Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes ARTHI 552 - 001
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Art of Pharaohs
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Maureen Basista on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ARTHI 552 - 001 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Mark Deka in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Art of Pharaohs in Art History at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
January 27 Wednesday Egyptian Religion ● Multiple layers of religious development/mythology over the centuries ● Creating Myths: Life arises from the water of the primordial marsh ● Ra: the supreme god ○ other names, including Atum ● Heliopolis city of Ra ○ benu bird ○ benben stone (obelisk) ● Atum gave birth to Shu and Tefnut (Air and Moisture) ● The next generation was Geb (Earth) and Nut (Sky) who gave birth to Osiris, Isis, Nepthys, and Seth ● Ennead of Heliopolis ● Ogdad of Hermopolis (Thoth) ○ Khnum ○ Min ○ Ptah ○ Sekhmet ○ Hathor ○ Bastet ○ Hapy ○ Thoth ○ Osiris ○ Isis ○ Seth ○ Horus ○ ‘Eye of Horus’ ● Components of humans (ka, ba, akh) ○ Anubis ○ Magic Wands ○ Cippus stelae ○ Execration Texts Social Structure continued ● no Egyptian name for art or artists ● we see the product of the artists but don’t know much about them ● not regarded as high as scribes and officials but above manual laborers ● men and women both participated in art Living Quarters ● Deir elMedina ○ no sidewalks ○ mostly facades ○ cats were useful because they killed mice and rats ■ later deified ○ one level/one story ○ stairwell in back leading to roof ○ richer homes had more permanent second stories ○ darker no windows ○ light from front door or back by kitchen ○ wealthy still had cramped rooms ○ Egyptians did a lot outside ■ interior was private ○ not much room for furniture ■ no tables ■ ate off the floor ■ some slept on beds ● poorest slept on the floor ● no mattress or pillow ● neck stand so head is elevated ○ shrine in every house Laborers ● never able to rise ● larger/more important people given away by their size in art ● men and women usually given away by how they dress ● fishing, crops, husbandry ○ daily life scenes ■ appear in tombs ■ tied to the afterlife ■ natural and stylized views ○ contorted 2D pose used to represent humans ■ most legible pose ■ relax the rules when used with the common people proportions ■ never cared if things were a bit off in their art ● did not continue to repeat this throughout history though ■ get better at showing profile eventually ● Stoneworkers ● Musicians and dancers ○ provide service for the wealthy ○ musical notations have been found but no actual sound has been heard Military ● class by themselves ● accept everyone from across the social spectrum ● men would stay in the army for years ● used Nubian troops ○ considered good fighters ○ very disciplined Priests ● class of society ● not unusual for them to have children ● responsible for running Temples and rituals ● Pharaoh is high priest of Egypt ● have status and privileges ● make sure rituals are performed properly ● have to partake in all the offerings for the gods ○ Well fed and taken care of ● maintained stability and order ● fairly constant throughout history NonEgyptians ● show their neighbors as quite different from themselves ● Nubians ○ very characteristic features ○ red or black ○ different hair and eyes ● Eastern Delta ○ people dressed in elaborate garments ○ similar hairstyles but different ○ easterners ● plaques made out of glaze with figures on nonegyptians ○ semitic and nubians ○ enemies of Egypt ○ appear on footstools of pharaoh ○ or appear on bottoms on the pharaoh’s shoes ○ supremely in charge ■ grabs them by the hair ● set up power structure Pharaoh ● many jobs ● there to maintain order and stability across Egypt and the Universe ● son of the gods ● gods act to retain stability ○ holding hair of enemies with weapon in hand is a constant motif ● everything he does is symbolic Horus ● pharaoh is Horus incarnate ● son of Horus Ra ● supreme creator god ● as the ‘Horus of the Horizon’ ○ incorporated with Ra ○ Horus wears disc of sun ○ still has his hawk face ● god’s can take on different forms ○ looks similar to Horus ● light and the heat ● gods are ○ fully human ○ partly human ○ or mixed and matched ● presided over cosmic sea ● caused water to recede from heat of sun ○ what is left behind is the first mound of creation ● Obelisk from the Temple of Ra at Heliopolis ○ city of the sun ○ when Greeks arrived this temple was still around ○ now only the obelisk is left ■ symbolizes the sun ■ rises up and creates pyramid top ■ captures sun’s rays like a sundial ■ cap of obelisk is called benben ○ on East side of Nile ■ other sites are sited on the West side of the Nile aligned with the temple ● Benu bird (Heron) ○ symbol of Ra ○ sometimes in a boat ○ sometimes with a sundisk ○ sun rises in East and sets in the West ■ likened to a passage in a boat ■ boat keeps going into the underworld when the sun sets to rise again the next day ■ passage of the human soul ■ boat ride ○ marsh bird ■ primordial place of creation ● Pyramidion (capstone), or called a benben ○ used large gold caps on tops of pyramids ○ related to Ra ○ winged sun arcing over Egypt ● Egyptian Sun Temples ○ 5th dynasty cult of the sun was paramount ○ built literal sun temples ■ all pharaohs worship the sun ■ main part of building was a giant obelisk ○ 18th dynasty sun worshipped for it’s physical characteristics as a star ■ physical sun called Atum ● The sacred ished tree ○ Tree of Life ○ grew in sun temples ○ seen mostly in tomb paintings ○ drinking from the tree ■ sucks on breast of the tree ○ bird with human head ■ soul of dead person ● Atum ○ another form of Ra ○ AtumRa ■ shown wearing double crown of Egypt ■ no consort (no wife) ■ creates other forces ● through will or through masturbation ● story is uncertain ■ creates Shu and Tefnut ● water and air ● they created Geb and Nut ○ Earth and Sky ○ 3rd generation world is starting to form ○ Egyptian gods family tree ○ The deities of Heliopolis ○ Geb and Nut ■ birth of other gods (brother and sisters) ● Osiris and Isis ○ son Horus ● Nephthys and Set ● Osiris and Nephthys ○ Anubis conceived magically? ● beginning of pantheon of gods ○ Geb and Nut ■ gods of Earth and Sky ■ Nut created to arc over entire world ● “downward dog” ● The Ennead of Heliopolis ○ Atum ○ Shu ○ Tefnut ○ Nut and Geb ■ Osiris ■ Isis ■ Set ■ Nephthys January 29 Friday ● Set god of desert ● Osiris god of underworld and black land The deities of Heliopolis ● Hathorn magical inspiration for creation and Atum ● there isn’t only one version of the creation story ● Heliopolis has one of the important creation myths The Ogdoad of Hermopolis (City of Toth) ● Toth god of scribes ○ talks to Hermes aka Hermopolis ● nine deities ● Nun Naunet ● Heh Hauhet ● Kuk Kauket ● Amun Amaunet ○ Amun the hidden one ■ hidden knowledge and truths ● literary creation of the world Khnum as Creator ● singled out as a creator ● functions simultaneously ● god of craftsmen ○ pottery ○ makes people on a potter's wheel ● ram headed god ● can morph into anything they want Min as Creator (Prototype of Masculine Fertility) ● creative prototype of masculinity and fertility ● ancient cult ● Apis Bull ○ worshipped at Memphis ○ ultimate form of male sexuality ○ bull represents Min and the pharaoh ○ special bull picked out ■ white markings ■ bull was picked and given special life in the temple ■ died and was mummified ■ tombs just for bulls ○ Pharaoh usually has a bulls tail attached to the back of his kilt Ptah Creator god of Memphis ● skull cap ● mummified ● carries ankh symbol of life with bars signifies stability ● patron of metal crafts ○ metal was not as important as stonework Triad of Memphis: Ptah, Sekmet, Nefertem ● married to Sekmet ○ aggressive feminine ○ motherly ○ goddess of war and aggression ■ both kind and good ■ also powerful ■ invoked as lion for power ● son Nefertem Artist’s Rendering of the Temple of Ptah at Memphis Sekhmet, consort of Ptah, symbol of motherhood and retribution, called ‘The Mighty One’ ● wears sundisc ● sometimes called eye of Ra ○ also dark eye of Ra ● Mut ○ pictured as a lion as well Hathor ● loving mother goddess and protector ● shown with queens ○ also shown with kings ● shown with the disc but also horns of the cow ● associated with the life giving cow ○ milk and offspring ○ pharaoh pictured drinking from her udders ● Hathor capital ○ cow ears and female face Bastet ● the cat goddess ● symbol of protection ○ Sekmet “tamed” form ● city in the Delta dedicated to her ○ festival of Bastet ○ Egyptian “New Years Eve” ● cats were also mummified ○ make an offering to Bastet ○ thousands and thousands of mummies of cats ■ some priests were jipping people by not wrapping entire cats Hapy ● god of fertility and Nile inundation Thoth ● god of the Moon ● Scribe of the gods ● shown taking stylise out and recording what is going on ○ writes down everything the gods say ○ at the judgement of souls ■ hippo, crocodile and lion animal devours souls ■ Ammit ● head of Ibis bird and body of human being ● The sacred stars arranged on the ceiling of the Tomb of Ramses VI ○ Valley of the Kings ● Ibis and Baboon are his sacred animals ○ Egyptians looked at animals in a non scientific way ○ baboons sit up and warm themselves in the rising sun ■ thought baboons were worshipping the sun ■ Ra and Thoth Osiris ● god of the Underworld (and Renewal) ● Husband of Isis ● Father of Horus ● comes into popularity in the old kingdom but not at first ● he resurrected ● Seth is his brother ○ also his antagonist ● shown as mummy ● black or green skin ○ sign of regeneration ● next to him are the eyes of Horus ● holds crook and flail ● shown on throne with offerings Isis ● one of the most revered female goddess ○ not at first but does become popular ● has a temple that was one of the last one’s closed ○ seen as a Virgin Mary by Christians ● changes names ○ popular with Romans ○ temple in Pompeii ○ Ishtar ○ Astartai ● usually shown as a women with a throne on her head ○ foundation and strength ● sometimes has wings ○ air, life and breath Baby Horus ● raised in the Marshes in secret by his mother ○ Uncle Seth was looking to destroy him ● subjected to lots of dangers in the marshes ● Horus and Isis were able to overcome them ○ with the help of magical powers from Isis ● above his head is Bes ○ local house god ○ good and bad elements ○ looks like a troll/ewoke ○ invoked for protection in people’s homes ○ invoked to protect children ● story ends with triumph of Horus ○ divine kingship Horus ● god of divine kingship ● every king had a Horus name ○ 2 Horus names ○ had 45 names ● often wears double crown of pharaoh Seth ● brother of Osiris ● god of the desert ● at first he is important ○ given rule over the desert ○ red land ● represents foreigner and danger ● some images you see Horus and Seth side by side as opposites ○ control of civilization and uncivilized Battle between Horus and Seth ● Osiris was more well liked and became king of Egypt ● Seth was jealous ● devised way to get rid of brother ○ sets up a banquet ○ creates a beautiful box ○ at the party he invites everyone to get inside and whomever fit would get it as a gift ● It only fit Osiris and Seth locked it up and threw it into the sea ● Isis went found him eventually far from Egypt (Lebanon) ● Osiris needed to be resuscitated ● Seth chopped his brother up into pieces ● Isis was able to find all of his pieces and bring him back together again ○ used her magic ○ was able to then have a child with Osiris and had Horus ● Horus meets Seth ● Seth begins to change his form into multiple creatures ○ eventually turns him into a hippo ○ Horus harpoons the hippo ○ defeats him ○ one of Horus’s eyes gets ripped out ■ protection and renewal is synonymous with his eye The ‘Eye of Horus’ ● used as a symbol of protection and as the ‘Eye of Ra’ ● necklaces ● amulets ● on mummy cases ○ face is turned to see through the eyes painted on the outside ● on walls ● protects pharaoh at every turn ○ Horus behind his head Portion of the soul called ka ● ‘the soul of sustenance’ ● one of the parts of humans ● a body double ● part of you after death that has to be feed ● takes on your persona physically ● symbol is the up raised arms ● sculptures for tombs are considered as ka Portion of the soul called the ba ● ‘soul of mobility’ ● soul doesn’t die ● bird with human head ● it can leave the tomb ○ has to come back at the end of the day ● it can fly ● this part is eternal Crested Ibis ● symbol of akh ● an ‘enlightened spirit’ ● if you make it through the judgement ● you become that entity ● weighing of heart Anubis ● god of embalming and funerals ● heart remains in body when mummified ○ all other organs placed in jars ● heart placed on scale against the feather ○ Matt is the feather ■ all truth ■ goodness ● brain is not important to ancient Egyptians Egyptian Magic Wands ● made of hippo ivory ● made charms ● carried amulets or symbols ● carried ankhs ● magic wands used in ceremonies ○ to protect babies or defenseless people ● tusks are often split in half when used ○ convex and concave side ● curved shape ○ when baby was born it was put on ground of bed ○ took tooth and drew a big circle around the baby in the dirt ○ takes place in the house Two cippi (singular cippus) stela depicting Horus overcoming Execrations Texts ● used to avert danger by destroying dangerous forces ● execrations texts ○ written on sculptures or clay ■ always red or at least painted red ○ banishment spells written on outside ○ smashed them on the ground to defeat the evil ●
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