PSY 202 10 Week In-Class Lecture Notes Bundle/Study Guide
PSY 202 10 Week In-Class Lecture Notes Bundle/Study Guide PSY 202
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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Dani Bailey on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Rujin, Dr. Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Psychology 202 CH 1 HISTORY Psychology: study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by one’s physic and mental state and external environment -Look of behavior -Subject matter is young and subject matter is complex -Oftentimes contradicts common sense -Based on rigorous research and empirical evidence (evidence gathered by observation, experimentation, and measurement) - BEGAN with philosophers yet emerged with researchers who used scientific method to answer questions the philosophers raised -Used Introspection-human ability to observe themselves and examine own minds; and “Scientific Study of Consciousness”-these methods are too subjective -Brain makes sense with what it comes into contact with and forms pattern -From this, discovered some taste buds! (taste buds recover every 7 days) MIDDLE PHASE John Watson-1913-observe; measure; test-that way psychology can be SCIENTIFIC -“The Science of Behavior”-definition of psychology -Threw out consciousness to get respect THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY Tradition of Limited Perspectives (explain why we act the way we do); all founders are white men=get ideas that are not necessarily wrong but they are not broad (limited ideas) (5) The Perspectives: explain why people do they things they do Psychoanalytic: we do things because of the way we were raised Behavioral (learning); correlation with influence of environment Biological: we do behavior because of something biological (ADHD); interaction between body and mind Humanistic: we do things to get respect from others Cognitive: behavior is dependent upon mental processes Limitations Emotions Competition vs. cooperation Hierarchies and sequence RESEARCH:ATypical Experiment Methods (6): all have to do with relationships Case study Observation t s e T Survey Correlation study Experiment: identical conditions except for one thing; only experiment has to do with cause and effect Philosophers: interested in human behavior but was subject to errors because did not make use of empirical evidence -inferred role of human brain e.g. phrenology: bumps on head are parallel to human traits Wilhelm Wundt: founded first scientific psychology laboratory in 1879 (opening of the first Psych Lab-marked beginning) 135 YEARS OLD “Trained Introspection” used to analyze sensations into basic elements (rejected) William James: analyzed the function or purpose of behavior (Functionalism) Emphasis on causes and consequences of behavior influences the direction of psychology Inspired by evolutionary theory (Charles Darwin) Sigmund Freud: believed his patients problems had mental causes which could be traced to forgotten and repressed early childhood conflicts or trauma (Psychoanalysis) What Psychologists Do -Teach and research -Psychological practice -Conduct research and applications in nonacademic settings Basic Psychology -pure research: knowledge for its own sake rather than practical application Applied Psychology -study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and the application of psychological findings Practitioners: strive to understand and improve physical and mental health Types: counseling (deals with problems of everyday life); school (enhance student performance and resolve emotional conflict); clinical (treat and study mental problems Critical Thinking: set of skills that help distinguish arguments based on evidence -Includes ability to actively come up with alternative explanations -Being “open minded” is a justification for mental laziness -An opinion is not equal to any other opinion (8) Guidelines: -Ask questions -Define terms: hypothesis; operational definitions: how the variables are actually being observed and measured (eg: the score on an anxiety test) -Examine evidence -Analyze assumptions (beliefs we take for granted) and biases (assumptions that keep us from considering the evidence fairly) Confirmation Bias is a natural process that causes us to look for evidence that supports our assumptions and ignore evidence that does not support our assumptions Principle of Falsifiability means that scientific predictions are made in such a way that they and our assumptions can be easily refuted by the evidence -Avoid emotional reasoning -Don’t oversimplify: resist generalizations and “either or thinking” and “argument by anecdote”: generalizing from a few examples -Consider other interpretations: goal is to arrive at a theory: a system of principles that tries to explain the phenomena -Tolerate uncertainty: replication is a must before firm conclusions are made Description Studies: allow a researcher to describe and predict behavior-do not allow us to determine causal relationships - Representative sample is idea: a sample that matches the population in question Randomly selected participants represents larger population - Case studies: include observations, interviews and psychological testing that gives us insight into that persons behavior (best used as a source of hypotheses rather than a test of hypothesis) - Observational studies: researcher observes, measure, and records behavior Naturalistic observation is used to find out how subjects behave in their natural environment Laboratory observation allows more control and special equipment -Test: used to measure and evaluate traits, emotional states, abilities and values Objective tests (inventories) measures beliefs, feelings, and behaviors of which we are aware Projective tests tap the unconscious feelings or emotions. -Surveys: unrepresentative sample Correlational Studies: looks for relationships between variables; a number indicates the size and direction of the relationship between the two variables-but does not indicate that one causes the other (positive and negative) illusory correlations: meaningless correlation that are based on coincidence, rumor or anecdote The Experiment: allows researchers to track down the likely causes of behavior by manipulating the variables in a controlled situation -Hypothesis -Manipulate independent variables (variable manipulated by researcher to see what its effect will on the dependent variable) -Measure dependent variables (variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable) -Results Two groups created by randomly assigning subjects to each group Experiment group received independent variable Control group does not receive independent variable Single-blind study: subjects don't know whether they are in the experimental or the control group Double-blind study: Neither the subjects nor the experimenter know who is in the experimental or control group. placebo: a substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment Evaluating the findings Describe the results Assess how reliable and meaningful they are Explain the meaning of the results Descriptive statistics: organize and summarize research data Arithmetic mean: average that represents both scores for both groups-does not tell us about variability Standard deviation: how scores are spread out around the mean; wide spread=arithmetic mean does not represent typical score Inferential statistics: allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a studies results are Significance tests allow the researcher to determine if the results were simply due to chance Statistically significant means that the result was extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance Choosing explanations: Cross-sectional studies compares subjects of different ages at the same time but are subject to contamination by generational differences Longitudinal studies follow subjects over a long period of time and periodically tests them TERMS (as described during lecture): Experiment: you have two or more identical conditions; except for one thing Hypothesis: statement of what causes a certain effect Dependent variable: thing that is effected (the results) Independent variable: what supposedly has an effect (caffeine) Experimental condition: one that contains the independent variable (caffeine) Control condition: Random assignment: (not the same as random sampling) act of assigning randomly; makes two groups on average are about the same-assumption..yet COULD BE WRONG (need to be done more than once) -THIS EXPERIMENT IS THE ONLYWAYTO DETERMINE CAUSEAND EFFECT The Social Psychology of War and Peace CH 10 Lecture: examine alternatives (rather than war) and personal factors that lead us to take action human behavior-combination of environmental factors (instigates warfare and interpersonal aggression) and personal factors within people Instigating causes injustice (beheading journalists) : wanting to win/get more than others threats to security and interests (WWI & WWII) conflict: perceived incompatibility between goals, values or beliefs (ISIS) true morality is based on mutual cooperation competitive thinking=maladaptive responses (daily: arguing) Maladaptive responses to conflict in children and adults: ten year olds in urban societies engaged in “Maladaptive competition” in conflict situations requiring cooperation. Their concerns about winning and “not losing” blinded them to the alternative of cooperating Children in rural societies that value sharing and cooperation did not engage in maladaptive competition Maladaptive competition in Cal Poly students Maladaptive competition and war (Vietnam war--will not be first U.S. president to LOSE a war); fail to consider alternatives to solve problems Alternatives to military action: Economic sanctions (eg: refuse to buy a product) Positive incentives & friendly initiatives (if you do so and so, a good thing will happen to you; argument with gf-do something friendly and buy her flowers) GRIP (friendly initiatives)-graduated reciprocated initiative production Negotiation-identifying interest and seeking integrative solutions: solution that meets the needs of both sides of party (also called diplomacy) Third party involvement mediation (the helper assists negotiation process but does not come up with the solution) arbitration (arbitrator comes up with solution by learning interests of both sides) “third side” influence: bringing in a third party Nonviolent resistance (eg: Martin Luther King; Hong King resisting Chinese political laws) Militaristic attitude: 1) favoring miliary actions vs. cooperative actions to deal with international conflict and 2) believing that national security depends more on military strength than on cooperation with others “militaristic <-->cooperative” (an attitude dimension) Militaristic attitude relates to: THESEARE INFLUENCES/NOTALWAYS CAUSES Gender (male) Political party identification (Republicans) Valuing power & dominance Accepting revenge norms (more interpersonal) Imposing values on others (everyone else should be the way you are) Closed mindedness Low perspective taking (only take their point of view) Low empathic caring Low humanitarian NOT related Intelligence and problem solving Ability Militaristic attitude also correlates with self reported interpersonal aggressiveness. Perhaps there is an underlying attitude dimension of Contentious <--> Cooperative BUT WHAT IS THE OTHER PARTY IS UNCOOPERATIVE research on conflict “games” cooperative people are subject to abuse best solution-cooperate, then if the other party is not cooperative-then tit for tat Problem Solving approach to conflict-SAGE see conflict as a problem solving challenge vs. a need for revenge analyze the conflict evaluate alternatives Analyze the conflict discover the facts avoid exaggerated enemy perseptions understand the other’s perspective understand the causes of the conflict clarify your interests (emotional impulses vs. values and long term goals) avoid groupthink (pressures for premature consensus LoveAnd Hate Lecture Love: The Findings A. PhysicalAttraction-draws people into dating and relationships A. Face: (men like women with large eyes; high cheek bones; small nose; small chin; full lips; large space between top of the eye and eye brow; LARGE SMILE) (women like slightly sunken eyes; heavier eyebrows; small space between; broad chin; thinner lips; LARGE SMILE-handsome man but not the man we date and marry) women date and marry men who have a slightly feminine appearance. B. Body: male wants a woman with medium sized breasts-hips, waist (did study-men thought women would look more attractive if they were way thinner than what women thought the women should weigh) (women wanted men with broad shoulders, thin waist, thin hips, thin legs; small-tight ass) B. DoesAbsence Make the Heart Grow Fonder (GO WANDER)? Rate of breakup for long distance relationships is in %90 C. Do OppositeAttract? Personality Matters. In 130 years of research, it has never been found that opposites attract scientifically. People who are similar in important characteristics, are attracted to each other. You have to match your partner in important ways that are critical to both of you. D. Who is Pickier? Women are pickier E. Does Romance Exist? A. The Romantic Ideal-when you meet someone and they take your breath away B. Romance at the Marriage Bureau- did you have a strong emotional attraction with the person you are about to marry within the first two weeks of dating (the romantic ideal) A. Men: %8 of men said yes B. Women: %5 of women said yes C. Romance at Cal Poly F. Who Makes the Best Partner (again, personality matters) -agreement, similarity.As you have the conversation-the person starts to look more attractive! You feel understood. Bem sex row inventory: whether you have a dating or married or same sex relationship, the worst person is someone who is masculine. -Men are lonelier than women (loneliest group is 18-25) Hate A. Racism(do not have to include any emotion-just discriminatory thought or behavior), Sexism(does not have to include any emotion-just discriminatory thought or behavior), and Prejudice(worst of the three; involves several components: negative emotion, discriminatory thought or behavior) B. Non conscious Ideologies (picture first artist):Apple Pie A. Generic Nouns and Pronouns B. Names and JobApplications C. Widget Study: students had to build widgets after given instructions; some instructions have the name of the student who wrote it, with half being male and half being female. The groups produced less when instructions had female name on it. D. Median Pay: women in US make less than men in doing the same work (everything is compared to a white male) E. Equal status, cooperative, group contact Intelligence Lecture A. Development of Intelligence Tests: widely used psychological test used (originally for school kids, for testing low ability and predict school performance) 1. Francis Galton: Brain Size (cousin: Charles Darwin) motive for testing the intelligence of people: tried to get the best of the best to breed with each other. Decided the bigger the brain size, the smarter the person (men had bigger brain size than women) It is the number of neuro connections and pathways determine how smart you are (trillion). 2. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: SchoolAssessment of LowAbility (1900-to find and isolate those with low intelligence-so that they could be taken out of the classroom and given extra attention)Alfred decided to have unique tasks. Does the test measure intelligence? No, they might measure a component of intelligence. 3. Wilhelm Stern: Mental Quotient (IQ)=mental age of the student/chronologic age of student x 100 4. Lewis Terman (1920s): revised and changed the mental quotient-Stanford Binet and IQ. Also changed the mental quotient to IQ-still used today for gifted children to get them into programs! Used this test to measure IQ of immigrants, conducts that immigrants dumb in a really typical way-stupid. Termites: test subjects measured over time. He publicly said he was wrong and that he misused the test on immigrants and that he was sorry. 5. David Wechsler: Deviation IQ and WAIS. Gave IQ test to a bunch of people at the same age, if you score less than average-your IQ will be lower than 100. Started comparing IQs within the same age category. The average college student has an IQ of about 150 (cal poly 120) college professor (125).Also created WAIS-used to test adults. Both tests are most widely used intelligence tests on this planet! The Educational Testing Service B. Concepts of Intelligence 1. Charles Spearman: intelligence is general and specific 2. Raymond Cattell: Fluid(when you process information) and Crystalized(what you already know): Use vs. Knowledge 3. Robert Sternberg: How you use what you know-entirely about fluidity of knowledge 4. Howard Gardner: 7 kinds of intelligence (linguistic; psychological mathematical; musical; spacial; bodily kinesthetic; interpersonal; intra-personal(viable understanding of yourself) There are different kinds of intelligence (2 traditional; 2 talent; 2 verbal; spacial) C. Definition of Intelligence: Acombination of abilities enabling one to: -Learn from Experience -Reason or ThinkAbstractly -Meet Challenges andAdapt” (in school) D. Racial/Ethnic Differences in IQ -Racial differences exist (because of intelligence score-8-15 points lower than caucasion Euro Americans) -These racial differences are genetic-cannot conclude cause and effect -Individual IQ are due to genetic basis, but does not mean that racial group differences in IQ have to be genetics -students from farms and ranches score lower but have caught up in 1990s -the racial ethnic group in power has a higher IQ over the other racial ethnic groups- environmental (wealth and power and access and means) -stereotype threat-undermine persons performance (strongest among the best students) when they are told the test are unimportant then the scores are the same The Human Brain Lecture “Plastic”- it can reorient itself Brain and spinal cord forms central nervous system Brain consists in part of neurons-100 billion neurons which make over 100 trillion connections Anatomy: Take off scalp and skull, however there are 3 other layers (mater): dura mater (tough mother) then arachnoid mater (spider mother) and pia mater (tender mother) Cerebral Corex: 85% water “cortex is to the brain as bark is to a tree” (grey other surface) and Cerebrum (white inner material) -cortex is divided into lobes (2 hemispheres with four lobes in each) -frontal lobe: analysis and emotional control; motor strip in rear of frontal lobe: plan to do activity -parietal lobe: association and spatial processes; taking info from retinas and giving you a 3d sense; memory (coffee shop having coffee)1;somatosensory strip in front: making sense of tactile input from the environment (itch on knee) -occipital lobe: primary visual cortex: refocusing the upside down image created by retina -temporal lobe: auditory cortex-inital processing of sound Structures -commissures: largest is corpus callosum-200 million fibers that run across left and right side; cerebrospinal fluid and ventricles “little bellies” gives buoyancy and also flows between the arachnoid and pia layers (1/2 cup); helps prevent shock to head -thalamus “inner chamber” relays sensory information -limbic system hypothalamus: regulates hunger thirst, sex drive (survival) hippocampus: “seahorse” involved in memory function; taking current experience and putting it in long term storage amygdad “almond”: emotional responses -brainstem pons “bridge”: regulating states in awareness (groggy or buzzed) medulla “marrow”: maintains automatic bodily functions (breathing and heartbeat) cerebellum “small brain”: coordination of complex muscular activity; motor strip plans action-this executes action; classical conditioning Research Techniques Lecture -Measures function as opposed to structure -Noninvasive: no tissues are harmed -Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures function; sodium-potassium ion pump -this electric generator was discovered by Richard Caton, 1875 (frankenstein stuff!); used in sleep research -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): measures structure; developed in 1970s; strong magnetic field; magnetic properties of oxygenated versus deoxygenated blood; took advantage of improved computing power; areas of blood flow are superimposed over -Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) -Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan): measures function; uses glucose with a radioactive tag (neurons are fueled by glucose and oxygen); active areas of brain tissues temporarily absorb the radioactivity Lesions: damage through injury or disease Phineas Gage: foreman on a railroad crew; premature detonation blasts a tamping rod though head; could not control emotional responses after accident (1848); frontal lobes control emotions Paul Broca: french surgeon; first examines “Tan” in 1861-tan spoke in short words; autopsy reveals stroke damage in a specific left-hemisphere location; lower frontal ob just in front of motor; brocas are supports speech production Car Wernicke: german surgeon; 1874 report of left-hemisphere stroke damage; patients could neither produce nor understand meaningful speech; wernickes are supports the meaning of language Sleep Lecture 25 hour internal clock Rhythms Circadian-once a day -independent measures of time -have their own daily cycles-close to but not exactly 24 hours -can be adapted to a 24-hour schedule when exposed to cues-called zeitgebers -without such environmental time cues, the organism reverts to its own internal -cycle-called free running sleep/wake cycle body temperature Infradian-less than once a day menstrual cycle hibernation Ultradian-more than once a day heartbeat breathing Free running: in the absence of time cues (zeitgebers) plants-22 hours monkeys-24.5 mice-23 hours humans-about 25 hours Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus (”kernel above the crossing” monitors melatonin Laboratory studies Weitzman and Czeisler (mid 1970s)-isolated, unused hospital wing; participants had to be psychologically stable; technicians on duty took frequent, regular physiological measurements; twenty 24 hour days to start, then no routine; most participants began free running-bedtime drifting one hour later each day Why is monday morning so awful? pretend weekday nights: 11pm-7 am F riday night: to bed at 1 am S unday: you want to go to bed at 3 am but your internal clock wants you to go to bed at 4 am moral: keep your sleep schedule regular Stages of sleep 1. Falling asleep-sudden, not gradual (Dement, 1974-strobe light) Stage 1: lasts about 10 minutes; drifting thoughts; slow rolling of eyes; sleep spindles Stage 2: lasts about 20 minutes; more synchronization; EEG responses to noise-K-complexes Stage 3-4: about an hour; extreme synchronization (VERY DEEP SLEEP) delta waves; night terrors/somnambulism (sleep walking-caused by stress); dreaming Stage 5: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-second half of the night, new REM cycle every 90 minutes; lasts 30-an hour; desynchronization; increased blood flow to brain; body becomes relaxed and can’t make muscles work-paralysis; arousal of sex organs-postage stamp test Stages of sleep: changes of cycling through the night Theories of Dreaming Psychoanalytic (Sigmund Freud)-wish fulfillment/desire gratification; dreams “the royal row to the unconscious mind” manifest vs. latent content Activation-Synthesis (Hobson & McCarley) random signals emanate from the pons these are interpreted by the cortex Information Processing (Evans; Crick: Cartwright) mental “housekeeping”/memory consolidation problem solving and insight Dreaming/REM DREAMING is critical to high success of learners REM is all about taking facts and figures and applying them! Lasts 5 times longer than on rem NON REM-memory consolidation but not application Sleep deprivation and sleep debt Sleep deprivation: impaired cognition; hallucinations; paranoia; automatic behavior-eyes open, brain asleep; micro sleep episodes-2 to 3 second periods of sleep; REM rebound-immediate REM upon falling asleep Sleep debt: accumulated, insufficient sleep over several days; cognitive deficits; hormonal changes; motor skill deficits Biological clocks: rythyms; plants keep identical rhythms in nature and in isolation-18 century Memory Lecture: Experiment: bed rest awake sleep snore drowsy crib awake cot relax snooze - It is fairly easy to plant a false memory - We do well on the first and (maybe)the last items; middle items are more poorly recalled - Thus, recall seems to depend on an item’s place in the list-serial position Serial Position Effect Curve horizontal axis-words vertical axis-percent correct conclusion: there is an effect on memory based on the serial postion Jargon: (THESEAREALL INFERRED CONCEPTS) recency effect: good recall for items at the end of the list (these are the most recent items) primacy effect: very good recall for items at the beginning of the list (these are the first items on the list) LABELSAREN’T EXPLANATIONS: HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN THESE EFFECTS recency: maybe because words are still ringing in your ears; they are still in awareness primacy: maintenance rehearsal (repetition: bed bed bed bed), visual imagery, etc (what did you do?) recency: short term memory-synonymous with conscious awareness primacy: long term memory-storage for things we aren’t thinking of Short term memory transfer to long term memory: a fringe benefit of thinkign about things in short term AModel of Memory A. Sensory Memory (very brief, but accurate representation Info that enters your sense organs does not automatically enter concious awareness Info from outside world enters sensory memory Iconic-a visual store (lasts half a second) Echoic-an auditory store (lasts a few seconds) immediate flow-age passage of time B. Short-Term memory-typically requires attention Conscious awareness Holds 7+-2 items Keeping material in awareness-do rehearsal Interference from other material-new material can kick out old material Decay?-without rehearsal, material fades in 30 seconds C. Long Term Memory Processing information helps transfer it to the LTM We are not aware of material in LTM-far too much info to carry in awareness “Remembering” means transferring material back to STM “Forgetting”-memory is down here but forget how to get to it What would happen if the other path were cut?? Clive Wearing-herpes simplex (destroyed hippocampus and some frontal lobe) -No transfer from STM to LTM-but he can still draw information from LTM Other Ways to Look at Memory A. Depth of processing (from a study of Craik and Tulving)-the type of mental activity one uses influences the strength of a memory Participants saw a list of words, one at a time (no hint of a later memory test was given Study: Is the word in capital letters (visual) 18% were recalled Does the word rhyme with “date” (sound) 78% Is the word a type of fish (categorical) 93% Does the word make sense in the sentence, “she met a ___ in a street?” (meaning) 96% C onclusion: the type of mental activity one uses influences the strength of a memory B. Encoding Specificity-how easily information is remembered depends (in part) on how it was stored Study (Godden and Baddeley): had scuba divers study a list of 35 words but manipulated the learning environment and recall environment (either on dry or wet); half recalled on different learning environment conclusion: comparable learning/testing contexts boosts memory C. Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit-conscious, intentional recollection (eg: free recall and recognition) Implicit-non conscious, unintentional demonstration of learning (priming, second learning) Learning Lecture Process of relatively permanent change that occurs as a result of an organism’s experience Kitten Study: “Isolated” Environment Group (first group; when born, separated from mother and grew up on own without interaction; only 9 out of 20 killed at least one rat) “Rat Killing” Environment Group (second group; kitten raised with mother; placed in chamber where kitten was in one side and mother was in one side-kitten could watch mother kill the rat; then a rat was placed in kitten’s chamber..18 out of 21 killed the rat) “Rat-as-Friend” Environment Group (third group; kitten was raised with another rat; only 3 of 18 killed a rat) Three different groups-differed on how kittens were raised Testing period-every four days for four month Dependent variable-rat killing C onclusion: rarely the case that learning is devoid of any experience-there is almost always an interaction Types of learning: Classical Conditioning: involuntary behavior (reflex); no emphasis on consequences - Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) - Consists of establishing a conditioned or learned reflex - 4 components of classical conditioning - food: unconditioned stimulus (US)---salivation: uncontrolled response (UR) - bell: conditioned stimulus (CS)---salivation: conditioned response (CR) ex: e coli (US)----sickness (UR) odor of food (CS)+e coli---sickness (CR) Chemotherapy Study: Group 1: N=15 chemotherapy (US)----Sickness (UR) evening meal (CS)+chemo---disgust/nausea (CR) Conditioned Fear attack (US)---fear (UR) sound of running footsteps (CS)+attack---fear (CR) Conditioned Sadness show’s over (US)----sadness (UR) “I can’t help falling in love with you” (CS)+ show’s over--sadness (CR) Conditioned Craving In classical conditioning merely learning an association between two stimuli? No The CS gives information about what important event the US is to occur The CR is a Reflexive reaction to the CS, thus, involuntary Operant Conditioning: learning the relationship between the environment, behavior, and its consequences (not a reflex, it is a voluntary choice; consequences important Behavior changes because of its consequences-Law of Effect Learning the relationship between the environment, behavior, and its consequences Discriminative---response---outcome stimulus ex: red traffic light---drive through intersection----get ticket Positive reinforcement Response----a pleasant event is presented (a + reward) Negative reinforcement response---aversive stimulus is removed or prevented Omission Training (or negative) response---pleasant event is terminated or prevented Emotions Lecture Emotions in Psychology: Perspectives A. Western, Male Bias -Waiting for the next generation of psychologists-women-to look into this topic -As a culture, we don’t like emotions -Cross culturally (facial expressions in US can be read anywhere in the world) -Expressions are universal; facial expressions are learned from culture B. “Johnny-Come-Lately” Universality of Emotions A. Sociobiology (many who could not read facial expressions on babies, the babies were more likely to die) & 7/8 Basic Emotions (happy, sad, fear, anxiety, disgust, surprise, contempt, maybe pride?)-these emotions are shared throughout the world; study done by ECKMAN (Primary) -eyebrow flash (non consciously) shows friendliness B. Facial Feedback Hypothesis-if you smile, you will feel happy. If you frown, you will feel sad; certain muscles in your face are connected to areas in your brain where when they move they signify certain emotions C. Brain StructuresAssociated with Emotions A. Low Road:Amygdala and Hypothalamus (at any given point in time there are internal and external stimuli------>amygdala (takes incoming stimulation and evaluates it; makes emotional evaluation in 1/1000 second and relays info to)------->hypothalamus (gets you ready for whatever the emotion is)----->stimuli B. High Road: Cortex and CognitiveAppraisal--Thalumus sends info to Cortex (but takes longer and tries to send information-modifys)--->amygdala (immediate)---- >hypothalamus CognitiveAppraisal, Emotions and Motivation A. CognitiveAppraisal, Emotion and Behavior/Decisions (emotions help you make better decisions; your emotions are trying to tell you something!!) B. CognitiveAppraisal and Stereotype Threat (CAof situation creates an emotion of anxiety of fear that disrupts test taking abilities-AfricanAmericans taking “intelligence” test) -The best predictor if you are going to graduate from cal poly is not GPA, it is your appraisal and belief on whether or not you will graduate or not!!!!! Individuality/Personality and Emotions A. Affectivity-whether you feel positive or negative emotions -people who feel negativity more than positive have worse health B. Intensity C. Expressiveness-how well you express your emotions (women express more-better psychological health/physical/better social relationships/longer life) D. Body Language and Emotions -Sex differences:(women are better at depicting body language than men) -Romance: Sig Rubin created a measure; wanted people in a romantic relationship to participate in a study-had them fill out love questionnaire; measured eye contact through a one way mirror in a room with two chairs and a table to see how many minutes they are looking into each others face; a third clock when off to measure how much mutual eye contact is happening. Conclusion: couples that are the most deeply in love have the largest amount of mutual eye contact Getting Fat and Successful Lecture The Problem: Obesity A. Aquick Self-assessment (1 in 3 will be overweight/ 1 in 3 will be obese/ and 1in 3 will be of normal weight) BMI: ratio of weight to your height (18.5-25 is normal weight; 25-30 is overweight; 30-35 is obese) B. Internal versus External Factors External: coke; sweets C. Internal Factors (metabolism: number of calories you burn when you're at rest Metabolism Declines (2 year developmental gap between developing males and females; females have lower metabolism than males) You need to exercise (but doesn’t burn a lot of calories but maintains metabolism) When eating less calories-metabolism goes down Fat Cells (can be inherited when you are born); Obese people can have three times as many fat cels as a normal person and Set point (when you fill up all of the fat cellsin your body and are no longer hungry as a result) Fat cells never go away Birth to 2 or 3 you can pick up more fat cells Puberty andAdulthood The Solution: DIE (T) What I needed to Know Hypothalamus (Feeding; Fight or Flight: Fucking) VMH(ventral medial hypothalamus: stops you from eating) and LH(lateral hypothalamus: starts you eating) FIB BS : Fats in the blood; Insulin; Blood sugar; Brain temp; Stomach; This is what stops you from eating: Stomach is full; in hot weather you eat less (Brain temp); When blood sugar is up you stop eating; Insulin stars you eating and fats in the blood starts you eating Liver: monitors blood and sends information to the hypothalamus What I did: Mars Bars Can People Lose Weight? Mind Over Body: Not can you lose weight, it’s can you keep it off! You typically will gain back the weight Achievement Motivation: Success and Failure A. Weiner’sAttributional Model ofAchievement Motivation: when you are successful there are at least four ways to attribute success/visa versa when failure: stable unstable internal smart (ability) effort external task difficulty luck B. Success and FailureAttributions for Men and Women Men High achievement motivation Low achievement m Success ability effort success due to ever Failure lack of effort lack of ability Women (In general) (college) Success luck easy task Ability Effort Failure back luck diff task Lack of Effort/task diff Stress Lecture Aperceived threat to your coping resources Good news/good stress “eustress”: not all stress is bad-some stress is adaptive and beneficial and necessary example one: stress is a product of a challenge to one’s resources -when we have a challenge: sympathetic nervous system arousal is necessary for peak performance (semi circle): hypo stress(when you don’t have enough stress-chillen; worse than hyper stress; poor performance) then eustress(peak performance; better performance) then hyper stress(start to lose performance; better performance) then distress (poor performance) example two: the acute stress response is also an important key to survival (survival response) Walter Cannon: an early pioneer in stress research called this the “Fight or Flight” response Acute stress takes two routes: perceived threat---->hypothalamus(route one: sympathetic nervous system arousal; route two: hypothalamic pituitary adreno cortical axis) Route one: Sympathetic Nervous SystemArousal Effects: releases catecholamines(epinephrine and norepinephrine-increases heart rate and blood flow to arteries and organs, it constricts peripheral blood vessels, increases blood pressure and sweating Route two: release glucocorticoids: cortisol (increases in circulating sugar, decrease insulin secretion and pain perception and long-term functions); alter hormones; increases opioids When the threat subsides: the parasympathetic nervous system should bring the organism back into balance-slows heart rate and breathing, hormones to normal, restores body functions----called homeostasis Hans Selye: looked at chronic stress for decades; general adaptation syndrome vertical axis: stress resistance horizontal axis: phase 1-alarm reaction (mobilize resources) ROCKET FUEL phase 2-resistance cope with stressor SLOW BURNING FEUL phase 3-exhaustion (reserves depleted) EXHAUSTION Now for the ugly: stress can make you very sick diathesis stress model of mental illness diatheses: (vulnerability to a disorder) genetic predisposition; physiological reactivity; personality traits. When combined with stress-mental illness (schizophrenia; major clinical depression; obsessive-compulsive disorder; anxiety disorders; stress disorders college and bootcamp T o lessen impact or stress: coping styles, good resources (academic services), social support some stress disorders: chronic headache (progressive muscle relaxation training); irritable bowel syndrome; high blood pressure(deadly) these can be the result of overactive physiological arousal Toxic Personality Styles typeA(time urgency + hostility) type B (relaxed) type C (suppression of emotion) type D (distressed/anxious person) Back to the good: improving coping styles Avoidance (least healthy): procrastination, withdrawal, alcohol abuse active behavioral (primary control “western strategy”): problem solving, time management active cognitive (secondary control “eastern strategy”): coping statements, cognitive restructuring Useful strategies improve self-care: healthy diet, sleep hygiene, flu shots develop resources: broaden social support, use university engage the parasympathetic: relaxation techniques, slow breathing techniques, meditation Understanding SexualAssault Lecture SexualAssault: forced touch and or penetration of any part of the body, usually referred to as private parts or sexual areas of the body, but could include the mouth as well Dozens of actual sex crimes are listed in the California Penal Code-today’s focus will be the crime of rape, which is forced sexual intercourse Acquaintance rape or date rape Myths: Women actually fantasize about it, and really want it to occur She said “no” but really meant “yes” The way she dressed and behaved implied she wanted it “Boys will be boys” Perpetuation of myths Attribution theory situational: identifying the cause of an action as something in the situation or environment (hitchhiking; if she had locked the door) dispositional: identifying the cause as something in the person, such as a trait of motive (she’s that kind of girl-degrading terms) Contrary to stereotypes sex offenders are not: stranger to their victims without access to consensual sex uneducated and unemployed from a particular ethnic group mentally ill violent in the sense of using weapons and physically maiming their victims Impact survivor: emotionally, physically, and psychologically traumatized women: fear of men, relationships, sexual intimacy, tend to be self-abusive (express internally) men: fear of intimate relationships, questioning sexuality, anger, tend to be abusive to others (express outwardly) both: lack of trust (self and others) offender without criminal history will be judged harshly-expulsion from college, arrest, prosecution, incarceration, expense, tarnished reputation, etc. Prevalence (SLO) 78 rapes reported in 2011 RISE: 2011, served 312 victim s of sexual assaults Sexual Predator Theory: Dr. Lisak research based on this conundrum: the number of women who have been reaped vastly out number the number of mend arrest 1882 men-average 28, employed and attending college Pt have you ever had sexual intercourse with a person that did not want it findings: 120 men committed 483 rapes of women (none of these rapes were reported) similar patterns among undetected rapists and incarcerated rapists: a small number of men commit the majority of crimes Sexual Behavior more sexually active than other men engage in consensual and coercive sex far more often that is typical of men of their age group Duke University Study DanAiriely- people have limited insight into the impact of sexual arousals on their own judgements and behavior self control-avoiding situations not will power all depends interpersonally sexual arousal had a strong impact on all three judgment and decision making
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