Module 3- Chapter 15
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Module 3 Chapter 15 notes o Tastes bitter, feels slippery Arrhenius: + o Acid produces H Lewis: o Base produces OH o Acid accepts e s o Properties: turns blue o Base donates es litmus paper red The Brønsted Lowry and Lewis o Tastes sour are complete opposites of each Brønsted Lowry: Brønsted other. Lowry definition expands what an o Conjugate is always in the acid and base can be product side o Acid donates H (H O ) 3 + o Conjugate acid base + + o Base(K ) bccepts H ex. proton NH 3 o Conjugate base acid o Properties: turns red litmus proton paper blue Remember the Strong Acids & Strong Bases; Strong Acids (C, B, S, P, I, N Larger pK =aeaker acid Smaller NOT H P3 or4Phosphoric Acid) pK astronger acid o HClO p4rchloric acid Strong Bases (Rule; Metals in o HCl hydrochloric acid first two columns of periodic o HBr hydrobromic acid table alkali, alkaline, and earth o HI hydroiodic acid metals. + OH) o HNO ni3ric acid o LiOH Lithium hydroxide o H SO2 s4lfuric acid o NaOH sodium hydroxide If 3 O increases, OH decreases o KOH potassium hydroxide If 3 O decreases, OH increases o Ca(OH) c2lcium If [3 O] > [OH] acidic hydroxide o Sr(OH) stronium If [3 O] < [OH] basic 2 hydroxide o Ba(OH) b2rium hydroxide + Strong Acids and Bases completely dissociate into H and an anion (Large dissociation constants K and K ) b Any acids or bases you do not recognize are weak acids and bases. Kw is the dissociation of water which is constant at 25C = 1.0∗10 −14 + + pH is measured by how much H or H O is i3 the solution. pH scale: The ICE table in this chapter will be used to calculate how much H and OH that is present. This method is used to calculate weak acids, and bases B + 2 O = BH + OH Moles 0 0 B .3 mol + .3 mol + . 3 mol Moles .3 mol .3 .3mol mol Remember one you do to one side you must do to the other, subtract on the left and add on the right. Acid and Base react with each other to create water and salt. Salt cation from the base and anion from the acid come together to create a salt PH levels o Strong acid and Strong base react, the pH of the entire solution is 7, neutral. Everything is neutralized. o If a weak acid and a strong base react, the pH of the entire solution is above 7. o If a strong acid and a weak base react, the pH of the entire solution is below 7. o If a weak acid and a weak base react, the pH measured is from whichever is the strongest. pOH is measured by how much OH is in the solution The chart is used to calculate STRONG ACIDS AND BASES + Polyprotic acids are acids that can donate more than one proton (H ) o “poly” means many, and protic means proton containing. o Example of this is; H SO 2hydr4 sulfuric acid contains two hydrogens for donation. o Usually losing one hydrogen is good enough, losing more than one makes it harder. o K =ais the eq. constant, still applies how it was in chapter 14. o K >a1 wha2e K is tha1dissociation constant for the first acid and K is a2 the dissociation constant for the second hydrogen. o EQUATIONS; A−¿ o K =10 pK b b o K =a ¿ o pK =aogK a [ 3 ¿ ] o K =10 pK a a ¿ o K *Ka=Kb w o pK =bogK b + 14 o K =[w O ]3OH]=1.0*10 + + + o pH=log[H 0 ]3 o H =H O 3 o pOH=log[OH ] o o pH+pOH=14.00 o pH=pK +aog o 10 =[H ] + [base] pOH o 10 =[OH] [acid] o In water, HCl (aq) ionizes. (H O (l) is implied.) + 2 Hydronium ion, H O3(aq) is implied but not always shown. o Hydrogen Ion, Hydronium ion, Proton, H O ion. 3 o Arrhenius definition does not account for a lot of things that act as acids Amphoteric is a species that can act as an acid or base. You can see that the products are an acid and base if you reverse the reaction. +¿(aq ) ¿ o −¿ (aq)+H 3 ↔ ¿ HCl (aq)+H O2 l)❑Cl ↔ +¿(aq ❑HCl (aq)+H O2l) o ¿ −¿ ( )+H O 3 Cl ¿ Conjugate acid and bases look the same except for the presence or absence of an H in the species + o HA(aq)+ H O 2A(aq) + H O (aq)3 o HA (aq) H (aq) + A (aq) if K>> 1, if a is large if K<<1 is small, o reaction goes to o strong acid completely completion, ionizes o reactants are completely o weak acid only partially converted to products, ionizes o equilibrium lies far to the o acids break up(dissociate) right into charged species (ions) o for these cases a straight o the acid is termed weak arrow is used o some weak acid o the term is acid strong o reversible arrows o WEAK ACIDS: Autoionization is constant for water, and ion product, and dissociation. Percent ionization = [H3O] equilibrium/ [HA initial] which is another way to report how far right an acid ionization reaction goes. Mixture of acids: o You can have more than one chemical in solution that provides H ions + o Rank the strength of the acids o If you have a strong acid in solution, use its concentration as the [H ] for your pH concentration. o Strong acid yields a very high H+ o Weak acid, by comparison, yields a negligible [H+] o Use the stronger of the weak acids to set up an ICE table, K andafind pH Concentration of strong acid= concentration of [H+] In a weak acid set up an equilibrium problem In solutions with more than one acid, determine which one is stronger, then follow equilibrium problem Percent ionization; final [H+] compared to initial [weak acid] (as percent) If b is large reaction goes to completion, o Reactants are completely converted to products o Equilibrium lies far to the right o Straight arrow o The base is termed strong If b is small, much less than one o Equilibrium reversible arrows are shown o The reactant doesn’t go very far to the right o The base is termed weak o WEAK BASES Many weak bases contain N, nitrogen Determine pH of a solution that is .125 M in CO .3(K = b.8*10 ) 4 o Make an ICE TABLE −¿ ¿ HCO +3H ↔ 2−¿+H O❑¿ 2¿ CO 3 I .125 0 0 C –x +x +x E .125x x x −¿ HCO 3 ¿ ¿ −¿ ¿ 2 OH x K b ¿ = =¿ 2−¿ .125−x CO ¿ 3 ¿ ¿ ¿ Consider HCl H + Cl+ Equilibrium lies far to the right Cl is the conjugate base of HCl (does not want to act like a base, reverse reaction) Consider HF H + F+ Equilibrium lies far to the left F is the conjugate base of HF (wants to act like a base, reverse reaction) Large K = complete a + ionization= [HA]=[H ] Small K =apartial ionization=equilibrium used to cal. Large K = complete b ionization= [B]=[OH ] Small K =bartial ionization= eq. cal. g eneral rules; an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is a weak base a cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base is a weak acid the stronger the acid, the weaker the base an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is a weak base CHO i2 the conjugate base of HCHO the K 2f HCHO ais 1.8 * 102HCHO is a 4, 2 weak acid, CHO is a weak base 2 Small, positive highly charged metals also act as weak acids Binary acids; H—Y, where Y is an element, Y has to be more electronegative, Y is fine when H+ leaves with no electrons o Bond strength increases, acid strength decreases o Bond strength decreases, acid strength increases Polarity; electronegative molecules (as K incraases electronegativity increases as well.) o Oxyacids; electronegative increases of atom bonded to o or number of O atoms in molecule, acid strength. Bond strength plays a role as well; stronger bonds, less acidic. Weaker bonds, more acidic. A plot of titration is pH in the Y value by Volume of acid added in the X, and on the curve is the equivalence point. Buffer is used to neutralize changes in any added acid or base.
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