Week 5 materials
Week 5 materials ARTHI 552 - 001
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Maureen Basista on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ARTHI 552 - 001 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Mark Deka in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Art of Pharaohs in Art History at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
February 17 Wednesday Reconstruction of the Step Pyramid Complex Cutaway View of Pyramid Stages ● mastaba ● P1 and P2 ● resting place ● cult of the pharaoh ● north and south orientation will change when Ra becomes more prominent ○ oriented east and west then ○ north and south mimics the lay of Egypt ● later won’t have a self contained courtyard/enclosure 1935 Photos of the Underground Galleries ● found thousands and thousands of stone vessels that had been taken from tombs of earlier kings ○ wanted good spirituality/power from earlier kings ○ could have salvaged the vessels from desecrated tombs for safe keeping The Meidum Pyramid ● Sneferu ○ most powerful kings in Egyptian history ○ built 36 pyramids ■ commanded lots of authority and power ● first pyramid he built ● three layers above ground ● 8 stepped mastaba at first then decided to put sloping sides on it ○ the outside fell away so we are unsure ● didn’t finish it ● burial chamber in lower part of the building ○ moved out of the ground unlike prior pyramids Meidum: Location fo the Pyramid and the Cemetery of the Nobles 3rd/5th Dynasty Remains of the Mastaba of Nefermaat and Itet ● man and wife Painted Relief of Nefermaat and Itet from their Tomb Chapel at Meidum Painted Decorations from the Chapel of the Tomb of Nefermaat and Itet from Meidum ● Nefermaat taller than everyone in the painted scene ‘Palace’ Facade of the Mastaba of Rahotop and Nofret Meidum ca. 2580 ● for prince Rahotop ● royal son but no the first son so didn’t succeed his father ● large mastaba Rahotop and Nofret ● husband and wife buried in the same mastaba ● first painted images of limestone ● statues of them ● these are their ka sculptures ● glass eye inlays Step Pyramid Saqqara Pyramids at Dashur ● builds two pyramids ● successful foreign policy ○ visited places like Nubia to get gold and etc ● more of true pyramid shape The Bent Pyramid of Sneferu at Dashur ● still has most of it’s outer stones on it to give us an idea of the original facades of pyramids ○ white limestone ● bent because 54 degree angle ○ very steep ○ recognized inside would be unstable or building site was on uneven ground ○ moved angle to 43 degrees and then went to the top with it ○ 43 degrees is the angle of most pyramids nowadays ● had a burial chamber and interior ● finished but never used The Red Pyramid of Sneferu at Dashur ● successful with this one ● might have been buried here ○ found a mastaba with a beautiful granite sarcophagus ● precursor to the Great Pyramids ● only pyramid you can actually visit and go inside on your own Map of Dashur and the Pyramid Field The Bent Pyramid of the Pharaoh Sneferu, 2560 BC ● sun rises in the east ○ small chapel against the building ● small enclosure wall built around the pyramid ○ marks of the sacred area ○ connected by a causeway ■ road constructed with stone leading down to the valley where the water is ● cult pyramid ○ small pyramid built next to the main pyramid ■ becomes common but unsure of the reason behind it ● every pyramid capped with a feature, stone or gold Plan of the Sneferu Pyramid Complex Reconstruction of the Valley Temple ● right on edge where flood comes ● started a lot of the rituals and mummification here ○ bring body up causeway to the pyramid ● simple design ○ entranceway ○ courtyard ○ shrines in back of building of the king Remains of the Valley Temple Image of Sneferu, 26132589 BC The Red Pyramid of Pharaoh Sneferu, ca. 2580BC ● 345ft tall ● 43 degree angle ● moved burial chamber up in the ground level of the building ○ had to walk down into the pyramid to get to the burial chamber ○ how does room maintain it’s shape with all the mass above it ○ room is small and simple ○ blocks laid in a corbel vault for the anti chamber to take pressure of the structure ○ burial chamber also has corbel ceiling ○ experimenting to see how to install rooms inside the pyramids ● unsure exactly what happened to Sneferu’s body ● son Khufu ○ great pyramids ○ tallest and largest structure in the world for centuries Great Pyramids at Giza ● Khufu Pyramid ● middle is Khafre ○ Khufu’s son ● Smallest is Menkaure ● first two were completed start to finish before the pharaoh died ○ Menkaure died before his was completed ● part of the 7 wonders of the ancient world ● 490 ft was Khufu’s pyramid ○ area at the base was 14 acres ○ had a larger work force and keep them occupied for 25 or more years ○ very organized ● Khafre’s pyramid still has its cap on it ● Khufu is described as a tyrant and oppressive ○ drove his people to death to build his pyramid ○ 15,000 people consistently working on it maybe ○ 23 months maybe 100,000 people for the heavy lifting ○ no modern tools ■ no wheels ■ pulled on sleds and ramps ■ might have used levers to put stones in place ● would have carved the casing stones as they moved down the finished pyramid ● 4,000 to 5,000 pound blocks ● limestone is pure white ● cut perfectly ○ with bronze and copper chisel ○ like a lazer cut them ○ can’t fit a knife or paper between the blocks ● had to move blocks to fast ○ a block in place every 34 minutes for 25 years ● working for food and rations ○ full time doctors, bakeries and towns to house the people building Cutaway View of the Great Pyramid Ivory Sculpture of Khufu ● 5in tall ● only reference we have of Khufu February 19 Friday Cutaway View of the Great Pyramid ● lower chamber under the pyramid that didn’t become the burial chamber ○ burial chamber brought up into the middle of the pyramid ○ largest stones are inside the actual burial chamber ● Two narrow shafts ○ air shafts to the surface from the burial chamber ○ directed towards Sirius and Orion along with different stars to set up orientation of the building ● sun was creating a ramp via the pyramid for pharaohs to ascend into the sky ○ why they started with mastaba/stepped pyramid with earlier ones ● Khufu’s tomb was completely robbed ○ only ivory statue of him left ● 5 blocks of heavy granite as relief blocks above the burial chamber ○ blocks above them angled as a roof to relieve the weight on the room ○ graffiti in between the spaces of the 5 blocks ■ also down in the lower chamber from the workers ○ had pride in their work ● sealed chambers with pulleys ○ cut a trench from the lower chamber into the grand gallery to rob the tomb ● Khafre still has the white cap on his pyramid Recreation of the Worker’s Village at Giza ● uncovered by current day archeologists ● lived in dormitory like structures ○ bakeries, kitchens, beds and etc ● created an artificial harbor to bring heavy stones ● doctors and surgeons ○ broken bones, cranial surgery, crush and head injuries ○ mended and sent back to work The Pyramid at Khafre ● lots of mastabas around the pyramid ○ the noble’s cemeteries ● The Sphinx ○ Represents Khafre ○ fixed him a couple years ago ○ beard knocked off and kept by British museum ○ fixed paws and strengthened his neck ○ sits at front as a guardian in front of the causeway ■ connects mortuary temple to valley temple The Great Sphinx ● network of tunnels underneath him 19th Century Photographs of the Sphinx Two Views of the Sphinx: Toward the Pyramid Aerial View with the Valley Temple of Khafre Interior Views of the Valley Temple of Khafre ● red granite pillars and walls ● white calcite floor ● no decorations ○ very geometric ● niches in the floor for sculptures ● not spacious since their building stones are so heavy Seated Khafre, Cairo Museum ● hard granite called diorite ○ used abrasion with minimal amount of carving ● Horus was right next to the kings head wrapping his wings around his head ○ youthfulness and strength being portrayed ● would have been painted ● softness to show the flesh ● boulders that were naturally shaped to be fashioned into these sculptures ● drilled in between the legs to take out the piece of stone Pyramid of Menkaure ● The smallest but would have been the finest ● Did not live to see it completed ● the bottom was all done with a reddish granite ○ he died and then it was quickly finished with limestone ● would have been gorgeous with the granite Menkaure Triad, Fourth Dynasty ● greywacke (slate) material ● Hathor and one of the nome gods ○ side by side with him ● complete free standing sculpture ○ considered a 3D piece ○ usually has hieroglyphs on the back of it Menkaure and Queen Khameranebty, Fourth Dynasty ● unfinished at the bottom ● had to be finished quickly upon his death Head of the Pharaoh Djedefre, 2575 BC ● eyes not carved deeply ● but symmetrical Colossal Image of Menkaure ● proportions a bit off ● large sculpture ● first one to see himself as a colossal form? Table of Offerings Limestone Stele of Princess Nofretyabet, 2580 BC ● nobles buried in mud brick or rock cut tombs ● nobles add this motif into their tombs possibly near the chapel ● this one is painted Limestone ‘Reserve’ Heads, ca. 2580 BC ● short lived ● gone by the fourth dynasty ● sometimes laid right next to the tomb ○ might be their in case the mummy is destroyed ● look half finished and never painted ○ possibly had something on their heads Seated Limestone Sculpture of Hemiunu, 2540 BC ● non idealized bodies ● he was an architect of one of the great pyramids ● body type is synonymous with success ○ scribes, administrators, vizier (right hand of the king) Limestone Bust of the Vizier Ankhaf, ca. 2560 BC ● second highest figure in the land ● his tomb was relatively modest by royal standards ● sagging flesh around the eyes ● painted Seneb and His Family, 2530 BC ● administrative positions attached to the royal household ● fairly standard image in a tomb ○ husband, wife and kids ● kids with fingers to mouth is a poise of innocence ● Seneb is a dwarf in comparison to his wife Funerary Portraits of Nobles and Families ● fourthFifth Dynasty ● found at Saqqara ● shorter wig with horizontal pleats worn by men (old kingdom) ● hairstyles do change
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