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Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes

by: Claudia Mancl

Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes 2606

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Psychlogy > 2606 > Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes
Claudia Mancl


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These notes cover what will be on exam 1
Social Psychology
Brett King
social psychology, Exam 1, Psychology, PSYC 2606, brett king
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Claudia Mancl on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 2606 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Brett King in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Social  Psychology  Notes:     -­‐Social  psych:  the  study  of  nature  and  causes  of  individuals  behavior  and  cognition  in  social   situations   I.  Social  Psych  and  Personality:   -­‐   Early  personality  psych:  internal  dynamics  and  individual  differences   -­‐   Focus  on  social  situations  that  affect  common  humanity   -­‐   The  power  of  the  situation   II.  Philosophical  issues  in  social  psych   A.   Nature  vs.  nurture   a.   Nature:  heredity  and  genetic  traits   b.   Nurture:  environment   c.   Determinism:  belief  that  all  events  are  shaped  and  governed  by  forces  beyond   control  of  individual   d.   Rationality  vs.  irrationality   e.   Optimism  vs.  pessimism   f.   Exam  question:  According  to  Freud,  what  is  the  greatest  source  of  suffering?   Other  people     Research  Methodology  in  Social  Psych.   I.  Experimental  Method   a.  Objective  and  systematic  method  of  research  in  any  scientific  analysis   b.  Goals  of  research:  determine  if  a  variable  influences  some  form  of  behavior     1.  Two  basic  steps:  vary  the  quantity  or  quality  of  the  variable,  see  if  the                variables  have  an  impact  on  behavior     2.  Independent  variable:  factor  or  variable  being  studied  or  manipulated  by              experimenter       3.  Dependent  variable:  behavior  being  studied  which  involves  some  measure   c.  Hypothesis:  a  supposition  or  proposed  explanation  made  on  the  basis  of  limited          evidence  as  a  starting  point  for  further  investigation. d.  Sample  size  =  n   e.  Replication:  if  the  experiment  can  be  replicated   II.  Correlational  Method   a.   Goal:  see  if  2  or  more  variables  are  related  by  careful  observation  of  both   III.  Laboratory  experiments   1.   Advantages   a.   Control  of  independent  variable   b.   Simplify  the  world  and  control  behavior   2.   Disadvantages   a.   Mundane  realism:  degree  to  which  the  experiment  resembles  real  world  events   b.   External  validity:  degree  of  generalizability  of  the  findings  to  other  populations   c.   Demand  characteristics:  cues  that  reveal  the  hypothesis  under  study   d.   Evaluation  apprehension:  participants  concern  about  being  observed  during   study   IV.  Lab  vs.  field  experimentation   a.   Field  experiments   a.   Overt:  participants  know  they  are  being  observed   b.   Covert:  participants  do  not  know  they  are  being  observed   b.   Advantages   a.   High  external  validity  and  mundane  realism   b.   Covert  studies  avoid  evaluation  apprehension  and  demand  characteristics   c.   Disadvantages:     a.   Independent  variable  must  be  obvious   b.   Dependent  variable  is  often  simple;  behavior  is  either  there  or  not   c.   Practical  problems:  little  control  over  the  real  world  and  unexpected  events  may   destroy  study     V.  Ethics  in  social  psych  research   a.  Examples  of  controversial  work:  Milgrim  with  the  shock  experiment     b.  Risk  benefit  ratio:  ratio  of  risk  to  participants  vs.  benefit  to  society.  Old  view  said              benefits  outweigh  any  risks;  new  view  says  any  risks  outweigh  benefits   c.  Guidelines  established  by  American  Psych  Association  and  national  institutes  of  health   d.  Problem  of  demand  characteristics   a.  Deception:  research  methods  that  conceal  or  mislead  participants  about  true              aspects  of  the  study.  May  produce  low  self  esteem.   b.  Informed  consent:  get  participants  approval  before  experiment     c.  Debriefing:  full  explanation  after  study     Social  Perception   I.  A  process  through  which  we  seek  to  know  and  understand  other  person’s  behavior   a.  Verbal  communication   b.  Nonverbal  communication:  exchange  of  info  by  facial  expressions,  eye  contact  and          body  movements   II.  Facial  expressions   a.   Six  basic  facial  emotions  with  many  combinations:  happiness,  sadness,  surprise,  fear,   anger  and  disgust   b.   Charles  Darwin:  the  expression  of  the  emotions  in  man  and  animals   a.   Facial  expressions  are  universal  and  innate   b.   Human  facial  expressions  evolved  from  animal  emotions  and  expressions   c.   Facial  expressions  have  survival  value   c.   Paul  Ekman   a.   Hypothesis:  facial  expressions  vary  the  same  meaning  regardless  of  culture,   context  or  language   b.   Ekman  and  Friesen  studied  emotional  expression  in  tribal  people.  Asked  them  to   identify  expressions  and  make  them.     d.   Mapping  facial  muscles   a.   Human  face  has  a  total  of  44  muscles     b.   Ekman  found  10,000  anatomical  combinations  in  facial  muscles     e.   Micro-­‐momentary  expressions  (MME)   a.   Average  expressions  =  1-­‐1.5  seconds   b.   Masking:  when  we  try  to  hide  one  expression  with  another   c.   Brief  contradictory  facial  expression  of  emotion   d.   MME  analysis  and  clinical  intervention     f.   Ekman  wrote  a  book  about  how  MME  can  be  a  form  of  lie  detection   a.   5%  of  the  U.S.  population  are  natural  born  facial  liars   b.   facial  deception   i.   blinking  and  false  smiles   ii.   masking   iii.   display  rules:  cultural  rules  that  dictate  the  appropriate  conditions  for   displaying  emotions   g.   Ekman  and  O’Sullivan  did  a  lie  detection  test  with  law  enforcement  personnel.  The   secret  service  was  the  only  group  that  could  accurately  detect  liars   h.   Development  of  facial  expressions   a.   Newborns  are  born  with  all  but  one  facial  muscle   b.   Most  infants  smile  shortly  after  birth   c.   Babies  only  36  hours  old  can  imitate  happy,  sad,  and  surprised  emotions     III.  Other  types  of  cues  in  nonverbal  communication   a.   Body  language:  gestures,  movements  and  postures   a.   Emblems:  body  movements  with  a  highly  specific  meaning  in  a  given  culture   b.   Body  cues  with  positive  and  negative  feedback   b.   Gazing   a.   High  level  of  eye  contact:  sign  of  friendliness  and  attraction   b.   Job  interviews:  people  with  high  levels  of  eye  contact  received  more  positive   ratings   c.   Prolonged  gazing  (staring)   i.   Common  reaction:  hostility  or  escape   ii.   Staring  may  induce  guilt,  it  is  effective  in  persuasion   c.   Individual  differences  in  nonverbal  cues   a.   General  level  of  expressiveness   i.   Affective  communication  test  (ACT)   ii.   Successful  professionals  score  high  on  ACT   b.   Role  of  gender   i.   Women  are  superior  to  men  in  social  use  of  cues,  reading  and   transmitting  unspoken  messages     Social  Cognition   I.  The  cognitive  processes  people  use  to  interpret,  analyze,  and  remember  social  information   II.  Attribution  theory   a.   Causal  attribution:  the  process  of  explaining  the  causal  nature  of  vents   a.   Personal  attribution:  attribution  based  on  internal  characteristics  like   personality,  talent,  mood  or  effort.     b.   Situation  attribution:  attribution  based  on  external  factors  like  luck,  government   or  religion   b.   Locus  of  control:  generalized  beliefs  about  the  control  of  one’s  personal  and  situational   behavior  and  the  behavior  of  others   a.   Internal  locus  of  control  (ILOC):  individual  assumes  personal  responsibility  for  life   events   b.   External  locus  of  control  (ELOC):  person  accepts  uncontrollable  forces  that   determine  life  events   c.   Development  of  LOC  expectancies   a.   ILOC  related  to  high  parental  expectations  and  autonomy  in  childhood   b.   ELOC  related  to  restricted,  hostile  upbringing     d.   LOC  and  achievement   a.   ILOC  =  higher  levels  of  education  and  GPA   b.   ELOC  =  higher  drop  out  rates   e.   Modification  of  LOC  attributions   a.   Aging  is  associated  with  a  raise  in  ILOC   b.   Trauma  may  produce  shift  to  ELOC     f.   Sources  of  error  and  bias  in  attribution   a.   Fundamental  attribution  error:  tendency  to  overestimate  dispositional  factors   and  ignore  situational  factors   b.   Actor  observer  difference:  tendency  to  attribute  our  behavior  to  situational   causes  and  the  behavior  of  others  of  dispositional  causes   c.   Confirmation  bias:  tendency  to  search  for  information  that  confirms  our  beliefs   and  attributions     d.   Schematic  reasoning     i.   Schema:  mental  set  used  to  organize  info  about  eh  social  world     ii.   Rosenhan  did  a  study  where  he  admitted  people  without  illness  to  a   mental  hospital.  Staff  could  not  tell  the  difference  between  real  and  fake   patients,  only  the  real  patients  could  tell.     e.   Self  fulfilling  prophecy:  when  a  person’s  initial  expectation  about  someone  leads   to  actions  that  cause  the  expectation  to  come  true   f.   Belief-­‐perseverance  effect:  tendency  to  cling  to  initial  beliefs  even  after  they   have  been  discredited     g.   Cognitive  shortcuts  and  social  inference     a.   Heuristics:  rule  of  thumb  methods  that  allow  us  to  make  quick  (although  not   always  accurate)  judgements    


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