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Module 3- Chapter 15

by: Simone

Module 3- Chapter 15 Chem 1160

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These notes are of Chapter 15 General Chemistry
General Chemistry II
Dr. Bell
General Chemistry 2
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Simone on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 1160 at a university taught by Dr. Bell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Module 3­ Chapter 15 notes  o Tastes bitter, feels slippery  Arrhenius: + o Acid­ produces H  Lewis: o Base­ produces OH ­ o Acid­ accepts e s ­ ­ o Properties: turns blue  o Base­ donates es  litmus paper red  The Brønsted­ Lowry and Lewis  o Tastes sour are complete opposites of each   Brønsted­ Lowry: Brønsted­  other.  Lowry definition expands what an o Conjugate is always in the  acid and base can be product side o Acid­ donates H (H O ) 3 + o Conjugate acid­ base    + +  o Base(K )­ bccepts H ex.  proton NH 3 o Conjugate base­ acid  ­  o Properties: turns red litmus proton paper blue  Remember the Strong Acids & Strong Bases;  Strong Acids (C, B, S, P, I, N   Larger pK =aeaker acid Smaller  NOT H P3  or4Phosphoric Acid)  pK astronger acid  o HClO ­ p4rchloric acid   Strong Bases (Rule; Metals in  o HCl­ hydrochloric acid  first two columns of periodic  o HBr­ hydrobromic acid  table­ alkali, alkaline, and earth  o HI­ hydroiodic acid  metals. + OH) ­ o HNO ­ ni3ric acid  o LiOH­ Lithium hydroxide o H SO2­ s4lfuric acid  o NaOH­ sodium hydroxide  If 3 O increases, OH  decreases o KOH­ potassium hydroxide ­  If 3 O decreases, OH  increases  o Ca(OH) ­ c2lcium   If [3 O] > [OH] acidic  hydroxide o Sr(OH) ­stronium   If [3 O] < [OH] basic 2 hydroxide  o Ba(OH) ­ b2rium hydroxide +  Strong Acids and Bases­ completely dissociate into H  and an anion (Large  dissociation constants­ K  and K ) b  Any acids or bases you do not recognize are weak acids and bases.   Kw­ is the dissociation of water which is constant at 25C = 1.0∗10 −14 +  +  pH is measured by how much H or H O  is i3 the solution.   pH scale:  The ICE table in this chapter will be used to calculate how much H  and OH that  is present. This method is used to calculate weak acids, and bases   B       + 2 O      =      BH +   OH ­  Moles   0  0 B  ­.3 mol  + .3 mol  + . 3 mol  Moles ­  .3 mol  .3  .3mol mol  Remember one you do to one side you must do to the other, subtract on the left  and add on the right.   Acid and Base react with each other to create water and salt.    Salt­ cation from the base and anion from the acid come together to create a salt  PH levels­  o Strong acid and Strong base­ react, the pH of the entire solution is 7,  neutral. Everything is neutralized. o If a weak acid and a strong base react, the pH of the entire solution is  above 7. o If a strong acid and a weak base react, the pH of the entire solution is  below 7. o If a weak acid and a weak base react, the pH measured is from whichever is the strongest.  ­  pOH is measured by how much OH  is in the solution    The chart is used to calculate STRONG ACIDS AND BASES +  Polyprotic acids­ are acids that can donate more than one proton (H ) o “poly”­ means many, and protic means proton containing. o Example of this is; H SO 2hydr4 sulfuric acid contains two hydrogens for  donation.  o Usually losing one hydrogen is good enough, losing more than one makes it harder.  o K =ais the eq. constant, still applies how it was in chapter 14.  o K >a1 wha2e K  is tha1dissociation constant for the first acid and K  is  a2 the dissociation constant for the second hydrogen.  o EQUATIONS; A−¿ o K =10 ­pK b b o K =a ¿ o pK =­aogK a [ 3 ¿ ] o K =­10 ­pK a a ¿ o K *Ka=Kb w o pK =­bogK b + ­ ­14 o K =[w O ]3OH]=1.0*10 + + + o pH=­log[H 0 ]3 o H =H O 3 o pOH=­log[OH ] ­ o o pH+pOH=14.00 o pH=pK +aog o 10 =[H ] + [base] ­pOH ­ o 10 =[OH] [acid] o  In water, HCl (aq) ionizes. (H O (l) is implied.)  + 2  Hydronium ion, H O3(aq) is implied but not always shown. o Hydrogen Ion, Hydronium ion, Proton, H O  ion.   3 o Arrhenius definition does not account for a lot of things that act as acids  Amphoteric is a species that can act as an acid or base.   You can see that the products are an acid and base if you reverse the reaction. +¿(aq ) ¿ o −¿ (aq)+H 3 ↔ ¿ HCl (aq)+H O2 l)❑Cl ↔ +¿(aq ❑HCl (aq)+H O2l) o ¿ −¿ ( )+H O 3 Cl ¿  Conjugate acid and bases look the same except for the presence or absence of  an H  in the species  ­ + o HA(aq)+ H O 2A(aq) + H O  (aq)3 o HA (aq)  H (aq) + A (aq) ­   if K>> 1, if a  is large   if K<<1 is small,  o reaction goes to  o strong acid completely  completion,  ionizes  o reactants are completely  o weak acid only partially  converted to products, ionizes  o equilibrium lies far to the  o acids break up(dissociate)  right  into charged species (ions) o for these cases a straight  o the acid is termed weak  arrow is used o some weak acid o the term is acid strong  o reversible arrows  o WEAK ACIDS:   Autoionization is constant for water, and ion product, and dissociation.   Percent ionization­ = [H3O] equilibrium/ [HA initial] which is another way to report how far right an acid ionization reaction goes.   Mixture of acids: o You can have more than one chemical in solution that provides H  ions + o Rank the strength of the acids o If you have a strong acid in solution, use its concentration as the [H ] for  your pH concentration.  o Strong acid yields a very high H+  o Weak acid, by comparison, yields a negligible [H+]  o Use the stronger of the weak acids to set up an ICE table, K  andafind pH  Concentration of strong acid= concentration of [H+]  In a weak acid set up an equilibrium problem   In solutions with more than one acid, determine which one is stronger, then  follow equilibrium problem  Percent ionization; final [H+] compared to initial [weak acid] (as percent)   If b  is large reaction goes to completion, o Reactants are completely converted to products o Equilibrium lies far to the right  o Straight arrow  o The base is termed strong   If b  is small, much less than one  o Equilibrium reversible arrows are shown  o The reactant doesn’t go very far to the right o The base is termed weak o WEAK BASES    Many weak bases contain N, nitrogen   Determine pH of a solution that is .125 M in CO .3(K = b.8*10 ) ­4 o Make an ICE TABLE  −¿ ¿ HCO +3H ↔  2−¿+H O❑¿ 2¿ CO 3  I  .125             0       0   C –x                +x     +x   E .125­x         x        x  −¿  HCO 3 ¿ ¿ −¿ ¿ 2 OH x  K b ¿ =  =¿ 2−¿ .125−x CO ¿ 3 ¿ ¿ ¿   Consider HCl  H + Cl+ ­  Equilibrium lies far to the right  Cl is the conjugate base of HCl (does not want to act like a base, reverse  reaction)  Consider HF  H  + F+ ­  Equilibrium lies far to the left  F is the conjugate base of HF (wants to act like a base, reverse reaction)   Large K = complete  a + ionization= [HA]=[H ]  Small K =apartial  ionization=equilibrium  used to cal.  Large K = complete  b ­ ionization= [B]=[OH ]   Small K =bartial  ionization= eq. cal.   g eneral rules; an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is a weak base  a cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base is a weak acid   the stronger the acid, the weaker the base  an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is a weak base  CHO  i2 the conjugate base of HCHO  the K  2f HCHO ais 1.8 * 102HCHO is a  ­4,  2  weak acid, CHO  is a weak base 2  Small, positive highly charged metals also act as weak acids  Binary acids; H—Y, where Y is an element, Y has to be more electronegative, Y  is fine when H+ leaves with no electrons o Bond strength increases, acid strength decreases o Bond strength decreases, acid strength increases   Polarity; electronegative molecules (as K  incraases electronegativity increases  as well.)  o Oxyacids; electronegative increases of atom bonded to o or number of O  atoms in molecule, acid strength.   Bond strength plays a role as well; stronger bonds, less acidic. Weaker bonds,  more acidic.   A plot of titration is pH in the Y value by Volume of acid added in the X, and on  the curve is the equivalence point.   Buffer is used to neutralize changes in any added acid or base. 


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