Week 3 and 4 Notes
Week 3 and 4 Notes ARTHI 552 - 001
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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Date Created: 02/17/16
February 3 Wednesday Prehistoric and Predynastic Egypt ● Upper/Lower Egypt ○ Nubia ● Predynastic (55002972 BC) coincides with the Neolithic age ● Badarian/Naqada cultures Upper Egypt ● Hierakonpolis (Nekhen) Earliest Predynastic temples ● ‘The Painted Tomb’, c. 3100 BC ● Abydos ● Tomb Uj ● Palettes ○ “Palette of Narmer’, c. 3100 BC ● Maat = righteousness or justice; maintaining the cosmic order ● Ismet = Chaos and disorder outside of maat ● Manetho (3rd BC) Egyptian priest who compiled ‘dynasties’ ● Memphis ● Horus Modern Egyptological Fascination ● Carter and Tut ● focused the attention on grandeur of Egypt ● King Tut discovered in 1922 ● stimulated fascination with Egypt Egyptomania ● 1920’s 1940’s ○ especially in Britain because of Carter ○ Also America ■ we were leading in film and cinema ■ picked up by Hollywood and all advertisers ● appreciated lure of Egypt ● major advertising for cosmetics, jewelry, cigarettes and liquor ● King Tut became an advertising icon ○ lots of music after this time ○ vaudeville ○ products associated with the mummy ● Carter used to excavate in a suit and tie ○ comic book superhero ■ Carter the Great Peery’s Theater, Ogden, Utah ● Opened in 1924 ● used Egyptian theme ● early movie theaters and real theatres ○ a few have survived ● Apartment complexes and academic buildings ○ Also in Europe The Egyptian Theater, Boise, Idaho ● opened in 1927 ● tons of productions in cinema and theatre that tried to replicate Egyptian movements ○ not accurate to actual culture ● Cleopatra was always a real important character for Hollywood ● The Queen made in 1963 ○ expensive to make ○ Elizabeth Taylor ○ Barbie Cleopatra ● The Mummy ○ person being wrapped up and reanimated ● The Scorpion King ○ was a real Scorpion King in pre dynastic Egypt ○ used emblem of the Scorpion ● Pharaoh built in London of legos taller than the bridge of London Entrance “Pylon” ● Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee ● one of the best Egyptology grad programs Pyramid of Caius Sestius, Rome, 1st Century BC ● first Egyptomania were the Romans ● Greeks were not as enthusiastic as them ● still respected the culture and knowledge Roman Image of the god Serapis, 2nd century AC ● combo of Osiris, Zeus and Hades ● openly tried to combine gods 18th and 19th century ● 1790’s Napoleon went to Egypt ● wanted to conquer Egypt ○ opened up Egypt to European scholars ○ compiled information of Egypt ○ Illustrations from Description de l’Egypte, published between 18091828 ■ texts and engravings ● of monuments as they found them ■ we get to see how the monuments looked back then ● some of the buildings were destroyed ○ Watercolor Reproduction from the Tomb of Ramses III from Descriptions de l’Egypte ● English were a part of that ○ Thomas Rowlandson “Modern Antiques” 1808 ○ British continued French exploration ○ more interested in treasure though ○ more destructive forces ● both French and British visits brought monuments and sculptures back to their countries ○ about a dozen obelisks ■ couldn’t read them though ■ single pieces of stone ● The scholars saw all the hieroglyphs that they had no access to ● The Rosetta Stone, ca. 250 BC The British Museum, London ○ JeanFrancois Champollion (17901832) ○ once part of a much larger piece of stone ■ done in 196 BC ○ public decree set up when the Greeks were here ■ part of the stone was written in Greek ■ two other languages on the stone ● center language was Demotic ○ cursive form of Egyptian language ○ popular form ● top was true hieroglyphs ■ scholars could read the Greek but had to try and translate into Egyptian ■ Jean was able to decipher the hieroglyphs ● learned the Demotic was related to the Coptic Christian language ● linguistic connections ● could decipher Demotic then hieroglyphs ● finally broke the code ● just a public decree ● now we could figure out what was going on ○ British museum has the stone after they beat France in Egypt ■ Egyptians want it back ● John Gardner Wilkinson (17971875) author of “Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians ○ adventurer ● Karl Richard Lepsius (18201884) founder of modern scientific Egyptology ○ German and more scientific ○ Luxor Temple Engraving from Lepsius’s “monuments fo Egypt and Ethiopia (184958) ● Lots of people were going their to make money and get stuff ● lots of English, French and Italian treasure hunters ● Abu Simbel ● David Roberts, ‘The Kiosk at Philae’ Lithograph based on painting 184649 ● J. Pascal Sebah, “The Great Sphinx ca. 1880 Albumen Print ○ now we have revealed more of the Sphinx by removing the sand around it ■ been removing sand for 3000 years ■ Tutmosis, king was hunting in the desert and sought shelter under the Sphinx which was buried up to his neck, dreamed Sphinx was talking to him, if he cleared sand out from under it then he would become king of Egypt, became king of Egypt, put up a dream steele of the story of this dream between the Sphinx feet. ● Ozymandias poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley ○ inspired by funeral temple of Ramsey II ○ Ozymandius is Greek translation of Ramseys ■ proclaimed his majesty and power but nothing remains but a ruin of his place ● Egyptian Style English Salon Suite, ca. 1870 ○ English fashions ■ Cleopatra ■ went to costume parties dressed as Egyptians ● The Egyptian Museum, Cairo ● Auguste Mariette (18211881) ○ Founded by Mariette in 1858 ■ wanted to preserve Egyptian art ● William MF Petrie (18531942) ○ pieced together pre dynastic Egypt ○ Created and use serial dating to trace the age of a site ○ found a rich material culture there ○ digging in cemeteries and recovered artifacts ○ used pottery ■ shapes, decoration and firing for sequence dating ■ made archeology more solidly grounded ● Pittsburgh has people buried in Egyptian tombs from 19th century ○ Mausoleum shaped in an Egyptian temple ● Andy Goldsworthy, ‘Sandworks’ part of an installation at the British Museum, 1994 ○ river design through the Egyptian galleries ○ passage of time ● The Luxor in Las Vegas ○ fabricated Egypt ○ hotel is on the inside ● Minions as an Egyptian on Crayola package ● Trader Joe’s selling Kamut Flakes Naqada I Pottery, 38503650 BC Naqada II Burial skin still attached sometimes hair is still attached pre dynastic grave body in ground placed in fetal position head of body objects placed sand poured over body naturally mummified February 5th Friday Chapter 2 ● material culture based on dead needing them ● pre literate up until 3000BC ● 50003000BC ○ population added to by people coming from the outside ○ due to desert growing ○ south is really important and always will be ○ North and South had distinctive material cultures ■ material culture eventually becomes more broad and widespread Naqada I Pottery, 38503650 BC ● more stuff in burials ○ society is breaking apart ○ social classes evolving ○ more towards the south ● takes over pre dynastic period Naqada II Burial ● pottery used for dating ○ could be deceiving ○ people would collect stuff like we do and placed them in burial grave ● Naqada has phases ● very little religious buildings ● built with mudbrick ● utilize clay for pottery ● using stone to shape ○ greywalk ■ shist ■ slate ○ flat palettes ○ Egyptians are looking for lead and copper ore ■ use both ores to get eye makeup ■ kohl black eye makeup ■ green eye makeup Female Figure from Naqada I, c. 400035000 BC ● Ivory with Inlays ● Egyptians creating sophisticated stuff ○ people thought Egypt was invaded by outsiders ○ only way to explain transition to really sophisticated art from such primitive art ○ predynastic period shows more primitive stuff ● probably placed in a man’s grave so he can have a relationship in the afterlife ● human sacrifice was done ○ placed servants in tomb with the dead Predynastic (Naqada II), ca. 33503200 BC ● hands on head to mourn ● pulling their hair ● place sand in hair Figurine ● gesture of mourning Ivory Figure of a Man, Naqada I or Naqada II, 37503550 BC Ivory Figure of a Man, Naqada III ● carve in confines of shape ● slightly disfigured ● keep limbs close to body ○ similar in stone sculptures Basalt Figure of a Man (‘MacGregor Man’) ● Naqada, 3250 BC ● hard, dense stone ● artists kept limbs close to the body ● tall and cylindrical ● highlighting relief style ● not carving “into” the stone ● communication between Nile and Mesopotamia ○ stylistically may have seen each other’s art ○ almond eyes and unibrow = Mesopotamia style ○ Egyptians eventually go their own way Limestone Sculpture (Fragmentary) of the Fertility god Min ● From Koptos, c. 3100 BC ● early shrine possibly ● Min is god of Fertility ○ creator god ● was a complete figure at one time ● large piece of stone ● flat and linear but still presented challenges ● detachable? private part ● already good at pottery and ivory ● simple tools starting to be used Detail from the ‘Painted Tomb’ at Hierakonpolis, c. 3100 BC ● Paint on Plaster ● the city of Horus ● really important city ○ starting point of unification of country possibly ● sunken in the ground ● walls of pit was plaster with these painted designs ● similar imagery that was seen on some of the pots ○ hands up around the head ○ funerary procession ● boats appear ○ very important ○ didn’t bury people on East side ○ buried them on the West side ○ transported people across the Nile ● image of man between two lions ○ idea of humans controlling nature ○ lions stand up being controlled by the humans View of Tomb Uj at Abydos, before 3100 BC ● Naqada and Hierakonpolis unify under one leader ● Abydos becomes really sacred to early Egyptians ● site of large scale tomb designs ● Abydos becomes the city of Osiris later on ● early Abydos is sacred to a jackal god (not Anubis) ● many kings buried at Abydos ● not just a hole in the ground anymore ○ separate chambers ○ buried with servants ■ this goes out of fashion very quickly ○ smale scale decorations found ○ bird standing on top of building ■ heron sacred to Ra = creator god ■ hawk sacred to Horus = ■ both very important ● regular people buried in pit graves Predynastic Pottery, Naqada II period ● red pot with black rim gives way to creamy clay body with red brush designs ● boats ○ really curvy ○ mourners ● 33503200 BC ● objects made for specific purposes ● industry producing objects only for funerary purposes ○ had designs on them ● plates and pots didn’t have designs on them ○ if they broke it didn’t matter Flint Knife with Ivory Handle, from Gebel elArak ● Naqada II period ● grip ● blade is flint ● oldest tool found in Nile valley ● flint, with an edge, is like a razor blade ○ skin animals ● when carefully flaked it becomes a beautiful blade ● handle probably from hippo tusk ● master of beast motif shown Predynastic Stone Palettes, ca. 32003150 BC ● long lion figures ● battle scene with animals ● lots of African creatures ● put into a tomb ● size of a notebook ● not writing at this point Palette of Narmer, ca. 31003000 BC ● motifs starting to develop ● becoming important to them ● creating image of powerful leader ○ didn’t change much because it worked ● smiting his enemy ○ keep internal stability ○ ensure no external forces to upset the balance of harmony ● Maat = truth, stability and order ● found in the city of Horus ● first hieroglyphic signature of his name ● two lions heads being twisted together ○ unification motif ● front tall white crown = upper egypt ● back traditional lower egypt crown ● conflict, animals, people being subdued, man and hawk connection ○ on back king is a bull and knocking down city of his enemies ● tallest in line with other men ● the Egyptian pose ○ combination ○ profile head ■ usually to the right (our left) ○ frontal shoulders ○ chest and hips starting to transition to profile ○ one foot in front of other ○ big toe on outside of both feet ● Isfet = chaos February 8th Monday Check D2L for powerpoint slides Test Monday Feb 15 Questions based on slides and short essays bring extra paper if needed List of names and terms describe them and what they are in a short paragraph and how they relate to ancient Egyptian culture 8590 points up to pg 93 in the book Abydos ● been able to identify early royal tombs ● wine in UJ tomb was imported from Palestine ○ person must have had status and wealth ● writing started around 3100 BC with primitive hieroglyphics ○ trying to keep track of things Narmer ● first king possibly ● unification on the palette ● Pharaoh maintains composure and dignity ○ outsiders shown as a chaotic bundle of people ○ has a staff with a heavy stone on the end to pummel his enemies ● name incorporated into the building/palace facade ○ he is the palace ○ pharaoh = great house reproduction fo Decorations on the fragmentary Macehead of Narmar ca. 3000 BC ● Narmar enshrined ● looking at an image of god ● prisoners ● protected by the vulture goddess of upper Egypt ● people from nomes carrying their standards showing where they are from ○ showing support ● everything pharaoh does is symbolic Macehead with images of King “Scorpion” ● standing with piece of plow in hand ○ symbolically working “breaks ground” ○ constructing a canal Copy of a Relief with the name of Aha, ca. 3000 BC Ivory Plaque with Image of Den, ca. 2950 BC ● symbol of Horus ● smitting the enemy Nun, the lifeless Water of Chaos Atum, the ‘All or Complete One’ emerges from Chaos on the Primordial Mound and ‘selfcreates by Masturbation ● pharaoh is a part of this ● accompanies the gods through the underworld in death ○ from black land to red land Osiris ● life to death to life again ● all that is possible through resurrection ● king of the underworld ● model for every Egyptian pharaoh to aspire to Seth ● villanised ● gets equal play with Horus ● given dominion over the desert (red lands) ● villain in Osiris story ● but is respected by the people ● has the ankh symbol ● given dangerous territory even though he did murder Osiris Artist Rendering of the Site of Abydos ● important site for Egyptians still ● place of most ancient ancestors ● many pharaohs built here ○ due to association with Osiris ● early dynastic Egypt kings were buried here ○ Dynasty 0, 1 and 2 ● underground tombs Stele of King Djet, from Abydos, ca. 3000BC ● would identify the tomb that was in the vicinity of the tomb ● palace facade hieroglyph ○ serekh ○ pre cartush ○ symbol is the snake then Horus on top ● all of these tombs have been broken into ● tombs robbers don’t stick around long ○ destructive but leave stuff behind ○ been able to get more stuff out then they thought ○ found jewelry, furniture and etc ● group of very elite individuals ○ above everyone in both life and death ○ minute but powerful elite class Detail of Ivory Comb of Diet Smashed Pottery Offerings litter the desert of Abydos ● bring water from Nile to make offerings to Osiris ● after they make their offerings they break the pottery ● very sacred site ● not a lot of stone here yet ○ mudbrick ○ most enclosures were made from mud brick Abydos: Mudbrick Tombs from Dynasties 12 Excavated Tomb of King Khasekhem (wy) ● wooden parts are all rotted away ○ roofs would have been made with wood ● ramp led down into the tomb ● sometimes has a limestone floor ● entrances once discovered were descending ramped entrance ways ● one of the large, elaborate tombs ● Seated Limestone Sculpture of King Khasekhem (wy) ○ not a little scultpure ○ about 5ft tall ○ wearing domed white crown of the south ○ garment is atypical ■ long sleeved garment with a vneck design ■ heb sed garment ■ ritual that started early on ● festival of rejuvenation ● pharaoh was usually done after 30 years ● if not he was put through a heb sed where skill and body was tested ● eventually started doing the ritual sooner ○ 15 to 7 years instead of 30 ○ if ruler thought unfit then they could just remove him from power and developed into this festival ■ pose if very symbolic of royalty ○ at his feet are carved the bodies of his enemies Mudbrick Enclosure of Khasekhem (wy) ca. 2700 BC ● cult of the pharaoh buildings ● multi story structure ● inside was either a ritual area or for supplies for him in the afterlife Table of Offerings SCene from a burial at Saqqara Second Dynasty ● deceased in front of us ● name of deceased ● bread and other objects on table ● person seated ● float the objects above the table ● numbers of list of things that will be supplied to the deceased ● can still partake in all of this ● eternal supply Plan and Layout of the Royal Necropolis at Saqqara ● nobles not as important as the pharaoh ● Capital of Egypt was Memphis ○ set up at political capital of country ● Saqqara was directly across the river ○ burial ground of a lot of wealthy and powerful people ○ around 2nd dynasty movement away from Abydos to Saqqara ○ becomes most important burial site for early dynasty ○ home of step pyramid ■ dated to 3rd dynasty ○ Djoser ■ 2nd king of 3rd dynasty Step Pyramid at Djoser at Saqqara ca. 2680 BC ● king who made first pyramid ● stone walls ● underground tombs not covered with any visible markings ● accumulated a vast amount of power to build this tomb
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