Psychology 110 chapter study guides/reviews
Psychology 110 chapter study guides/reviews 110
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STUDY GUIDE CH 1 goals of psychology The four basic goals of psychology are to describe predict explain and control or influence and mental processes what influenced psychology as a science has its roots in philosophy and physiology Interactive dualism the mind and body are different entity that interact to produce sensations and emotions and other conscious expenences Nature vs nurture the early schools of thought or movements in psychology EX structuralism functionalism etc major people involved in those movements what they were interested in What they studied or how he studied the goals of descriptive research correlation and experimental Descriptive is what you can physically observe Correlation is a research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other and experimental research is a method of investigation used to demonstrate causeandeffect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor understand a correlation coefficient A numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship the correlation between two variables Independent variable vs dependent variable The independent variable is the purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment also called the outcome variable The Dependent variable is the factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment thought to be influenced by the independent variable also called the outcome variable Understand what an informed consent The psychologist must inform the participants of the purpose of the research including significant factors that might influence a person s willingness to participate in the study such as potential risks discomfort or unpleasant emotional exercise The psychologist must also explain that participants are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time CH 2 Know what types of neurons and their functions Sensory Neurons convey information about the environment such as light or sound from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brains Sensory Neurons also carry information from the skin and internal organs to the brain Motor neurons communicate information to the muscles and glands of the body lnterneuron communicate information between neurons Major parts of neurons and what each one does Cell body soma contains structures that manufacture proteins and process nutrients providing the energy the neuron needs to function Dendrites extend from the cell bodies of most neurons they receive messages from other neurons or specialized cells Axon is a single elongated tube that extends from the cell body in most though not all neurons Axons carry information from the neuron to other cells in the body including other neurons glands and muscles The basics of synaptic transmission The point of communication between two neurons is called the synapse Neurons communicate information to other neurons either electrically or chemically ln chemical communication neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and affect neighboring neurons These neurotransmitters are held within synaptic vesicles which float in axon terminals The entire process of transmitting information at the synapse is called synaptic transmission Agonist drug vs antagonist drug An agonist is a drug or other chemical that binds to a receptor while an antagonist drugs are chemically similar to a specific neurotransmitter and produce the same effect division of the nervous system Central nervous system CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord The peripheral nervous system is the other major division of your nervous system which compromises all the nerves outside the central nervous system that extend to the outermost borders of your body including your skin The communication functions of the peripheral nervous system are handled by its two subdivisions the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system consist of actions that are voluntary like movements of your hand while autonomic nervous system is involuntary movement like breathing Sympathetic nervous system is the body s emergency system with things like adrenaline and parasympathetic nervous system is the calming nerves of your body which calms down your body Brain plasticity The human brain can change in response to environmental stimulation training or experience displaying both functional plasticityThe brain s ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas and structural plasticitystructural plasticity The brain s ability to change its physical structure in response to learning active practice or environmental influences Major Brain structure and functions The major regions of the brain are the hindbrain the midbrain and the forebrain What lateralization of function lateralization of function The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain Cortical Localization of brain function cortical localization The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain also called localization of function CH 3 difference between sensation and perception Sensation refers to the response of sensory receptors in the sense organs to stimulation and the transmission of that information to the brain Perception refers to the process through which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information processes of transduction transduction The process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system Sensory threshold sensory threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect Unless otherwise indicated it is usually defined as the weakest stimulus that can be detected half the time for example as indicated by a point on a probability curve Absolute Threshold absolute threshold The smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time Sensory adaptation Sensory adaptation takes place when the sensory receptor cells gradually decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus What kind of environmental stimuli respond to What kinds of things affect perception moon illusion A visual illusion involving the misperception that the moon is larger when it is on the horizon than when it is directly overhead Ch 6 amp 7 Study Guide Ch 6 What is memory Memory is the mental processes that allow you to retain and retrieve information over time Stage model of memory Being familiar with sperling s George Sperling discovered that visual sensory memory holds information for about half a second before the information fades Subjects stared at a screen on which rows of letters were projected for just onetwentieth of a second then the screen went blank After intervals varying up to one second tone was sounded that indicated the row of letters the subject should report If the tone was sounded within about onethird of a second subjects were able to report the letters in the indicated row because the image of all the letters was still in sensory memory Maintenance rehearsal vs elaborate rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal is the mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20 second duration of shortterm memory while Elaborate Rehearsal involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer information to longterm memory Chunking and the types of information stored in longterm memory chunking Increasing the amount of information that can be held in shortterm memory by grouping related items together into a single unit or chunk How is information organized in longterm memory Clustering Related items are clustered together to form higherorder categories List items remembered better if list presented in categories Poorer recall occurs with random presentation Even if list items are random people still organize information into some logical pattern How can we test retrieval Retrieval can be tested using Mm test of longterm memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues also called free recall cued recallA test of longterm memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue and recognition measuresA test of longterm memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices The serial position effect is our tendency to remember the first and last items in a series best Familiar with encoding specificity principle Encoding Specificity Principle is the principle that when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding retrieval is more likely to be successful flashbulb memories vs normal memories Flashbulb memories are the recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid rare or significant personal event details may or may not be accurate Two main takeaways from the evening house Reasons why we forget or theories Decay Theory When a new memory is formed it creates a distinct structural or chemical change in the brain memory trace Memory traces fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes Interference Theory Memories interfering with memories forgetting not caused by mere passage of time caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory Two different type of interference Retroactive interference A NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information Proactive interference An OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW information Motivated forgetting occurs when an undesired memory is held back from awareness Suppression conscious forgetting Repression unconscious forgetting Other reasons How might memories be distortedimagination inflation source confusion etc Are memories localized or distributedMemories can be both localized and distributed Very simple memories may be localized in a specific area Complex memories are distributed throughout the brain Amnesia Severe memory loss Retrograde amnesia inability to remember past episodic information common after head injury need for consolidation Anterograde amnesia inability to form new memories related to hippocampus damage Memory Consolidation the gradual physical process of converting new longterm memories to stable enduring memory codes What structures do we see in abundance of brains of people who have Alzheimers An abundance of betaamyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles Ch 7 Building blocks of thoughts whats a prototype The most typical instance of a particular concept Insight intuition when should you trust your intuition Insight involves the sudden realization of how a problem can be solved while Intuition refers to coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the involved thought processes What are some things that get in the way of problem solving Functional fixednessThe tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way and mental set The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past are two common obstacles to problem solving what are the different models of decision making Singlefeature model Make a decision by focusing on only one feature Additive model systematically evaluate the important features of each alternative Elimination by aspects model rate choices based on features eliminate those that do not meet the desired criteria despite other desirable characteristics Availability heuristic vs representative heuristic availability heuristic is a strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory while representativeness heuristic is a strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype of the event What was binet s original purpose Developed goal to help identify slow children who could benefit from special help Theories of intelligence Charles Spearman believed that intelligence could be described as a single factor called general intelligence or the gfactor 0 Louis L Thurstone believed that there were seven primary mental abilities 0 Howard Gardner believes that there are multiple intelligences He defines intelligence as the ability to solve problems or create products that are valued Within a cultural setting Robert Stemberg s triarchic theory of intelligence emphasizes both the universal aspects of intelligence and the importance of adapting to a particular cultural environment He identifies three forms of intelligence analytic creative and practical intelligence What determined intelligence The IQ of any individual is the result of a complex interaction between heredity and environment Intelligence is not determined by a single gene but by the interaction of multiple genesquot Ch 9 and 5 study guide Ch 908 developmental psychology research methods Developmental psychology is the study of how people change over the lifespan Research in developmental psychology may incorporate either a longitudinal design tracks a particular variable or group of variables in the same group of participants over time or a crosssectional design studies a variable or group of variables among a group of participants at different ages or developmental stages field of epigenetic and what that means for your genotype and phenotype Epigenetics is the study of the mechanisms that control gene expression and its effects on behavior and health Stages of prenatal development in the womb The germinal periodThe first two weeks of prenatal development the embryonic periodThe second period of prenatal development extending from the third week through the eighth week and the fetal periodThe third and longest period of prenatal development extending from the ninth week until birth Temperament and Attachment temperament lnborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain waya person39s or animal39s nature especially as it permanently affects their behavior attachment The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregivers especially his or her parentsan emotional bond between an infant or toddler and primary caregiver a strong bond being vital for the child39s normal behavioral and social development language development Language development is a process starting early in human life Infants start without language yet by 10 months of age babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling The stages of language development include cooing babbling the oneword stage and the twoword stage At every stage comprehension vocabulary is larger than production vocabulary production vocabulary vs comprehension vocabulary Production vocabulary is the words understood by an infant or child while comprehension vocabulary is the words that an infant or child understands and can speak Piaget and his stages of cognitive development According to Jean Piaget s theory of cognitive development children progress through distinct cognitive stages each of which represents a shift in how they think and understand the world Sensorimotor stage is the first stage of cognitive development from birth to about age 2 the period during which the infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects operational stage is the second stage of cognitive development which last from about age 2 to age 7 characterized by increasing use of symbols and pre logical thought processes Concrete operational stage is the third stage of cognitive development which last from about age 7 to adolescence characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations Formal operational stage is the fourth stage of cognitive development which last from adolescence through adulthood characterized by the one ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations Object permanencethe understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen is acquired during the sensorimotor stage Symbolic thought the ability to use words images and symbols to represent the world is acquired during the preoperational stage Preoperational thought is egocentric the inability to take another person s perspective or point of view and characterized by irreversibility the inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations and centration the tendency to focus or center on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation Thus the preoperational child is unable to grasp the principle of conservation the understanding that two equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged as long as nothing is added or subtracted Children become capable of logical thought during the concrete operational stage but thinking is limited to tangible objects and events During the formal operational stage the adolescent can engage in logical mental operations involving abstract concepts and hypothetical situations Kohlberg s stage of moral reasoning I Preconventional Level Moral reasoning is guided by external consequences No internalization of values and rules Stage one Punishment and Obedience Right is obeying the rules simply to avoid punishment because others have power over you and can punish you Stage Two Mutual Benefit Right is an even or fair exchange so that both parties benefit Moral reasoning guided by a sense of fair play Conventional Level Moral reasoning is guided by conformity to social roles rules and expectations that the person has learned and internalized Stage Three Interpersonal Expectations Right is being a good person by conforming to social expectations such as showing concern for others and following rules set by others so as to win their approval Stage Four Law and Order Right is helping maintain social order by doing one s duty obeying laws simply because they are laws and showing respect for authorities simply because they are authorities lll Postconventional Level Moral reasoning is guided by internalized legal and moral principles that protect the rights of all members of society Stage Five Legal Principles Right is helping protect the basic rights of all members of society by upholding legalistic principles that promote the values of fairness justice equality and democracy Stage Six Universal Moral Principles Right is determined by selfchosen ethical principles that reflect the person s respect for ideals such as nonviolence equality and human dignity If these moral principles conflict with democratically determined laws the person s selfchosen moral principles take precedence Erikson s theory of psychosocial development 1 lnfancy birth to 18 months Trust vs mistrust Positive Resolution Reliance on consistent and warm caregivers produces a sense of predictability and trust in the environment Negative Resolution Physical and psychological neglect by caregivers leads to fear anxiety and mistrust of the environment 2 Toddlerhood 18 months to 3 years Autonomy vs doubt Positive Resolution Caregivers encourage independence and selfsufficiency promoting positive selfesteem Negative Resolution Overly restrictive caregiving leads to selfdoubt in abilities and low self esteem Early childhood 3 to 6 years Initiative vs guilt Positive Resolution The child learns to initiate activities and develops a sense of social responsibility concerning the rights of others promotes selfconfidence Negative Resolution Parental over control stifles the child s spontaneously sense of purpose and social learning promotes guilt and fear of punishment Middle and late childhood 6 to 12 years Industry vs inferiority Positive Resolution Through experiences with parents and keeping up with peers the child develops a sense of pride and competence in schoolwork and home and social activities Negative Resolution Negative experiences with parents or failure to keep up with peers leads to pervasive feelings of inferiority andinadequacy Adolescence Identity vs role confusion Positive Resolution Through experimentation with different roles the adolescent develops an integrated and stable self definition forms commitments to future adult roles Negative Resolution An apathetic adolescent or one who experiences pressures and demands from others may feel confusion about his or her identity and role in society Young Adult Intimacy vs isolation Positive Resolution By establishing lasting and meaningful relationships the young adult develops a sense of connectedness and intimacy with others Negative Resolution Because of fear of rejection or excessive self preoccupation the young adult is unable to form close meaningful relationships and becomes psychologically isolated Middle Adulthood Generativer vs stagnation Positive Resolution Through child rearing caring for others productive work and community involvement the adult expresses unselfish concern for the welfare of the next generation Negative Resolution Selfindulgence selfabsorption and a preoccupation with one s own needs lead to a sense of stagnation boredom and a lack of meaningful accomplishments Late Adulthood Ego integrity vs despair Positive Resolution In reviewing his or her life the older adult experiences a strong sense of selfacceptance and meaningfulness in his or her accomplishments Negative Resolution In looking back on his or her life the older adult experiences regret dissatisfaction and disappointment abut his or her life and accomplishments activity theory of aging The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity they displayed earlier in life stages of dying Elisabeth KiiblerRoss proposed a fivestage model of dying First they Mthat death is imminent perhaps insisting that their doctors are wrong or denying the seriousness of illness Second they feel and express mthat they are dying Third they bargi they try to make a deal with the doctors relatives or God promising to behave in a certain way if only they may be allowed to live Fourth they become depressed Finally they Mtheir fate Ch 5 cassica conditioning Classical conditioning explains how certain stimuli can trigger an automatic response Classical conditioning deals with reflexive behaviors that are elicited by a stimulus and results from learning an association between two stimuli Pavlov and Watson s experiment Pavlov s experiment consisted of a classical conditioning procedure involving the learning of an association between a neutral stimulus the ringing bell and a natural stimulus food Watson s experiment consisted of showing a baby a rat which of course the baby was not scared of and then showing the rat with making a loud noise UCS the white rat becomes a CS Factors that effect conditioning Classical conditioning can also contribute to the placebo responseAn individual s psychological and physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug also called placebo effect and other drug effects Biological preparedness John Garcia s research showed that taste aversions violate key principles of classical conditioning which is affected by biological preparednessln learning theory the idea that an organism is innater predisposed to form associations 10 between certain stimuli and responses For a given species some stimuli are more readily associated than others Law of effect Learning principle proposed by Thorndlike in which responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation while responses followed by a dissatisfying effects are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation operant conditioning The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response reinforcement vs punishment Reinforcement is the occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated while punishment is the presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior being repeated Positive and negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement is a situation which a response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated 11 in similar situations while negative reinforcement is a situation in which a response results in the removal of avoidance of or escape from a punishing stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations Latent Learning Tolman s term for learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available Observational learning Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others 12 Cannetl Ch 11 4 main perceptives on personality The four major theoretical perspectives on personality are the psychoanalytic Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior humanistic School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person s unique potential for psychological growth and selfdirection social cognitive Albert Bandura s theory of personality which emphasizes the importance of observational learning conscious cognitive processes social experiences selfefficacy beliefs and reciprocal determinism and trait perspectives A theory of personality that focuses on identifying describing and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions Freud structure of personality Freud believed that behavior is strongly influenced by the unconscious The contents of the unconscious can surface in disguised form in free associations dreams slips of the tongue and apparent accidents how is the unconscious revealed neurologistfather of psychoanalysispsychodynamic theoristbiology gt psychology3 interacting structures of the mind id ego and superego5 Psychosexual stages oral anal phallic latency amp genitalOedipus complexElectra complexDevelopment set in childhoodDreams and slips of the tongue reveal unconscious conflicts and wishesFirst to talk about unconscioussexdefensesanxietyDefense Mechanisms how is personality developed Personality consists of three psychological processes id ego and superego ID is Latin for the it in Freud s theory the completely unconscious irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives ruled by the pleasure principle Ego is Latin for l in Freud s theory the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world Superego is In Freud s theory the partly conscious selfevaluative moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules NeoFroidians Followed Freud in stressing the importance of the Cannet2 unconscious and early childhood but they developed their own personality theones Disagreed with Freud on three key points Disagreed that behavior was primarily motivated by sexual urges Disagreed that personality is fundamentally determined by early childhood experiences Disagreed with Freud s generally pessimistic view of human nature and society Carl Rogers Most basic human motive is actualizing tendency the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism Selfconcept Set of perceptions and beliefs you hold about yourself Positive regard sense of being loved and valued by others Feelings become denied or distorted not because they are threatening but because they contradict the selfconcept In this case people are in a state of incongruence Fully functioning person has a flexible constantly evolving selfconcept and experiences congruence Unconditional positive regard child s sense of being unconditionally loved and valued even if he or she doesn t conform to standards and expectations of others Conditional positive regard child s sense of being valued and loved only if he or she behaves in a way that is acceptable to othersPerson centered How we get to top of pyramid Genuineness being honest direct not using a facade acceptance unconditional positive regard acknowledging problems feelings without judgement honoring not devaluing empathy tuning into feelings of others showing your efforts and understanding listening well NOT sympathy people need to be heard not pitied Unconditional positive regard slacked off on paper not beating yourself up know you didn39t do the best job still an ok person Cannet3 Steady view of who you are social cognitive perspectives Emphasizes conscious selfregulated behavior rather than unconscious mental influences and instinctual drives Stresses conscious thought processes selfregulation and the importance of situational influences Proposes that sense of self can vary depending on thoughts feelings and behaviors in a given situation Bandura Human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral cognitive and environmental factors reciprocal determinism Person s cognitive skills abilities and attitudes represent the person s self system Most critical elements influencing the selfsystem are our beliefs of self efficacy the belief that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation By encouraging his son and helping him learn how to use a knife properly this father is fostering the young boy s sense of self efficacy Trait perspectives unconscious wasn39t a good place to look for personalityGordon Albert decided Freud overvalued unconscious motives and undervalued real observable personalityMyers and Briggs wanted to study individuals behaviors and statements to find how people differed in personality different traitsMyersBriggs type indicator MBTI categorizes people by traitsTraits enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way Trait theory collection of traits behavioral predispositionsEysencks39 Personality Dimensions factors that cluster together many traits are functions of two basic dimensions along which we varyBig Five CANOE Traits don39t change much but as adults you become less extraverted and less open but instead more agreeable etc Two major types of test to access personality The Thematic Apperception Test Developed by psychologists Christiana Morgan and Henry Murray 1935 Cannet4 the TAT involves creating a story about a highly evocative ambiguous scene like the ones shown in the cards in the photographs above The person is thought to project his own motives conflicts and other personality characteristics into the story he creates According to Murray 1943 Before he knows it he has said things about an invented character that apply to himself things which he would have been reluctant to confess in response to a direct question Rorschach Inkblot Test A projective test using inkblots developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921 Strength and weaknesses of these test Strengths Provision of qualitative information about individual s psychological functioning Information can facilitate psychotherapy Limitations Influence of testing situation or examiner s behavior Highly subjective scoring Failure to produce consistent results Poor at predicting future behavior Ch12 What are somethings that influence our first impression of people Characteristics of the person you are trying to evaluate Your own selfperception Your goals in the situation Specific situation in which the process occurs We can judge a person s attractiveness likability competence trustworthiness and aggressiveness in a 110 of a second Principle 1 Your reactions to others are determined by your perceptions of them not by who they really are Principle 2 Your selfperception also influences how you perceive others and how you act on your perceptions Principle 3 Your goals in a particular situation determine the amount and Cannet5 kinds of information you collect about others Principle 4 In every situation you evaluate people partly in terms of how you expect them to act How do people tend to explain their own behaviors versus others behaviors The attribution process refers to how we infer the cause of our own or another person s behavior Attributions can strongly influence our opinions of other people but the attribution process is susceptible to many biases Three important attributional biases are the fundamental attribution error The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal personal characteristics while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external situational factors an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures the actorobserver bias The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external situational characteristics while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal personal factors and the selfserving bias The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external situational causes The just world hypothesis The belief that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get along with the fundamental attribution error contributes to blaming the victim The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it of a tragedy In some collectivistic cultures people display the modesty or selfeffacing bias and are less prone to making the fundamental attribution error than are people in individualistic cultures Whats the just world hypothesis The belief that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get the three components of attitudes Cannet6 Cagintttive CamiFanenit39 Beliefs thoughts ideas atziaut the attitude abiect the easyr availatziilitjir at fast teed discaurages peapte tram eating healthy toad like Fresh truits and vegetables Attitude Jill has a negative 7 attitude taward tasttaad restaurants t Behaviarali Components Predispasitian ta act in a particular a big hamburger chain tried ta buitd a new restaurant in my neigh barhaad t airganized a petitian drive to appase it Emattanal Campanenti Feelings and ernatians abaut the attitude ateiect quotFast teed is disgusting t hate their greasy tries and their take milkshakes Net to mentian their smanmv ad campaignsquot The Effect of Behavior on Attitudes Cannet7 Hyouoan thnaHze CognMve Peopbseekwaysto orexwamyour dbsonanoe deomasethe behawohtheoonHMt Fengerand dboomlonoaused HndthetenMonu CausmHh bytheinoonMsMnoy eHmmatedor avowed W hen you are torn between two choices Hyoucantexpmm 39 Youemphasnethenega veleawresolme yourbehawohyou ohMoeyourHeonthhisoommonlyoMMd a maychangeyour bourgmpes mHothaHonOR atmudesothMitm 39 Youabo emphasnetheposHWeleawresolthe inharmony Wthour ohMoeyoumade a weetbmons behaer mHothaHon what are somethings we can do to reduce prejudice Muzafer Sherif demonstrated that intergroup conflict can be decreased when groups engage in a cooperative effort Cooperative learning is one way of reducing prejudice in classrooms Asch s conformity study Solomon Asch s Experiment All but one in group was confederate Seating was rigged Asked to rate which line matched a standard line Confederates were instructed to pick the wrong line 12 of 18 times Resu s Asch found that 76 participants conformed to at least one wrong choice Subjects gave wrong answer conformed on 37 of the critical trials Remember that on about twothirds of trials participants stuck to their guns difference between normative social influence versus information influence Cannet8 Normative social influence Subjects desired to be liked and accepted by the group Informational social influence Subjects reported having doubted their own perceptual abilities which led to their conformance They did not report seeing the lines the way the confederates had Milligram s obedient study Could a person be pressured by others into committing an immoral act some action that violated his or her own conscience such as hurting a stranger Basic study procedure Participants represented a wide range of occupational and educational backgrounds Postal workers highschool teachers whitecollar workers engineers and laborers One teacher and one learner learner is always the confederate Watch learner being strapped into chair Learner expresses concern over his heart condition Teacher goes to another room with experimenter Shock generator panel 1 5 to 450 volts labeled slight shock to XXX Asked to give higher shocks for every mistake learner makes Learner protests more and more as shock increases Experimenter continues to request obedience even if teacher balks The experiment requires that you continue or You have no other choice you must continue bystander effect A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress Under what condition are pe0ple likely to help others Cannet9 Feel good do good effect Feeling guilty Seeing others who are willing to help Perceiving the other person as deserving help Knowing how to help A personalized relationship A dangerous situation How do men and women differ in aggression Direct physical aggression was more common in males than females at all ages sampled was consistent across cultures and occurred from early childhood on showing a peak between 20 and 30 years Archer Girls and women are just as aggressive as boys in indirect aggression which refers to aggression related to interactions such as gossiping and spreading rumors Archer and others how does being around people hurt individual performance People tend to expend less effort on collective tasks than they do when performing the same task alone The greater the number of people involved in a collective effort the lower each individual s output Diffusion of responsibility occurs among group members working on a collective task CH 10 Difference between sex and gender sex refers to the biologically determined physical characteristics that define a person as male or female Gender refers to the cultural social and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity Difference between gender identity and gender orientation Gender roles are the behaviors attitudes and personality traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture Canneth Sexual Orientation is the direction of a person s emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex the same sex or both sexes men and women difference in personality and emotionality and cognitive abilities For most personality characteristics there are no significant differences between the sexes However men and women consistently differ on some personality dimensions Women tend to be more nurturing than men Men tend to be more assertive than women Women tend to be more peopleoriented and less thingoriented than men Women are socially sensitive friendly and concerned with others welfare men are dominant controlling and independent Differences in emotionality Women display more emotional awareness than men and report experiencing and expressing more sadness fear and guilt Men report experiencing and expressing more anger and hostility Expression of emotions is strongly influenced by culturally determined display rules For most cognitive abilities there are no significant differences between the sexes Some limited differences do exist Verbal reading and writing skills Females score higher than males on verbal fluency reading comprehension spelling and basic writing skills Math skills On average males do slightly better than females on tests of advanced mathematical ability Spatial skills Males outscore females on some but not all tests of spa alskms Cannetll Be familiar with the two theories of gender differences social learning theory of genderrole development The theory that gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning including reinforcement punishment and modeling gender schema theory The theory that genderrole development is influenced by the formation of schemas or mental representations of masculinity and femininity Ch 14 Abnormal vs Normal behavior The dividing line between normal and abnormal behavior often determined by social or cultural context Strong social stigma attached to suffering from a psychological disorder Pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms must represent a serious departure from the prevailing social and cultural norms Standard descriptions of disorders from the DSM5 must be used What39s the DSM Abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders The relationship between mental illness and violence People with a major mental illness belong to one of the most stigmatized groups and are more likely to be portrayed as Violent Overall former mental patients do not have a higher rate of violence Those with symptoms of substance use disorder were most likely to engage in violent behavior Those with severe mental disorder symptoms display slightly higher levels of violence Generalized anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive global and persistent symptoms of anxiety also called freefloating anxiety Panic attacks A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity Panic disorder An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks Specific phobias An excessive intense and irrational fear of a specific object situation or activity that is actively avoided or endured With marked anxiety Obsessive compulsive disorder Disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive repetitive and unwanted thoughts obsessions and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform compulsions Posttraumatic stress disorder A disorder triggered by exposure to a highly traumatic event which results in recurrent involuntary and intrusive memories of the event avoidance of stimuli and situations associated with the event negative changes in thoughts moods and emotions and a persistent state of heightened physical arousal Major depressive disorder A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency worthlessness and hopelessness causing impaired emotional cognitive behavioral and physical functioning Persistent depressive disorder A disorder involving chronic feelings of depression that is often less severe than major depressive disorder Seasonal affective disorder A mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer Bipolar disorder A mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement formerly called manic depression Cyclothymic disorder siekloTHYmick A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar disorder Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss an irrational fear of gaining weight and distorted body selfperception Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by selfinduced vomiting misuse of laxatives or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain Borderline personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships self image and emotions and marked impulsivity Antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths Dissociative identity disorder A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities or personalities formerly called multiple personalin disorder Schizophrenia A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs perceptions and thought processes Ch 15 Psychoanalysis Freud Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behaVior Transference In psychoanalysis the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient s life such as a parent are unconsciously transferred onto the psychoanalyst resistancezln psychoanalysis the patient s unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and con icts free association A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts feelings and mental images that arise revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions Client centered therapy Rogers A type of psychotherapy developed by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and re ective and the client directs the focus of each therapy session also called personcentered therapy Conditions for growth According to Rogers clients change and grow when their selfconcept becomes healthier as a result of these therapeutic conditionsMotivational interviewing is more directive than traditional clientcentered therapy and is designed to strengthen the client s self motivation to change Cognitive A group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to illogical patterns of thinking treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns Behavioral A type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques also called behavior modification Mary Cover Jones counterconditioning Mary Cover Jones was the first behavior therapist using the procedure of counterconditioningA behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying behavior by conditioning a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response to extinguish phobic behavior in a child Systematic desensitization A type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or reallife situations that the person finds progressively more fearprovoking based on the principle of counterconditioning Token economy A form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards Cognitive behavioral Therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts moods and behaviors are interrelated advantages of group therapy It is costeffective therapists can observe clients interacting with other group members clients benefit from the support encouragement and practical suggestions provided by other group members and people can try out new behaviors in a safe supportive environment Effectiveness of psychotherapy Metaanalysis has been used to combine the ndings of many different studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapy In general psychotherapy has been shown to be significantly more effective than no treatment Among the standard psychotherapies no particular form of therapy is superior to the others However particular forms of therapy are more effective than others for treating some specific problems Factors identified as crucial to therapy s effectiveness include the quality of the therapeutic relationship the therapist s characteristics the therapist s sensitivity to cultural differences the client s characteristics and supportive stable external circumstances One of the most common psychotherapy orientations today is eclecticism an approach that integrates the techniques of more than one form of psychotherapy tailored to the individual client s needs 10
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