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All Notes for Exam 1 Lecture 2-8

by: Marisa Davila

All Notes for Exam 1 Lecture 2-8 AVS 100

Marisa Davila
GPA 3.65

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About this Document

These notes is everything that is going to be covered on the First Exam, highlighted terms are what is absolutely needed to know, easy to follow and important vocabulary terms are underlined
Introduction to Animal Science
Anthony Mallilo
Animal Science, AVS, AVS100
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Marisa Davila on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AVS 100 at University of Rhode Island taught by Anthony Mallilo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Rhode Island.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Lecture 2  Roles of Animals in society:  religion: Islam  ­ blood are completely drained from all meat consumed, dogs are seen as impure  and are rare as pets  ­ Camels used for transport, food, and byproducts, ​ no contact with swine  Judaism:  ­ blood also completely drained, kosher  ­ hunting for sport is forbidden, not essential for human survival  ­ consumption of pork forbidden, viewed as unclean  Hinduism and Buddhism  ­ cow is sacred, slaughter is forbidden  Symbols:  ­ animals symbolize certain values, many are found in storytelling, art, literature    ● Commonly used for exchange, in middle east used in exchange for a bride  Three Main types of agriculture  ­ primitive   ­ subsistence  ­ developed  Domestication of animals:   Dog: origin > wolf, domesticated 9,000 years ago  Goat: origin > wild goat, domesticated 9,000 years ago  Sheep: origin > mouflon and urial, dom 6­9,000 yrs ago  ­ decline in sheep, lamb used as food  ­ breeds:  Pig: wild boar 6500 yrs  ­ also called swine  ­ feral: domesticated animal returned to wild state  Cattle: auroch 6500 yrs  breeds: texas longhorn, angus,   Chicken: wild fowl, 5500 yrs  Turkeys, Duck, Geese: wild, 5000 yrs  Horse: wild, 5000     ruminants: cattle, sheep, goats,  feral: animals that was domesticated but now lives in the wild                  Lecture 3  Terminology and Nutrition    Bovine: bull, cow, heifer, calf, steer, ox, calving (birthing process)  Ovine: Ram, ewe, lamb, stag, lambing  Equine: stallion, mare, colt, foal, foaling  Porcine: boar, sow, piglet, farrowing  Chicken: rooster, hen, chick  Turkey: tom, hen, poult  Cat: tom, queen, kitten, queening  Dog: stud, bitch, pup, whelping    Nutrition: the science of food and the nutrients it contains  ­ role of nutrients in animal production  ­ relationship between human and animal nutrition  Feed = Food  ­ needed for energy, growth, maintenance, reproduction, production  Roughage: high in fiber, low in energy, prevents bloat, digestibility of roughage varies  with type and animal  Concentrates: high in energy, lower in fiber, 80­90% digestibility  Silage: fermented plant material under anaerobic conditions    Nutrient classes: Water, Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals  water: most important, 10% loss = bodily functions affected, 20% loss = death  young animals need more, older animals need less  ­ sources: drinking, food, metabolic water (glucose and oxygen, carbs and  breathing)  ­ functions: transport (blood, urine, nutrients, waste), chemical reactions, temp  regulation in body, bodily fluids, physical shape (major component in cell)  energy: the ability to do work  How is it measured?   ­ through calories (US) or Joules  ­ 1 cal = amount of heat used to raise 1 Lb of water  ­ gross energy = # calories a feed contains (measured in kilocals)  ­ net energy= what remains after wasted energy is removed  content:   fat = 9 Kcal / g  carb = 4 Kcal/ g  protein = 4 Kcal/ g  Lecture 4  Carbohydrates: ​an organic compound (contains carbon), with the main function to​upply  energy  ­ essential for animals  ­ animals eat only to satisfy energy requirement, then rest to save energy   Three Classes of Carbs: monosaccharides (simple sugar), disaccharides, polysaccharides   ● in order to absorb energy from di / poly must break down into a mono (simple sugar)  Mono: ​can be absorbed into blood, 6 carbon compound, makes di / poly  major sugars > glucose (major carb in blood, needed or will pass out), fructose (fruit sugar,  honey, natural sugar), galactose (milk sugar)  Di: contains 2 molecules of sugar (glucose + fructose = sucrose), must be broken down before  absorbed > enzymes break down complex carbs, ends in ­ase ex: sucrose broken down by  sucrase. Lactose = glucose + galactose > made in mammary gland, enzyme is lactase  Poly: complex carbs, two principle groups = starch + cellulose. Are hundreds / thousands of  monosaccharides joined together. MUST be broken down to absorb > takes a v ​ ery long time  cellulose = portions of cell wall of plants, made from glucose. Humans don’t gain weight from  salads because we do not produce cellulase = we cannot break down into energy   Ruminants (cows, goats, sheep) CAN digest cellulose, not all animals do though  Glycogenesis:​ process were body converts extra energy into body fat > used when we consume  more energy than we expend      Lecture 5  lipidsfats and oilscomposed of mono/di/triglycerides  ● fats ­ solid at room temperature  ● oils­ liquid at room temperature  ○ saturated fat: 12G “saturated” or attached to a H > tend to come from animals  ○ unsaturated: not “completely saturated” or not attached to an H > tend to be  vegetative  ○ polyunsaturated: less H, more double bonds  Fat use in diet:  ­ Energy  ­ Essential fatty acids > linoleic, linoleNic, arachidonic. Without these acids cannot  reproduce, A DIETARY ESSENTIAL (body does not make it on its own)  ­ Makes food taste better  ­ Carriers for fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K  ­ Deficiencies of fat associated with decreased growth, skin problems  Proteins:consist of amino acids joined together, contains C, H, O, & N, the only nutrient class  with N, have a distinct structuprovides energy (expensive)  ● alteration to structure leads to problems > disease, mutation & death ex: cystic  fibrosis  ● Needed for growth and repair of tissue and muscles  ● in hair, skin, muscle, bone, horns, hooves, wool, hair  ● 26 different amino acids in nature  ○ 10 of these acids are essential  ○ cannot be synthesized by body at rate necessary for growth and maintenance  ○ in higher quantity and quality in animal based diet than plant based diet  ● Amino acids needed by all animals, shortage can limit ability to use another (can cause  deficiency),   Vitamins: Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) , water soluble (B1­12, ​eeded for body metabolism  ● are organic compounds, contain C, H, & O  ○ metabolically essential  ○ not necessarily dietary essential (can be manufactured internally in some  animals)  ● Essential for growth and maintenance, not A LOT is necessary  Vitamin A: and antioxidant, prevents night blindness, helps the normal development of epithelial  cells of eye  deficiencies: night blindness, dermatitis > skin disease  excess: calcification of bones, anorexia > loss of appetite. Cessation of menstrual cycle and skin   discoloration > hypervitaminosis A > too much vitamin A.  sources: eggs, beta carotene, cheese, animal fat  Vitamin D: helps bone growth through calcium absorbtion  deficiencies: rickets (bowing of bones), pigeon breast (convex breast bone), poor bone  formation, osteoporosis (bad bone density)  excess: hypervitaminosis D, soft tissue calcifies  sources: eggs, dairy, sunshine  Vitamin E: is an antioxidant, helps neuromuscular activity, reproductive processes  deficiencies: causes white muscle disease (degenerative muscle disease), stiff lamb disease,  crazy chick disease (paralyzation)  sources: milk, egg yolk, grains, nuts, beans  Vitamin K:helps with blood coagulation and abnormal fat absorbtion,  deficiencies: common in children, poultry prone to Vitamin K deficiencies, coprophagy (feces  eating syndrome in animals)  sources: leafy greens, vegetables, liver          Lecture 6  Vitamin B: has 12 different types    Thiamin (B1): helps with normal nerve function  deficiencies: raw fish or polished rice can deactivate thiamin, polyneuritis: locomotor  incoordination, beri­beri: neurological disease  sources: meat, leafy greens, grain  Niacin (B3): maintains the nervous system  deficiencies: improper/ unhealthy feed storage, dietary essential for monogastrics (us,  pigs), common deficiency in southern diet, diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis  sources: dairy, poultry, fish, lean meat, eggs  Pantothenic Acid (B5): acts as coenzyme  deficiencies: causes goose­stepping in swine, synthesized by ruminants, human,  horses, rabbits  Pyridoxine (B6): converts tryptophan to niacin, utilizes fatty acids, growth  deficiencies: anemia in dogs and rats, convulsion in dogs, rats, swine and infants  Biotin (B7): coenzyme in carbon dioxide fixation  deficiencies: causes dermatitis in humans and animals, perosis (slipped tendon  disease) in chickens  sources: milk, meat, yeast, whole grains  Folic Acid (B9): builds red blood cells, prevents spina bifida, rare in animals, anemia  Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): similar to folic acid, contains cobalt, needed for blood  formation  deficiencies: vegetarians need this supplement, must be added to diet, causes low  hatchability in chicks  sources: meat organs, raw liver, milk, fish  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): antioxidant, aids absorption of iron from food, was the first  vitamin synthesized in a lab  deficiencies: people, monkeys guinea pigs need dietary vitamin C, rarely needed in  livestock, causes scurvy    Lecture 7  Minerals: composed of individual elements, is a dietary necessity, you do not synthesis it or alter  it in the body, macro and micro  macro minerals: more required in the body  calcium and phosphorous​ : help with growth of bones, teeth, nerve and muscle activities  deficiencies: calcium­ milk fever, phosphorous­ abnormal appetite  sources: milk  magnesium:  enzyme activator, in skeleton  deficiencies: opisthotonos ­ star gazer position  sodium and chlorine:combined is salt, essential for water balance in cells  deficiencies: salt starvation = cannibalism  potassium (vitamin K)electrolyte balance, muscle function  deficiencies: heart lesions  sulfuraids in wool growth,   deficiencies: poor / slow wool growth  micro minerals (trace minerals):​ required in small amounts  cobalt needed to synthesize b12 in ruminants  deficiencies: rough coat and reproductive failure  iron(Fe)​part of pigment in hemoglobin (blood)  deficiencies: anemia, in baby pigs iron injection needed within 3­4 weeks of birth  copper (Cu): needed to make hemoglobin  deficiencies: anemia, swayback disease, pigment abnormality  iodine aids in thyroid function,  deficiencies: thyroid gets larger to aid in trapping iodine, leads to goiter, doesn’t decrease in size  even after iodine is added to diet, hairless baby pigs, big neck disease  sources: iodized salt, seafood (fish oil)  manganese:​  enzyme activator (muscle), carb/fat/protein/metabolism  deficiencies: perosis ­ slipped tendon  molybdenum;​  enzyme activator: DNA/RNA  deficiencies: rare in humans,  Selenium:​ normal hoof growth, similar to vitamin E, requirement for all animals  deficiencies: alkali disease, visual impairment, tail falls off  Zinc: related to enzyme function, helps rid body of CO2  deficiencies: parakeratosis­ abnormal skin, poor hatchability in birds  Fluorine​component of tooth enamel  excess: fluorosis, causes chalky or mottled teeth    Lecture 9  Digestion > includes the physical and chemical change to release individual nutrients for  absorption  Monogastric: man, monkey, pig, dog, poultry  Polygastric: ruminants ­ sheep, cow, goat  Monogastric with functional cecum: pseudoruminant­ horse, rabbit, guinea pig, rat,  mouse  Herbivores: have longer Gl tract, eats plant food, vegetarian  Carnivore: shorter Gl tract, eats meat, animal flesh/byproducts  Omnivore: eats both  Steps in Digestion:  ­ prehension: grasping of food  ­ masticasion: chewing  ­ salivation: enzyme > salivary amylase  ­ absorption: mainly in small intestine  ­ excretion: urine, feces  Poultry: breaks down food in gizzard  In small intestine: villi absorb   In large intestine: water and water soluble vitamins absorbed  4 parts of ruminant stomach:   ­ rumen  ­ omasum  ­ abomasum  ­ reticulum  bile: produced in liver, stored in gall bladder, breaks down fat                   


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