All Notes for Exam 1 Lecture 2-8
All Notes for Exam 1 Lecture 2-8 AVS 100
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Marisa Davila on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AVS 100 at University of Rhode Island taught by Anthony Mallilo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Lecture 2 Roles of Animals in society: religion: Islam blood are completely drained from all meat consumed, dogs are seen as impure and are rare as pets Camels used for transport, food, and byproducts, no contact with swine Judaism: blood also completely drained, kosher hunting for sport is forbidden, not essential for human survival consumption of pork forbidden, viewed as unclean Hinduism and Buddhism cow is sacred, slaughter is forbidden Symbols: animals symbolize certain values, many are found in storytelling, art, literature ● Commonly used for exchange, in middle east used in exchange for a bride Three Main types of agriculture primitive subsistence developed Domestication of animals: Dog: origin > wolf, domesticated 9,000 years ago Goat: origin > wild goat, domesticated 9,000 years ago Sheep: origin > mouflon and urial, dom 69,000 yrs ago decline in sheep, lamb used as food breeds: Pig: wild boar 6500 yrs also called swine feral: domesticated animal returned to wild state Cattle: auroch 6500 yrs breeds: texas longhorn, angus, Chicken: wild fowl, 5500 yrs Turkeys, Duck, Geese: wild, 5000 yrs Horse: wild, 5000 ruminants: cattle, sheep, goats, feral: animals that was domesticated but now lives in the wild Lecture 3 Terminology and Nutrition Bovine: bull, cow, heifer, calf, steer, ox, calving (birthing process) Ovine: Ram, ewe, lamb, stag, lambing Equine: stallion, mare, colt, foal, foaling Porcine: boar, sow, piglet, farrowing Chicken: rooster, hen, chick Turkey: tom, hen, poult Cat: tom, queen, kitten, queening Dog: stud, bitch, pup, whelping Nutrition: the science of food and the nutrients it contains role of nutrients in animal production relationship between human and animal nutrition Feed = Food needed for energy, growth, maintenance, reproduction, production Roughage: high in fiber, low in energy, prevents bloat, digestibility of roughage varies with type and animal Concentrates: high in energy, lower in fiber, 8090% digestibility Silage: fermented plant material under anaerobic conditions Nutrient classes: Water, Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals water: most important, 10% loss = bodily functions affected, 20% loss = death young animals need more, older animals need less sources: drinking, food, metabolic water (glucose and oxygen, carbs and breathing) functions: transport (blood, urine, nutrients, waste), chemical reactions, temp regulation in body, bodily fluids, physical shape (major component in cell) energy: the ability to do work How is it measured? through calories (US) or Joules 1 cal = amount of heat used to raise 1 Lb of water gross energy = # calories a feed contains (measured in kilocals) net energy= what remains after wasted energy is removed content: fat = 9 Kcal / g carb = 4 Kcal/ g protein = 4 Kcal/ g Lecture 4 Carbohydrates: an organic compound (contains carbon), with the main function toupply energy essential for animals animals eat only to satisfy energy requirement, then rest to save energy Three Classes of Carbs: monosaccharides (simple sugar), disaccharides, polysaccharides ● in order to absorb energy from di / poly must break down into a mono (simple sugar) Mono: can be absorbed into blood, 6 carbon compound, makes di / poly major sugars > glucose (major carb in blood, needed or will pass out), fructose (fruit sugar, honey, natural sugar), galactose (milk sugar) Di: contains 2 molecules of sugar (glucose + fructose = sucrose), must be broken down before absorbed > enzymes break down complex carbs, ends in ase ex: sucrose broken down by sucrase. Lactose = glucose + galactose > made in mammary gland, enzyme is lactase Poly: complex carbs, two principle groups = starch + cellulose. Are hundreds / thousands of monosaccharides joined together. MUST be broken down to absorb > takes a v ery long time cellulose = portions of cell wall of plants, made from glucose. Humans don’t gain weight from salads because we do not produce cellulase = we cannot break down into energy Ruminants (cows, goats, sheep) CAN digest cellulose, not all animals do though Glycogenesis: process were body converts extra energy into body fat > used when we consume more energy than we expend Lecture 5 lipidsfats and oilscomposed of mono/di/triglycerides ● fats solid at room temperature ● oils liquid at room temperature ○ saturated fat: 12G “saturated” or attached to a H > tend to come from animals ○ unsaturated: not “completely saturated” or not attached to an H > tend to be vegetative ○ polyunsaturated: less H, more double bonds Fat use in diet: Energy Essential fatty acids > linoleic, linoleNic, arachidonic. Without these acids cannot reproduce, A DIETARY ESSENTIAL (body does not make it on its own) Makes food taste better Carriers for fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Deficiencies of fat associated with decreased growth, skin problems Proteins:consist of amino acids joined together, contains C, H, O, & N, the only nutrient class with N, have a distinct structuprovides energy (expensive) ● alteration to structure leads to problems > disease, mutation & death ex: cystic fibrosis ● Needed for growth and repair of tissue and muscles ● in hair, skin, muscle, bone, horns, hooves, wool, hair ● 26 different amino acids in nature ○ 10 of these acids are essential ○ cannot be synthesized by body at rate necessary for growth and maintenance ○ in higher quantity and quality in animal based diet than plant based diet ● Amino acids needed by all animals, shortage can limit ability to use another (can cause deficiency), Vitamins: Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) , water soluble (B112, eeded for body metabolism ● are organic compounds, contain C, H, & O ○ metabolically essential ○ not necessarily dietary essential (can be manufactured internally in some animals) ● Essential for growth and maintenance, not A LOT is necessary Vitamin A: and antioxidant, prevents night blindness, helps the normal development of epithelial cells of eye deficiencies: night blindness, dermatitis > skin disease excess: calcification of bones, anorexia > loss of appetite. Cessation of menstrual cycle and skin discoloration > hypervitaminosis A > too much vitamin A. sources: eggs, beta carotene, cheese, animal fat Vitamin D: helps bone growth through calcium absorbtion deficiencies: rickets (bowing of bones), pigeon breast (convex breast bone), poor bone formation, osteoporosis (bad bone density) excess: hypervitaminosis D, soft tissue calcifies sources: eggs, dairy, sunshine Vitamin E: is an antioxidant, helps neuromuscular activity, reproductive processes deficiencies: causes white muscle disease (degenerative muscle disease), stiff lamb disease, crazy chick disease (paralyzation) sources: milk, egg yolk, grains, nuts, beans Vitamin K:helps with blood coagulation and abnormal fat absorbtion, deficiencies: common in children, poultry prone to Vitamin K deficiencies, coprophagy (feces eating syndrome in animals) sources: leafy greens, vegetables, liver Lecture 6 Vitamin B: has 12 different types Thiamin (B1): helps with normal nerve function deficiencies: raw fish or polished rice can deactivate thiamin, polyneuritis: locomotor incoordination, beriberi: neurological disease sources: meat, leafy greens, grain Niacin (B3): maintains the nervous system deficiencies: improper/ unhealthy feed storage, dietary essential for monogastrics (us, pigs), common deficiency in southern diet, diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis sources: dairy, poultry, fish, lean meat, eggs Pantothenic Acid (B5): acts as coenzyme deficiencies: causes goosestepping in swine, synthesized by ruminants, human, horses, rabbits Pyridoxine (B6): converts tryptophan to niacin, utilizes fatty acids, growth deficiencies: anemia in dogs and rats, convulsion in dogs, rats, swine and infants Biotin (B7): coenzyme in carbon dioxide fixation deficiencies: causes dermatitis in humans and animals, perosis (slipped tendon disease) in chickens sources: milk, meat, yeast, whole grains Folic Acid (B9): builds red blood cells, prevents spina bifida, rare in animals, anemia Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): similar to folic acid, contains cobalt, needed for blood formation deficiencies: vegetarians need this supplement, must be added to diet, causes low hatchability in chicks sources: meat organs, raw liver, milk, fish Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): antioxidant, aids absorption of iron from food, was the first vitamin synthesized in a lab deficiencies: people, monkeys guinea pigs need dietary vitamin C, rarely needed in livestock, causes scurvy Lecture 7 Minerals: composed of individual elements, is a dietary necessity, you do not synthesis it or alter it in the body, macro and micro macro minerals: more required in the body calcium and phosphorous : help with growth of bones, teeth, nerve and muscle activities deficiencies: calcium milk fever, phosphorous abnormal appetite sources: milk magnesium: enzyme activator, in skeleton deficiencies: opisthotonos star gazer position sodium and chlorine:combined is salt, essential for water balance in cells deficiencies: salt starvation = cannibalism potassium (vitamin K)electrolyte balance, muscle function deficiencies: heart lesions sulfuraids in wool growth, deficiencies: poor / slow wool growth micro minerals (trace minerals): required in small amounts cobalt needed to synthesize b12 in ruminants deficiencies: rough coat and reproductive failure iron(Fe)part of pigment in hemoglobin (blood) deficiencies: anemia, in baby pigs iron injection needed within 34 weeks of birth copper (Cu): needed to make hemoglobin deficiencies: anemia, swayback disease, pigment abnormality iodine aids in thyroid function, deficiencies: thyroid gets larger to aid in trapping iodine, leads to goiter, doesn’t decrease in size even after iodine is added to diet, hairless baby pigs, big neck disease sources: iodized salt, seafood (fish oil) manganese: enzyme activator (muscle), carb/fat/protein/metabolism deficiencies: perosis slipped tendon molybdenum; enzyme activator: DNA/RNA deficiencies: rare in humans, Selenium: normal hoof growth, similar to vitamin E, requirement for all animals deficiencies: alkali disease, visual impairment, tail falls off Zinc: related to enzyme function, helps rid body of CO2 deficiencies: parakeratosis abnormal skin, poor hatchability in birds Fluorinecomponent of tooth enamel excess: fluorosis, causes chalky or mottled teeth Lecture 9 Digestion > includes the physical and chemical change to release individual nutrients for absorption Monogastric: man, monkey, pig, dog, poultry Polygastric: ruminants sheep, cow, goat Monogastric with functional cecum: pseudoruminant horse, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, mouse Herbivores: have longer Gl tract, eats plant food, vegetarian Carnivore: shorter Gl tract, eats meat, animal flesh/byproducts Omnivore: eats both Steps in Digestion: prehension: grasping of food masticasion: chewing salivation: enzyme > salivary amylase absorption: mainly in small intestine excretion: urine, feces Poultry: breaks down food in gizzard In small intestine: villi absorb In large intestine: water and water soluble vitamins absorbed 4 parts of ruminant stomach: rumen omasum abomasum reticulum bile: produced in liver, stored in gall bladder, breaks down fat
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