidant Attachment: ○ Pattern of attachment (type A) in which infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return. ● InsecureResistant/Ambivalent Attachment: ○ Pattern of attachment (type c) in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion. ● Disorganized Attachment: ○ Type of attachment (type D) that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return. Measuring Attachment: ● Strange Situation: ○ Laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants’ reactions to the stress of various adults’ comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom. ● Key Observed Behaviors: ○ Exploration of the toys. A secure toddler plays happily. ○ Reaction to the caregiver’s departure. A secure toddler misses the caregiver. ○ Reaction to the caregiver’s return. A secure toddler welcomes the caregiver’s reappearance. Insecure Attachment And Social Setting: ● Findings ○ Harsh contexts, especially the stresses of poverty, reduce the incidence of secure attachment. ○ Insecure attachment correlates with many later problems. ● Cautions ○ Insecure attachment may be a sign but may not be the direct cause of those problems. ○ Attachment behaviors in the Strange Situation constitute only one indication of the quality of the parentchild relationship. ○ CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION! When Attachment Isn’t There: ● The DSM5 includes a new diagnostic category for attachment. ○ Reactive attachment disorderrecognizes that some children never form an attachment at all, even an insecure one. Development Of Social Bonds: Social Referencing: ● Social Referencing: ○ Seeking emotional responses or information from other people. ○ Observing someone else’s expressions and reactions and using the other person as a social reference. ○ Utilizing referencing in constant and selective ways. ○ Mothers use a variety of expressions, vocalizations, and gestures to convey social information to their infants. ○ Mother do more caregiving and comforting. ○ Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing are all apparent with fathers, sometimes even more than with mothers. ○ Fathers elicit more smiles and laughter from their infants than mothers, engage in more intensive play, and teach appropriate emotional expressions. INFANTS SHOW THEIR TRUST IN ADULTS BY GRABBING AND REACHING FOR THEM. Theories Of Infant Psychosocial Development: ● Psychoanalytic Theory: ○ FREUD : Oral and anal stages. ■ Oral stage (first year). ■ Anal stage (second year). ○ Potential Conflicts: ■ Oral fixation. ■ Anal personality (disputed by current developmentalists). ● Psychosocial Theory: ○ ERIKSON : Trust and autonomy stages. ○ Trust versus mistrust: ■ Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met. ○ Autonomy versus shame and doubt: ■ Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies. ● Behaviorism: ○ BANDURA: Social learning theory. ○ Parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishment. ■ Behavior patterns acquired by observing the behavior of others. ■ Demonstrated in the class Bobo Doll study. Theories Of Infant Psychosocial Development: ● Proximal Parenting: ○ Caregiving practices that involves being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching. ● Distal Parenting: ○ Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and facetoface communication with minimal holding and touching. ● Research Findings (Keller and colleagues): ○ Notable cultural difference exists with newborns and older children. Culture is especially pivotal for the proximal/distal response. ■ Distal Parenting Result: may produce children who were selfaware but less obedient. ■ Proximal Parenting Results: may produce toddlers who were less selfaware by more compliant. ● Summary: ○ Every aspect of early emotional development interacts with cultural beliefs, expressed in parental actions. ○ No culture anywhere encourages caregivers to be indifferent to infant emotions. ○ Cultural differences may become encoded in the infant brain, called “a cultural sponge” by one group of scientists. ● Cognitive Theory: ○ Working Model: set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. ■ A person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous. ■ The child’interpretatioof early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves. ■ New working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretatioof previous experiences. ● Humanism: ○ MASLOW: Hierarchy of needs. ■ Physiological, safety/security, love/belonging, success/esteem, and selfactualization with the lower levels being prerequisites for higher ones. ○ Infants ■ Begin at first level; emotions serve to ensure physiological needs are met. ■ Are influenced by caregiver needs. ● Evolutionary Theory: ○ Emotions for survival: ■ Infant emotions enmeshed in evolutionary mandate. ■ Over human history, attachment, with proximity seeking and contactmaintaining, promoted species survival by keeping toddlers near their caregivers and keeping caregivers vigilant. ○ Allocare ■ Care of children by people other than the biological parents is essential forHomo sapiens survival. Infant Day Care: ● Proportion of infants in nonrelative care varies markedly from nation to nation. ○ Involvement of relatives other than mothers varies. ○ Worldwide, father are increasingly involved in infant care but this varies by culture. ○ Paid leave for mother and fathers (and grandmothers) varies by nations. ○ In the U.S., paid leave varies by states and employers. Essential Characteristics Of HighQuality Day Care: ● Adequate attention to each infant. ● Encouragement of language and sensorimotor development. ● Attention to health and safety. ● Professional caregivers. ● Warm and responsive caregivers. Effects Of Infant Day Care: ● Family income, culture, religion, and education affect choice of care, and those same variables affect child development. ● The fact that boys are more affected than girls may indicate something about biological sex, or that difficult boys are more often placed in daycare, or that cultures encourage traits in boys that are discouraged in girls. ● Not every study finds that boys are more affectedagain, there are many possible reasons to explain a lack of gender differences, just as there are many reasons to explain gender differences. ● The impact of nonmaternal care depends on many factors: ○ Psychosocial characteristics, including secure attachment, are influenced more by the mother’s warmth than by the number of hours spent in nonmaternal care. ○ Quality of care is crucial, no matter who provides that care.
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