Notes so far for EXAM 2 (QUIZ 1 and 2)
Notes so far for EXAM 2 (QUIZ 1 and 2) BIOL 243 001
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Date Created: 02/16/16
CHAPTER 3 I. Translation 1. Ribosomal RNA forms part of ribosome 2. Messenger RNA- mRNA; contains info for the particular protein; copied from DNA; decoded with help of: a. 3 nucleotide code (ex: UUU codes for phe; CUU codes for leu; AGU codes for ser) b. codon- 3 nucleotides that specify for one amino acid (codon UUU translates for phe amino acid) c. 64 possible codons, but only 20 amino acids d. the code is degenerate- more than one codon can code for the same amino acid e. 61 codons code for amino acids, 3 are stop signals f. UAA can be a stop codon (does not code for any AA) no corresponding tRNA g. Capital letter of sentence is like the start codon AUG to begin translation; UAA, UAG or UGA act as the periods to a sentence that ends translation 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA); looks like a T or clover a. Anticodon is at bottom of tRNA and is complimentary (in terms of base) to the codon; if a codon is an A, the complimentary anticodon is a U b. Amino acid attached to top, opposite of anticodon c. There is a different tRNA for different codons d. Codon is CUU, tRNA anticodon is GAA, with Amino Acid leu at the top e. Ribosome just makes a peptide bond connecting all of the amino acids at the tops of the tRNA’s All done sequentially tRNA with attached, growing polypeptide is bound to the ribosome next tRNA-AA- will bind to adjacent site peptide bond is formed ribosome moves down the mRNA CHAPTER 4 I. Types of Tissues 1. Nervous tissue 2. Muscle tissue 3. Epithelial tissue 4. Connective tissue II. Epithelial Tissue 1. Locations Free surfaces Glands 2. Functions Protection Secretion Absorption 3. Characteristics 1. Free surface 2. Basement membrane (BM)/Basal surface Extracellular; made of proteins and carbohydrates Acts as the barrier that separates epithelial tissue and what lies beneath Epithelial cells secrete substances that create the basement membrane Epithelial cells lie on the free surface side of the BM o Little intercellular space o No blood vessels associated with them (no capillaries, etc.) o Can have specializations on surface of epithelial tissues like desmosomes, tight junctions, cilia, etc. D. Classification Based on # of Cells or Shape Based on # of cell layers 1. Simple: 1 layer of cells 2. Stratified: multiple layers of cells 3. Pseudostratified: some do not reach the surface but all contact the BM Based on shape at the free surface 1. Squamous: flat, frying egg 2. Cuboidal: cubes, square 3. Columnar: columns, rectangle E. Types of Epithelial Tissues Simple Squamous 1. Function: o very thin to allow diffusion & filtration 2. Location: o Alveoli of lung: gas exchange o Capillaries: very small blood vessels; nutrients diffuse out of bloodstream & wastes diffuse into the bloodstream Stratified Squamous 1. Many layers; after cell surface, cells are flat 2. Function: o Thick, protection, friction 3. Location: o Skin o Mouth o Vagina o Anus Simple Columnar 1. 1 layer thick, tall cells, lots of cytoplasm 2. Function: o Secretion, absorption 3. Location: o Digestive tract Simple Cuboidal 1. Function: o Secretion, absorption 2. Location: o Salivary glands o Sweat glands o Ovaries o Some parts of kidneys Pseudostratified Ciliated 1. Function: o Secretion of mucus, propulsion of mucus by cilia 2. Location: o Ciliated: Respiratory tract o Nonciliated: sperm carrying ducts Transitional 1. Function: o Cells change shape allowing the tissue to stretch 2. Location: o Bladder o Ureter 2. Classification Based on Function or Location 4. Endothelium: lining of blood vessels o Simple squamous 5. Mucus membrane: secrete mucin o Goblet cells secrete mucin 6. Cutaneous membrane: skin 7. Serous membranes: combination of CT and epithelial tissue o Like a water balloon, 2 membranes containing serous fluid o Allow the organs to move around II. Classification Based on Secretion: Glandular Epithelium 4. Endocrine: not connected to free surface o Secretions are absorbed into the blood o Affect the entire body Exocrine: directly connected to a free surface o Act locally o i.e. sweat glands, salivary glands a. Merocrine: secretions pass through membrane (exocytosis) o Sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas b. Holocrine: accumulate secretion, then die & release the substance o Sebaceous glands: secrete sebum (oil) c. Apocrine: part of the cell will bud off o Mammary glands 2. Classification Based on Duct or Secretory Structure Duct structure o Simple- duct does not branch o Compound- duct branches Secretory structure o Tubular a. Simple, simple branched, compound Alveolar a. Simple, simple branched, compound, compound tubuloalveolar 2. Connective Tissue Loose CT Dense CT Cartilage CT Bone Blood 2-11-2016 I. Connective tissue Location: o fat, tendons, fills body spaces, attaches skin Functions: o protection, support, binds things together, storage Very abundant Cells are NOT close together Has a good blood supply, blood vessels run through CT, not really any blood vessels in epithelial--> there are capillaries below basement membrane where nutrients diffuse across Contains cells Extracellular matrix (not cells) o Ground substance- watery or hard; skin vs. salts in bone o Fibers- 3 types: collagenous (made of collagen protein)- large, strong, often white reticular- relatively short and branched, not nearly as strong as collagen elastic- can stretch and go back like rubber bands a. connective tissue proper- fibroblast cells (makes the extracellular matrix using proteins to make the fibers) a. loose connective tissue- the few fibers are very spaced out i. areolar- watery ground substance, relatively few fibers (most will be collagenous), bind skin to underlying tissues, surround blood vessels, fill body spaces ii. adipose- fat, watery ground substance, the cell is filled up of fat molecules iii. reticular- high concentration of reticular fibers, in bone marrow and spleen b. dense connective tissue- fibers are denser & closer together i. regular- collagen fibers, parallel, very strong CT, found in tendons (bone to muscle), ligaments (bone to bone), does not heal very well (b/c not a great blood supply) ii. irregular- collagenous fibers, fibers are interwoven, pretty strong, but not as strong as regular, will heal faster than regular, found in dermis of skin, various fibrous capsule (fibrous joint capsule) iii. elastic- large amount of elastic fibers, found in vocal cords, surrounding large arteries like aorta c. cartilage- chondroblast (--blast- more immature cells; --cytes- more mature), extracellular matrix’s ground substance is made of chondrin which is firm and pliable, fibers i. hyaline- closely packed collagenous fibers, glassy, found in costal cartilage (ribs to sternum), articular cartilage (ends of bones), trachea (tube that carries O2 to our lungs, holds trachea open) ii. fibrocartilage- more elastic fibers than hyaline cartilage, compressible (mattress like), material found in our intervertebral discs iii. elastic- super high concentration of elastic fibers, found in external ear, epiglottis (flap that keeps us from swallowing food into our trachea) , auditory tube (in throat that equalizes our air pressure) CHAPTER 5 Location: o Skin, hair, nails, glands, nerve Functions: o separates us from the rest of the world and allows us to sample the world o protection from bacteria o make us waterproof o protects from UV radiation o regulates body temp (sweating, blood goes to surface of body (pale skinned people get very red and flushed)) o excretion (NaCl and urea in sweat) o involved in sensation I. Epidermis- epithelial, stratified squamous, keratinocytes are the cells mostly making up the epidermis Come (Lets) Get Some Beer (superficial to deep) Corneum (Lucidum) Granulosum Spinosum Basale Most deep, stratified squamous BM (basement membrane) made by dermis, separates epidermis and dermis stratum basale (contains dividing cells)- most deep layer stratum spinosum- dividing maybe a little bit, filling up with keratin, intermediate filaments stratum granulosum- filling up with various lipids, cells are a little alive, where cells come to die stratum corneum- most superficial layer, dead cells, keratin inside cells and various lipids and glycolipids outside/between cells that make the skin hydrophobic skin is continually being sloughed off and renewed b/c basale is always dividing I. Dermis II. Hypodermis Thin skin Thick skin- palms of hands and soles of feet; thick skin has extra layer, stratum lucidum, just deep of the corneum and just superficial of stratum granulosum Papillae- on top of dermis in between dermis and epidermis I. Cells of the Epidermis Keratinocytes- non keratinized is skin, keratinized is hair Melanocytes- produce melanin (dark pigment) Protect from UV light Dendritic cells (Langerhaans)- phagocytosis (ingest various debris) Tactile cells (Merkel)- light touch II. Layers of Dermis (Public Relations) Papillary layer- upper 1/5 layer (areolar) Reticular layer- lower majority (dense irregular tissue) Hypodermis (superficial fascia)- lays deep to dermis, not considered part of the skin (areolar & adipose tissue) III. Glands Sweat glands (sudoriferous) Eccrine- H20, NaCl, urea; empty onto skin o Functions: cooling, excretion o Not Located On: nipples, hips, parts of external genitalia o Location: many on hands and feet, forehead o Cold sweat: clammy hands from nervousness (regulated as emotional response) o Mode of Secretion: merocrine (passes through membrane, exocytosis) Apocrine- large, fatty substance secreted into hair follicle o Location: anus, armpits, around genitalia o Mode of Secretion: merocrine Ceruminous- secretes cerumen (earwax) o Mode of Secretion- apocrine o Location: ear o Function: keep out insects Sebaceous glands- secrete sebum (oily substance) into hair follicle Functions: keeps skin from drying out, toxic to bacteria, become much more active during puberty resulting in acne when bacteria infects the sebaceous glands Mode of Secretion: holocrine, sebum fills the duct, then it bursts, releasing the substance II. Hair Hair follicle- Hair shaft- part that sticks up out of the skin Hair root- deeper, in skin Hair bulb- deepest portion of hair follicle Hair matrix- contains dividing cells II. Nails Nail bed Nail matrix- dividing cells, push the nail out Nail root III. Skin Burns First degree burn- skin is reddened, only epidermis is affected i.e. mild sunburn; skin regenerates Second degree burn- reddened skin, blisters present, epidermis and dermis is affected i.e. touching hot stove, etc.; skin regenerates Third degree burn- epidermis and entire dermis are destroyed, can only regenerate from the edges; gray-white, cherry red, or black; no initial edem or pain b/c nerve endings are destroyed Carcinomas Basal cell carcinoma- arise from basal layer Central ulcer, sometimes will invade the dermis Successful to cure through surgery and drugs Squamous cell carcinoma- rise from stratum spinosum Raised, reddened elevation, sometimes has pigment associated with them, can metastasize (can move to and infect other parts of the body; divide and spread) Malignant melanoma- arise from melanocytes (A) Asymmetric, (B) Border has indentations, (C ) Color can be black, brown, tan, red or blue, (D) Diameter larger then 6 mm (size of pencil eraser) Too much sun is bad for the skin CHAPTER 6 206 bones o Bones are a CT o Cells Osteoblasts/cytes- synthesize bone Osteoclasts- break down bone o Extracellular matrix Ground substance- salts (precipitated calcium phosphate) Hard, resist compression Fibers Collagenous fibers provide tensile strength (bend not break) I. Classification of Bones- Structure a. Long bones- arm, forearm, leg, thigh b. Flat bones- skull, ribs, sternum c. Short bones- carpals (small bones in hands), tarsals (small bones in feet) d. Irregular bones- vertebrae Exoskeleton- cockroaches Endoskeleton- humans 2/18/16 I. Long Bone a. Structure Epiphysis (heads) o Proximal (closest to point of origin) o Distal (farther from point of origin) Diaphysis o Shaft o Hollow o Yellow bone marrow- fat Articular cartilage- on the surface of the epiphyses (joints), made of hyaline cartilage Periosteum- outer layer Inner layer is richly supplied with blood vessels and has minerals stored inside Endosteum- also lined b. Location Thigh Leg Arm Forearm II. Types of Bone Structure a. Compact bone- on the surface of ALL bone Few air spaces very dense, strong b. Spongy bone- located on the inside of bones except the diaphysis (which has nothing in terms of bone) Has all sorts of air spaces not near as strong as compact bone Contains red bone marrow Involved in hemiparesis- red blood cell formation c. Yellow bone marrow- fat, located on the inside of the diaphysis III. How is compact bone supplied with nutrients? a. Compact bone has a very organized structure, which allows blood vessels to pass through compact bone and supply the cells with nutrients b. osteon (Haversian System)- holes repeated over and over and over in compact bone Central canal (Haversian canal) o Blood vessels o Nerves Holes called lacunae located in circles around Haversian canal (tree ring shape) o lacunae hold the osteocytes Little cracks in spaces between central canal and lacunae are called canaliculi- act as passageways Lamellae- layers of bone, determined by osteocytes o Collagen fibers run in different directions in each lamellae layer, which resists breaking Perforating (Volkmann's) canal- perpendicular blood vessels Spongy Bone o No osteons (only in compact bone) o Lacunae Bone Development (Ossification) o Endochondral Ossification- embryonic skeleton (made of hyaline cartilage) is converted to bone Occurs for nearly all bones of the body except some skull bones and facial bones Occurs from the outside to the inside o Hyaline cartilage will degenerate (die) o Perichondrium (membrane surrounding cartilage)- converted to periosteum o Bony collar formed on outside of cartilage, then the inside develops Intramembranous Ossification- doesn't start with hyaline cartilage, starts with matrix of fibers 1. Occurs from the inside to the outside o Starts with a matrix of (mostly collagenous) fibers o Osteoblasts invade matrix and convert to spongy bone o Remodeled and compact bone is formed 2. Don't worry about memorizing slide 12, figure 6.9 b. Increase in the Length of Long Bones Before birth, the diaphysis is ossified (converted to bone) After birth, the epiphyses are ossified This leaves hyaline cartilage in between epiphysis and diaphysis (epiphyseal plate) 1. Epiphyseal line- when the hyaline cartilage is completely gone, all of it has been converted to bone, so the bone will no longer grow in length Increase in length due to growth of the epiphyseal plate Growth hormone- secreted by pituitary gland; determines growth of bone 1. Pituitary giant- continued release of GH 2. Pituitary dwarf- GH stopped being released at early age, results in very short long bones, (just turned to osteocytes rather than bone) Don't worry about memorizing slide 14, figure 6.10 Remodeling Bones are continually being remodeled Remodeling packets 1. Contain osteoclasts- cells that break down bone, by creating an acidic environment (dissolves the calcium, breaks down collagen) 2. Contain osteoblasts- cells that synthesize bone Bone deposition 1. First part: organic part of bone is laid down (glycoproteins, collagen, some elastic fibers) 2. Second part: mineralization- various calcium precipitates are laid down b. Control of Remodeling Always a balance between bone erosion and new bone deposition Hormonal mechanisms 1. Keep calcium levels in our blood in between a narrow range 2. If calcium levels decrease, the parathyroid hormone is released by parathyroid gland--> stimulates the osteoclasts, enhancing the break down of bone, become more active, more acidic environment, more cell division, Ca precipitates break down (negative feedback loop) 3. If calcium levels increase, hormone calcitonin is released by thyroid--> inhibits osteoclasts, will not be so active o Response to Stress 1. Exercise and stress strengthen bone 2. Weight lifters who do not use steroids, are growing their muscles and bones b. What can go wrong with bone? o Rickets 1. A vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D is necessary for intake of calcium and phosphorus) 2. Bones can bend, bowed bones Osteoporosis 1. Most common in post menopausal females, estrogen, increased calcium over life time, not staying active 2. Bones become brittle, break easy 3. Loss of bone mass 4. Something gone wrong with the balance of bone erosion and deposition Fractures 1. Simple o Bones are broken into 2 pieces, nothing complicated, can relatively heal very well and be just as strong as it was before Compound o One or more of the bones can protrude through the skin Comminuted o Splintering of bones/shattered Depressed o Bones are pushed inward i.e. skull caves in after being hit ii. Healing Fractures Hematoma- blood rushes to site, blood clot Fibroblasts & chondroblasts- invade and generate fibrocartilaginous callus, various fibers and cartilage mixed in with blood clot Osteoblasts- invade and form a bony callous and form spongy bone Bone remodeling takes place, layer of compact bone formed on outside
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