Week 7 Tuesday Notes WILL BE ON FRIDAY MIDTERM!
Week 7 Tuesday Notes WILL BE ON FRIDAY MIDTERM! Bio 111
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Sierra Taylor on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 111 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Eric Noel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
THIS IS ONE LECTURE’S WORTH OF NOTES! THEY ARE POSTED SEPARATELY BECAUSE THE LECTURE WAS HELD MIDWEEK, BUT IS THE INFORMATION WILL BE INCLUDED ON THE MIDTERM FRIDAY! FOR ANY QUESTIONS OR CONCERNS PLEASE EMAIL ME OR REFER TO PROFESSOR NOEL’S POLYLEARN PAGE. Ch.7: Genes and Inheritance iClicker Question Answers 1. Vinblastine targets interference with microtubule assembly which inhibits spindle formation and affects mitosis. 2. Meiosis results in the formation of nonidentical gametes, specifically 4 haploid cells. 3. Meiosis results in nonidentical cells by the swapping of alleles with occurs in Prophase I which is due to the process of crossing over. (7.1) How traits are inherited? What causes family resemblance? Mom and Dad both contribute equally. ex: How can a singly bad gene make you smell like a rotten fish? Fish odor syndrome is caused by the faulty enzyme FMO3. One fault gene produced a faulty enzyme which disabled the enzyme to metabolize triethylalemine, therefore a fish odor is excreted through urine, sweat, and breathe. The disorder is due to an autosomal recessive gene, meaning it doesn’t happen very often. Parental chromosomes hold 2 alleles of a gene, but only one allele is passed to the offspring because egg/sperm only hold 1 copy of the gene, or one allele. FMO3 can be present on 1 allele of one gene. Mom and Dad can be silent carriers, meaning they do not express the gene but still carry it in their genetic makeup. They do not express the gene because they have a different form of the gene which will overcompensate for the defective gene. If there are 2 silent carriers of a trait, the offspring will most often express the trait. (7.2) Some traits are controlled by a SINGLE GENE Heredity: the passing of characteristics from parents and offspring through their genes Examples of single gene traits: fur length and coat color of cats, widows peak in humans A single gene trait means if the gene is expressed in the offspring then one of the parents also expresses that same gene. If a cat is white, then one of its parents is also white. If a human has a widows peak, then one of their parents also has a widows peak. And so on. (7.3) Gregor Mendel mid1800’s, Gregor Mendal experimented with garden peas to determine how traits are inherited Mendel was actually very big in astronomy but is most known for his advances in heredity, he was also an established month. Before Mendel’s experiments it was common thought that sperm contained a small baby in them. Why was Mendel’s experiments successful? 1. Garden peas were a good organism to study because they are inexpensive, have a fast growth time, and are not controversial to reproduce (whereas reproducing human offspring could be deemed immoral). 2. Focused on easily categorized traits. 3. Repeatedly breed plants resulting in unvarying PREDICTABLE traits. No matter how many times he bred the plants, he knew the offspring would come back exactly the same as produced previously, meaning he could redo the experiment countless times. (7.4) Segregation Segregation: you’ve got 2 copies of each gene but put only one copy in each sperm or egg. How do we analyze and predict the outcome of crosses? 1. Assign symbols to represent different variations of a gene. 2. Dominant trait (A) masks the effect of the recessive trait (a). Mendel crossed purple and white plants. ex. Purple (AA) + White (Aa) = Purple (Aa), Purple (Aa), Purple (Aa), Purple (Aa) notice that the dominant purple tait was always expressed Purple (Aa) + Purple (Aa)= Purple (AA), Purple (Aa), White (aa), Purple (Aa) notice that there is now a white flower among the offspring, this is due to the parents both being silent carriers of the recessive trait, they both happened to pass on the trait to their offspring, therefore the flower expresses a white color as opposed to both of its parents expressing a purple color. According to Mendel’s law of segregation, only 1 of 2 alleles for a gene is put into a gamete. 3 Ideas: 1. Each parent puts into every sperm/egg a single set of instructions for building the traits= MAa, D Aa both are heterozygous. 2. Offspring receive 2 copies of instructions for any trait (alleles). = MA Ma DA Da= Aa, AA, Aa, Aa, aa 3. Trait observed depends on the 2 copies inherited from the parents homozygous (AA, aa) heterozygous (Aa) (7.5) Genotype vs. Phenotype Phenotype: outward appearance, expression of traits Genotype: genetic composition, homozygous vs. heterozygous ex: Albinism Albino; phenotype: little or no pigment in eyes, hair and skin genotype: homozygous for recessive allele for albinism (rare autosomal recessive disorder) PUNNETT SQUARE: m m M Mm Mm M Mm Mm 4/4: all offspring of mm and MM are heterozygous dominant (Mm) M m M MM Mm m Mm mm ¼: homozygous dominant (MM) ¼: homozygous recessive (mm) 2/4: heterozygous dominant (Mm) (7.6) Probability and Chance in Genetics 2 reasons: 1. Probability is a consequence of segregation (it is a random process). 2. Fertilization is also a chance event (sperm won’t always fertilize an egg). Heterozygous dominant Aa= 50% A, 50% a If Mm and mm procreate what is the probability of the offspring being mm? Use a Punnett square to figure out that the probability is 50% because each square resembles a 25% chance. THIS NOTE SET + WEEK 5 NOTES + THE STUDY GUIDE (PREVIOUS NOTES FROM LECTURES BEFORE I JOINED STUDYSOUP) IS ALL OF THE INFORMATION FOR THE MIDTERM FRIDAY, THE TEST IS NOT CUMULATIVE.
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