Study Guide for final
Study Guide for final PSY 2403 003
Popular in Introduction to Personality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 2403 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Cox - Fuenzalida in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Personality in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Personality Study Guide Personality- a persona “mask” -A pattern of relatively permanent traits, dispositions, and characteristics that give some consistency to human behavior. Over time, everyone becomes more introverted (rank order stability- introverts and extroverts will always stay the same length apart on the scale) Idiographic- study of one person Nomothetic- study of groups The most common lay explanation for personality is genetics!! The goal of experimental personality research is NOT to develop a pseudoscience that can predict behavior of many individuals over time. Sigmund Freud-psychosexual theory Freud had the opportunity to study Charcot, whom used hypnotism a lot Conscious, preconscious, unconscious Unconscious- beyond awareness and can only be reached in disguised or distorted form Preconscious- not aware at this very moment, but can be at any moment Conscious- directly available (plays a minor role) Phylogenetically inherited endowment- the part of our brain that tells us fear castration or to avoid being incest Id, ego, super ego Id- irrational, pleasure seeking, 100% instinctual and demands immediate gratification (babies are 100% id when born) Ego- service of the id, deals with delayed gratification and reality Super ego- mostly unconscious The ego manages the id + super ego. It satisfies the id. When the person is hungry, the ego finds food. Reflex action -responding automatically to a source of irritation Wish fulfillment- when a person wants food but cannot have food, so they picture a large pizza Realistic anxiety- product of something real Neurotic anxiety-“not real”, thinks he/she will be punished by others (real or NOT) Moral anxiety- self punishment Defense mechanisms when the ego cannot handle the id and superego 1. Repression (must occur first) Projection- when the person projects their issues onto someone else to make themselves look innocent REACTION FORMATION (most effective) “head of the anti porn department” “loves porn” or over doing something which causes their guilt to be revealed – when Meredith plans a toast for Yang when she is nominated for a prestigious award that Meredith wants Regression- returning to earlier forms of impulse (thumb sucking) Rationalization- dealing with an emotion intellectually to avoid emotional involvement “I took the whole box of pencils home because I was planning to sharpen them for the students… Not because I needed them for my kids” Identification- “truly believe they are that person” A crazy guy preaching in NYC might identify as Jesus Displacement- satisfying a need using a different object Sublimation- channeling an impulse into a more socially acceptable form Psychosexual stages of development: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, and genital stage Oral stage- occurs during the first year of life, the erogenous zone during this time is the mouth. If someone is constantly chewing gum or smoking, he/she has an oral complex. Oral incorporative vs oral sadistic- a gullible person vs a sarcastic person Anal stage- the anal stage occurs during the second year of life and the erogenous zone during this time is the anus/butt region. (the child must be toilet trained during this time) Anal expulsive vs anal retentive- a person that is very generous and creative vs a person that is a perfectionist Phallic stage- occurs from around the 3 -5 year. The erogenous zone is the phallus/penis. Oedipus complex is when a son has an attraction to his mother or a daughter has an attraction to her father. The son fears the father and has castration anxiety because he thinks they are causing the issues between him and his father. Latency stage- occurs around 6 -12 year. This is the time in which sexual interests are displaced into sports, school, etc. Genital stage- begins at puberty. The child transforms into who he/she will be as an adult. Free association- when Freud would just let people vent, when a patient showed resistance to talk about something he knew that certain thing caused an issue in his/her life. Dream analysis- manifest content is what we take our dreams to mean, latent content is the underlying meaning. Thanatos- death instinct Eros- life instinct Freud once believed that libido was sexual energy, but later changed to say that libido is life energy- Freud and Jung disagreed on the nature of the libido Carl Jung – “life energy” Jung was very religious Conscious- psychic images, different from general awareness. The ego organizes it and what it doesn’t let in goes to personal unconscious. Personal unconscious- psychic images not sensed by the ego. “Only mine”. Something we were once aware of, but that has been repressed or forgotten. Personal unconscious clusters of emotionally loaded thoughts: complexes Archetype: inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain experiences Collective unconscious- ideas from ancestors. It has archetypes, which are inherited predispositions that cause us to respond to certain situations in certain ways. According to Jung, the “self” attempts to harmonize Jung used the word association test Jung defined attitudes as either extroversion or introversion Dynamics of personality according to Jung- Progression- investment of energy to things outside of a person, forward flow of energy Regression- adaptation to inner world- backward flow of energy According to Jung we seek a unity within and to develop fully Libido is the driving force or life energy (Freud and Jung disagreed about the nature of the libido) We have a conscious, personal unconscious, and a collective unconscious Ideas from ancestors are stored Shadow- darkest, deepest part of the psyche Thinking-rational(logical thought process, tells what an object is), feeling-rational(valuing the idea of an object/determines value), sensation-irrational(receives physical stimuli and transmits to perceptual consciousness), intuition-irrational(provides hunches, 0 facts) Jung got into perspective of/with a stone Jung believed we could/are more than one person Jung dreamed about a large penis in which he thought was the later part of Jesus Ego is everything of which we are conscious, according to Jung Childhood(birth-adolescence)- libidinal energy is expended on learning the basics Young Adulthood(from adolescence to age 40)- libidinal energy is expended towards marriage, work, kids Middle age(40-later years)- The transformation to being older, wiser- a really tough time Life’s goal is to reach SELF-ACTUALIZATION. A harmonious blending of many things within the psyche. Jung and Freud both thought dream analysis was important, but Jung thought that dreams did not have manifest and latent content, that they are simply what they seem. He believed dreams included clues from the past. Jung believed that the human spirit is embedded in past, present, and future. A spiritual need must be satisfied. Alfred Adler(OPPOSITE OF FREUD)- meaning of life, harmony, future Had a strong competition with his older brother Sigmund Focused on the uniqueness of the individual Organ inferiority- body is vulnerable to disease our bodies are integrated units Compensation- one area makes up for the lack of another Over compensation- when the body takes a weakness and turns it into a strength- positive Feelings of inferiority develop in infancy WE always strive for superiority Feelings of inferiority + world view> life goals/final goal> life style Fictional finalism- end goals, life style goals A mistaken lifestyle is any life style other than socially useful (NOT GOOD: ruling-dominant, getting-leaning, and avoiding type) Faulty lifestyles begin when a child has a physical inferiority, is pampered, or is neglected Depreciation (neurotic)- the tendency to over value one’s accomplishments and to under value others. Accusations( neurotic) blaming others for your issues Self-accusation (nuerotic)-cursing oneself Distancing (Nuerotic)-moving backwards or away from others Social interest is VERY important (v important as britt would say) Socially useful is the only healthy personality, according to Adler Spoiled kids are the worst – Adler (@ ME!!!) Safeguarding is mainly in neurotic people, but not always. Can be both conscious and unconscious. Safeguarding protects low self-esteem. Defense mechanisms- in everyone, protect the self from anxiety. Adler found birth order important as well as early memories. Adler agreed that dream analysis is important, but he believed they were things that someone wanted to happen in real life but it couldn’t so they dream it. However, he says dreams are a sign of a mistake lifestyle. Adler says individuals are motivated primarily by what they find most reinforcing. Creative Power- personality is self-created Early recollections and memories are V important Karen Horney Had a father that was critical of women Aggression is learned Focused on the impact of CULTURE Everyone has conflict, not just neurotics Children need safety (satisfaction) and freedom from fear, if not they will develop the following: Basic evil, basic hostility, then basic anxiety (fear of the world) Karen says that the following are signs of neuroticism: Need for affection/approval, need for a partner to run one’s life, need to live with narrow limits, need for power, need to exploit others, need for recognition, need to exploit others, need for admiration, need for achievement, need for independence, need for perfection (TOO MUCH OF ANY OF THESE IS BAD). Compliant neurotics-move towards people Hostile neurotics- move against people Detached neurotics- move away from people The ideal self is a force within you, not an energy!! Everyone is born with a real self and if they stick to it, they are on the road to self-realization. If a person is directed by an unrealistic self-image, they are driven by the tyranny of the shoulds. Horney borrowed many psychotherapeutic methods from Freud. They agreed that early childhood experiences are important, that unconscious motivation is a thing, but they DISAGREED that biological motivation is important. Horney says that cultural motivation is more important. Horney says personality is changeable throughout life, Freud doesn’t. Horney DID NOT believe that men are culturally inferior to women. Pavlov- classical conditioning. A conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. The dog and bell example! Skinner- operant conditioning- unconditioned stimulus Radical Behaviorism- rejects all inner causes of behavior According to Skinner, most human behavior is controlled by secondary reinforcers. The most important part of operant conditioning is that it is under the control of its consequences. Successive approximations are those really close to those that are desired. A primary reinforcer- something needed to survive A secondary reinforcer- a parent, or money Reinforcement- increases behavior Punishment- decreases behavior Gordon Allport- trait theory He is different because he studies healthy people, future oriented, and focuses on the uniqueness of the person. Individual trait is possessed by one person, while a common trait is something that many people share Allport learned from Adler- It is possible to dig so deeply that important information could be overlooked. A cardinal disposition affects everything a person does Central dispositions are less wide spread ( most used in recommendation) Intelligent, creative, reliable- examples of central dispositions Secondary dispositions apply to very specific situations(food, clothes) He is different because he studies conscious motivation and healthy individuals, he is also future oriented “The dynamic(can change) organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics, behavior, and thought” Proprium- organizing agent of the soul, self, ego, mind Development of the proprium- Sense of bodily “me”, sense of self identity, sense of self-esteem, sense of self extension, emergence of self-image, emergence of self as rational coper, emergence of propriate striving, emergence of self as knower Freud didn’t view religion as a good thing, but Allport did. Intrinsic religion is healthy, extrinsic isn’t. “born motivated”- according to Allport Functional autonomy- the reason you are doing something is different that the reason you would do it later Propriate- doing something as child but for different reasons Alburt Bandura/Mischel- reciprocal determinism (social cognitive theory) Mischel said that the avg .30 correlation was weak compared to the personality coefficient Consistency paradox- refers to the fact that professionals say people behave consistently, even though research doesn’t agree. Mischel’s major criticism of traditional theory is that they emphasize person variables and deemphasize situation variables. Encoding strategies: how we see things, these strategies can show some consistency in human behavior. Expectancies: what we think will happen Self-efficacy is one’s ability to perform. Subjective values: what we think is worth having or doing? Self-regulatory systems and plans: How do we attain our goals? Competencies: what we are actually capable of doing Model—think of the Bobo doll experiment Attentional processes—basically just that blind and deaf people wouldn’t respond the same as people without disabilities Personality is self-regulated according to Bandura, we set performance standards. Self-exonerating mechanisms- allow a person to act differently than they know they should!!! The goal is to change the client’s perceived self- efficacy. Kids that could delay gratification were more successful. The goal: self- regulation and self-efficacy Live modeling has the most success, “doing something together” Carl Rogers-person/client centered Motivation is actualizing tendency (MOST IMPORTANT) Phenomenological reality= private reality The phenomenological reality is the way people interpret things. According to Rogers, it’s the only reality. The person has a phenomenological field. The Self is a part of this field. There is a need for positive regard, without it people will develop conditions of worth. People also have a need for self- regard. Organismic valuing process (OVP) is the method of evaluating all experiences According to Carl Rogers there is NO self at birth There is a large need for positive regard UNCONDITIONAL. It’s the only way to not interfere with a child’s development. Incongruency occurs when a person doesn’t use their OVP and they use someone else’s values. When incongruencey exists, the person will have doubt, denial, and anxiety Rogers has a client centered form of therapy. Incongruency is an issue Goal is to enable the OVP! George Kelley First, Kelley was a phenomenologist (he believed intact conscious experience should be the focus). Kelley: anything that caused clients to look at themselves differently helped. Kelley did not just use one approach The scientists main goal is to reduce uncertainty He believed people chose to construe things in a certain way and that humans have the capacity to change how they construe. Personal Construct System Kelly says all people are scientists! Everyone develops their own constructs about things using a system According to Kelley, people are motivated by nothing more than the simple fact that they are alive. Anxiety- when something lies outside ones range of convenience Hostility- continuation of trying to prove a point when it has been proven wrong Aggression- when one doesn’t change the construct, but applies it to more people (the frat example) Guilt- when someone is dislodged from his/her core role Threat- awareness of change to ones construct even when they don’t want to be Fear- like threat, but less For psychotherapy, Kelley helped the client edit their construct system Kelley practiced fixed role therapy. In this situation, Kelley became a supporting role. CPC cycle, a cycle of choosing a construct (Circumspection, preemption, and control phase) Creativity cycle Loosened phase- come up with ideas Tightened phase- discover and test
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