Baroque Art Bundle #1: Beginning-Midterm Reading Notes
Baroque Art Bundle #1: Beginning-Midterm Reading Notes ArH 376U-001
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Corinne_Master_Note-scribbler on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ArH 376U-001 at Portland State University taught by Jesse M. Locker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Baroque Art in Art History at Portland State University.
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Feigenbaum Reading formlessness of the ‘shebear’ as symbolic of a painter and his creation Incamminati: travelers on the path to the unattainable end of perfection URSA MAJOR bear symbolism no different than other academies “affected a pretentious title” (60) suggested by scholars as a prelude to the nineteenth century workshop practice; how artistic skill is ensconced in and carried out as a professional endeavor, ‘practice makes perfect,’ as an embodiment andx index of theory (60) ”The Carracci enterprise was unusual in Bologna in being a family workshop formed not by fathers and sons, but by three men very close in age (27,25,22) and all endowed with conspicuous talent.” (601) the direction of the academy appears to have been determined by the three Carracci collectively many of its members came not as young boys, but as adults, and many had already been trained under other artists (entrance at 24, 26) artists who otherwise might have been working independently or as paid assistants for other masters, comprised a sizable segment of the academy typical bottega system embodied the belief that art was a skill first to be learned and then practiced. academy viewed learning as the artist’s lifelong pursuit, his path to perfection; education was neither limited to the years when one was a pupil in training not limited to the knowledge strictly necessary for a young artist to become a master. (61) ”source of tension within an institution that was improvising new structures intended not only to enhance the dignity of the painter as a liberal artist, but also to conduct the practical business of training artists, and making and marketing art.” (62) pupils could study with masters other than the Carracci ”artist beside the Carracci served as teachers in the academy…[leading to] the pedagogical program [that] may have amounted to a system of preceptors analogous to the guest lecturers in fields outside of painting… Lanzoni, who performed anatomical dissections in the academy (62) ”exhilarating atmosphere” (63) Calvaert, Bernardino Baldi’s loss of students to the Carracci Competitive style learning, to avoid public criticism and promote personal growth. drawing from live models posed after famous artworks The Carracci thus tended to demonumentalize Michelangelo….transpos[ing poses] from a heroic key to a humble one, or the transposition from the sublime to the sensual. (68) ”By reposing the [live] model the Carracci and their pupils regrounded Michelangelo’s art in nature, rather than submitting to Michelangelo’s absolute authority.” (69) Reform of painting ”confirmed naturethat is, the actual modeland not art as the higher authority” (69) emphasis on collaboration ”it was important to the Carracci that their art be understood not as an accident of personal style, but as a manifestation of a new, suprapersonal, reformed style of painting.” (70) it may have been the exception rather than the rule that one artist carried out a scene from conception through execution. ”While this [group style] is the attitude expected from a traditional workshop team in which the assistant’s job is to imitate his leader, here the artists deferred to a style generated by their own interaction.” (70) ”They freed themselves and then their pupils from enslavement by authority.” (73) Anthony Hughes, “What’s the Trouble with the Farnese Gallery? An Experiment in Reading Pictures.” Art History11 (1988): 33548 description by Gian Pietro Bellori systematic; represented the frescoes as the supreme achievement of the Carracci brothers > Annibale. judgement endorsed so often; definiton of modern 17th c studies first writer to covertly apologize for a shortcoming that needed to be stated in order to understand frescoes later descriptions based off Bellori denote same happy theme with subtle attention to inconsistencies and faults flaws of gallery elusive problem with the gallery questionable meaning and intention of programme provocative erotic narratives > lovers of the gods ’hung’ from the armature of a fictive architectural support frescoed on the gallery’s vault THE TROUBLE: incoherence, or, at least, following Bellori, its curious inversion of the classical norms of composition. unitary interpretation of frescoes; advised that they are but fragments formal elements to be given conceptual dominion over pictorially assertive portions of the fresco absurdly considered the Carracci masterpiece asking the wrong questions frescoes as conceptual Stanley Fish ”readers who are temporarily disoriented by textual ambiguities have been far too often urged to discard one or more possible reading of a word or phrase in favour of a final choice, selected retrospectively so as to agree with a global interpretation of the text. However, that to get rid of uncertainties, or even, in extreme cases, of what seem to be flat contradictions within the body of a literary work, was to do violence to the reader’s experience.”(337) ”the reader’s difficulty became an integral part of the meaning of a poem or prose discourse, rather than something to be resolved; case histories of critical quarrels provided him with a convenient record of the experiences of past readers.”(3378) Donald Posner ”involve no specific narrative sequence, no inflexible grouping of the frescoes by themes or subthemes, and no indispensable subjects (no single subjects which are crucial to an understanding of the programme).”(338) the scenes are interchangeable with no effect on the overall meaning. ”Bernini told Chantelou that Annibale had rejected a plan of Agostino’s to unify the vault by making it appreciable from one spot only. The result of Annibale’s decision was to lend the scheme an interesting ambivalence of design.” (338) Pan and Diana Bacchanal Paris and Mercury Cephalus and Aurora Polyphemus (2) Perseus (2) Virgin with the Unicorn (Domenichino) Raphael’s Psyche loggia at the Farnesina Michelangelo’s Sistine ceiling ”the disposition of the feigned pictures on the vault constantly calls visitors’ attention back to their own difficulties with the structure of the fresco.” (340) ”we are, of course, free for a short time to construct a singular iconography, just as we are free speculatively to piece together Annibale’s painted architecture, the nuts and bolts of which are always partly hidden from us.” (340) Flaying of Marsyas Pan and Syrinx Charles Dempsey ”ceiling represents a rumbustious Rabelaisian lark” (340) ”by effecting an interpretative divorce between vault and walls, Dempsey certainly seemed able simultaneously to simplify the scholar’s task and attractively ratify a critical preference for the ceiling paintings over those of the lower part of the room.” (340) weak; no way of knowing whether the subjects selected for the wall frescoes were chosen before, during or after the completion of the vault ”The dialogue set up between art and life, painting and sculpture, illusion and reality, is still active in later paintings, themselves supported by fictive bronze atlantes which match the illusionistic herms of the frieze.” (340) Polyphemus and Galatea Perseus and Andromeda ”clever scheme of decoration seems to have been tailored to offer a kaleidoscopic, ambulatory experience that mixed wit and seriousness in constantly changing proportions.” (341) Fulvio Orsino: credited with inventing the literary programme EH Gombrich: iconology must start with the study of institutions if it lays claim to being a historical tool; begin with the conceptual and social conventions which generated and secured the meaning of decorative schemes like the Farnese Gallery rather than with the decoding of symbols which rarely have unambiguous ‘dictionary’ meanings. although scriptural exegesis formed an accessible model for interpreting special sorts of text in multiple senses no document has ever been discovered that convincingly shows that the same procedures were used to understand the visual arts. 342 it is highly unlikely that medieval or renaissance painters or their patrons deliberately devised imagery having more than one ‘dominant’ level of meaning: the ‘kaleidoscopic’ experience of the Farnese Gallery would have to be dismissed as the construct of a twentiethcentury viewer. 342 [it has always been difficult] to control public response to imagery; these aberrant interpretations are interesting precisely because we can assess the degree to which they deviate from a known authorial intention… they are obviously of no use as evidence to bolster a speculative reconstruction of missing programmes. Iconology is not wholly concerned with reception. 342 Christ and Moses in the Sistine Chapel ”The rediscovery of a set of Latin tituli inscribed above the narratives has confirmed the view that the two sets of pictures were conceived as a typological sequence in which Moses is portrayed as the ‘bearer’ (lator) of the Old Law, Christ as the carrier of the New.” 343 Perugino’s Donation of the Keys theme of the nature of priestly, and papal authority ”The inscription above, however, serenely ignoring the visual dominance of the group in the front, declares the subject to be the ‘Opposition to Jesus…’, through that can only refer to the two relatively inconspicuous representation in the middle distance, and chiefly to the stoning of Christ on the right. It is as if these histories were composed like a piece of polyphonic music in which, from time to time, the subsidiary voice constituted by the theme of papal power may dominate the leading typological motif.” 343 Raphael’s loggia at the Farnesia ”histories relating the story of Cupid and Psyche may have been seen as an allegory concerning the progress of the soul as well as a rather spicy tale of love. This cycle formed one of the visual precedents for the Carracci Gallery and, as with the Bacchus and Ariadne on the Farnese ceiling, there need have been no compulsion for viewers to resolve its ambivalence.” 343 Bacchus and Ariadne ”comic and heroic elements weave their way in and out of the frescoes in a fashion that demands an unusual degree of mental agility on the part of observers. It is not that we doubt the cycle’s fundamental object of glorifying the Farnese family, more that the manner of glorification is as much festive as solemn. The framing elements there form a subplot as wittily ‘insubordinate’ in it's way as Martin conceived Annibale’s herms and ignudi to be.” 343 Annibale Carracci rejected the overcomplicated compositional devices of his immediate predecessors restoration of high renaissance principles of design elicits Roman fresco decoration games of invocation, historical and theoretical tradition/mocking tradition, art of recent past Programme (ceiling only): Polyphemus and Galatea Hercules and Omphale Pan and Diane Diana and Endymion Marine Triumph Bacchanal Cephalus and Aurora Venus and Anchises Paris and Mercury Jupiter and Juno Polyphemus and Acis ”it is the cleverest conceit of the Carracci vault design to invite viewers to enjoy the fiction that the ceiling and it's frieze is made up of a group of framed pictures which could be taken down periodically and reshuffled.” 345 ”the ‘collection’ of pictures above complemented the real collection of antique statues and busts below. These were themselves objects which had long been severed from their original contexts.” 345 conditions at the beginning of the 17th c may have been a good deal more favourable to an ‘open’ reading of the Farnese Gallery iconological, historical in character ”artfully constructed game designed to tease but never satisfy ”where a number of conflicting accounts are in competition, Fish’s invitation to reflect of the processes involved in constructing interpretation is a salutary one. It tends to bring into the open the part played in all versions by the reader’s expectations and in this way enable us to test them against the historical evidence.” 346 ”the final court of appeal is always to some feature of the given text a grammatical crux, for example the effect of which is represented as invariable, as though ‘meaning’ had been built into the work’s structure once and for all.”346 Gombrich; “no such thing as the ‘innocent eye’. Whatever conclusions are drawn from the disposition of formal elements within a room (like Farnese) remain conditional on the cultural preparation of the viewer, and their plausibility will depend on the context in which they are presented. 346 relation of wall to ceiling; walls support ceiling, ceilings are above walls ”The idea might then turn the whole gallery into a kind of Vanitas; whether risible or tragic in outcome, the loves of the gods could be understood to undermine the heroic pretensions of the scenes below.” 346 Cavazzini Reading 1 Artemisia and her paintings of heroines were probably esteemed as such, as prized curiosities a R Ward Hissell 1999: her male customers, because they were titillated by her stories of violence and seduction, continued to commission them from her b never received a public commission in Rome, Florence, and Venice i Florentine court favorite ii admission to Accademia del Disegno iii follower of Caravaggio 1 Bolognese influence, well received in Naples 2 patronage of Spanish nobility, including Philip IV, altarpieces ‘starving artist’ 2 Artemisia connection between life and work as ‘marvel’ of our own time a blah blah feminism; what about the reality of life as a young, unmarried female artist in early 17th c Rome? i in Florence became refined painter, elegant lady, and sophisticated intellectual, learned to write ii Married status, increasing success, and contact with Medici allowed freedom (16121620) b BEFORE 1612 i Rome; ii scholarly assumption of training as a history painter, and thus familiar with all that a male artist during the same time would be 1 counterpoint: possibly not! Consider what we know of Orazio and Artemisia 3 Social situation different than those like Lavinia Fontana, and other women artists of high repute in Rome a Lavinia Fontana; i father Prospero foremost Bolognese painter, successful, wealthy, combined vast erudition with array of visual sources 1 Council of Trent: Bishop Pallotti consultation of Prospero 2 patrons included Julius III 3 friends included Ulisse Aldrovandi and Achille Bocchi 4 extensive workshop where pupils studied (not Lavinia) a Lavina contact with collection of antiques, or casts after the fact, and of the body b portraitist and history painter, product of lavish and educated surroundings c multiple altarpieces in Rome after 160414; San Paolo fuori le Mura i unfavorably received by Roman public d self portraits exuded social station, intellectual achievements, and prim virtue 4 Artemisia’s youth of limitations, ‘famous rape’ trial of 1612 a social station and father’s notoriously strange temperament, allowed very limited artistic or intellectual contacts b motherless child c father strife to achieve minimal recognition in Roman artistic circles i 1611 considered a poor man, too poor to keep a servant ii significant commissions few and far between 1 1590s painted the apse of San Nicola in Carcere for cardinalnephew Pietro Aldobrandini 2 1596 Conversion of Saul in San Paolo fuori le Mura 3 after 1607, Baptism of Christ in the Olgiati chapel in Santa Maria della Pace 4 faithful patrons, Settimio Olgiati, Paolo Savelli a assisted after rape trial with patronage and housing 5 never considered by Pope Paul V or cardinalnephew Scipione Borghese d Caravaggio and Reni profoundly influenced Orazio i rather conventional, reformed Mannerist style, Orazio converted toward observation of nature, and the direct study of a model 1 works infused with a lyrical sensibility derived from Caravaggio 2 limitations of Orazio: inability to convincingly handle large multi figure compositions, spacial/ depth issues e had few friends, distant from many influential and innovative patrons i not considered as a valid alternative to Caravaggio ii preferred Antiveduto Gramatica who tempered his Caravaggism with a strong dose of influence from Raphael as favored by the esteemed who disliked Caravaggio f social life suggests downward spiral leading up to rape trial i associated with more unsavory characters, Caravaggio, Onorio Longhi, and Carlo Saraceni 1 avec Orazio Borgianni, Saraceni and Gentileschi were among the earliest followers of Caravaggio friendship between did not last long 2 severed by 1610 3 quarrell with Giovanni Baglione in 1603 a arguments based on both artistic rivalries and on perceived injuries to his honor b rhymes composed “O Giovanni Baglione, great whore.” followed by language so vulgar they are rarely printed ii uneducated “I can write, but I cannot spell properly” iii in touch with Northern painters near by 1 Wenzel Cobergher, Adam Elsheimer 2 little professional contact with the Carracci and Co iv left with ONE close companion: Cosimo Quorli 1 under steward to the Pope, collector of paintings, and a truly revolting character ‘if ever there was one’ 2 during rape trial; witnesses attested that he claimed to be Artemisia’s father, but evidently he also repeatedly tried to rape her v through Quorli, Orazio met Agostino Tassi who had arrived in Rome with a long criminal record and became his friend 5 Agostino Tassi a from Florence, banished to Livorno, a ‘penal colony’ b 1599 arrival in Rome i assaulted prostitute who had refused services ii punishment from a previous crime in Tuscany; Tassi spent time on the grandducal galleys, but not actually at the oars 1 upon freedom, married a prostitute as fulfillment of a vow to redeem one a named Maria Cannodoli, left Tassi for a rich merchant after Tassi took her sister Costanza b in revenge, Tassi tried (probably) unsuccessfully to have her killed c Tassi the painter i much sought after by patrons 1 members of Florentine court; Lorenzo Usimbardi ii arrival in Rome; work on the Palazzo Firenze under Cigoli 1 painted a frieze of sea and landscapes, celebrating military exploits of Grand Duke Ferdinand I d’Medici iii active in the Palazzo Colonna d 1611 tried for incest with his sister in law i both Quorli and Orazio instrumental in securing release ii nine days after release, he was receiving 150 scudi from the Camera Apostolica for frescoes in the papal palace on the Quirinal hill, commissioned before the trial 1 painted the Sala del Concistoro ‘Sala Regia’ which did not survive 6 Tassi offering of Papal commission to Orazio a collaboration with Tassi and Orazio i Tassi master of spatial illusionism and supplied convincing framework for Orazio insertion of personages ii equal praise received for Orazio iii lost fresco, angels shown holding a Borghese coat of arms in the center of the ceiling and the Virtues leaned on an illusionistic balustrade, led to further collaborations for the Borghese iv worked together in the Casino delle Muse in Cardinal Scipione’s garden palace and the apartment of Cardinal Lanfranco in the Palazzo del Quirinale 1 accounts show two painters on equal footing and received qual pay 2 different at the Palazzo del Quirinale Orazio payed through Tassi for the Sala del Concistoro and received a single payment for the decoration of Cardinal Lanfranco’s apartment 7 Agostino Tassi charged for Artemisia’s rape 1612 a CLAIM: Tassi had forcibly deflowered Artemisia, and Quorli had not only abetted him and tried to raper her in turn, but had also extracted from Artemisia a few paintings, including a large Judith i inflicted severe damage on Orazio’s honor and on his purse b Artemisia 17; already a painter i hidden away, few knew her personally and even fewer ever saw her at all ii Orazio attempted to convince her to become a nun, and thus kept her secluded in the house iii trial witnesses claimed only to see her through the window, only Tassi claimed to see her outside 1 claimed her to be a prostitute and having and having bad lovers iv household much more open to the outside world than was desirable at the time 1 variance of visitors; artists, patrons, shop boys, models of frequence 2 Orazio’s protection that guests did not see Artemisia, and if they did, they were not to speak to her 3 ultimately hurt Artemisia’s reputation during trial 4 judge suspicion that the visitations may have caused said rumors v portrait painting of Atrigenio, exposing herself to the risk of criticism for excessive degree of intimacy vi lied to judge about the age of her brother Francesco, making him 16 when he would have been 13 to give impression that he was there to protect her c CLAIM; Tassi raperd Artemisia in her home, then from there they carried on their subsequent relationship i Agostino claim that Orazio had given him the task of teaching her perspective ii truth: Orazio granted access to both Tassi and Quorli, a married man who was trusted, free access to his daughter, who was sheltered from many other encounters 1 remarkable, that Carlo Saraceni had never seen Artemisia, same of Antimoro Bertucci d Orazio’s use of Artemisia as a model, inducing rumors that he had her pose in the nude i belonging to a class that did not conform to images of virtuous female artist like Lavinia or Sofonisba e Tassi’s promise of marriage after rape i Artemisia use of ‘amorrevolmentre’ similar to strong love ii proposal hoax as Tassi’s wife was still living 1 Artemisia turned definitively against Tassi 8 Association with Tassi boosted Orazio’s career and financial situation a afforded one part time house servant b marriage between Artemisia and Tassi would have maintained finances c moved closer (away from life long home) to Tassi d Orazio did not press charges against Tassi until their collaborations were near finished, and in between looked for find a better solution. i by claiming rape, Orazio intended to force Tassi into marriage, or at least into providing a substantial dowry for Artemisia 1 most common legal solutions to a rape 2 provision of a dowry would have proven the lack of guilt of the woman’s part, and made her more attractive in the marriage market, compensating for the loss of virginity ii Prospero Farinacci; sentences for rape were somewhat arbitrary 1 in theory a capital sentence could be pronounced, but in practice this did not happen unless the rape involved abduction or arms 2 a man guilty of rape but unwilling to marry his victim or provide a dowry for her, could undergo a punishment, such as; a fustigation, the galleys, exile, or a fine b dependant on the social condition of the woman c rape of a maid or a disreputable woman not considered a crime 3 Tassi denial of any involvement with Artemisia and produced a number of witnesses declaring she had had several lovers a Nicolo Bedino; lived in Orazio household since 1611 i attested that Artemisia had bedded many men “I do not know what they were doing up there” b Orazio claim of Bedino as former employee of Tassi falsifications confirmed by court 4 Tassi sentenced to 5yrs exile from Rome under threat of the galleys if he did not comply a threat as legal wording than actual practice b sentence not implemented iii Giovanni Battista Passeri; understood what sort of character Agostino was and condemned him in every instance except the one of the rape. He wrote that Artemisia ‘would have been praiseworthy for her paintings if she had been more virtuous,’ and that Agostino was acquitted in the trial, even though he may have been guilty (287) 9 Tassi presence, papal admiration, favored artist a “There is no question that the Borghese had made their choice; it was Tassi’s ability as a quadraturist which was irreplaceable, while Orazio was perhaps not even given a chance to finish his part in the Casino delle Muse. If not as ‘mediocre’ as the Florentine ambassador cruelly labeled him, Gentileschi was one among the many figure painters available in Rome.” (288) b consequence of the trial, Orazio lost the favor of the papal family, never again would he receive a major commission in Rome c Artemisia fared somewhat better 10 Artemisia marriage to Pierantonio Stiattesi after Tassi sentencing a Stiattesi, brother of the man who had helped Orazi in the legal defense b preparing to leave Rome for Florence i no knowledge of background in painting until after trial ii young brother of Artemisia, Francesco trained under Nicolo (key witness in trial for Tassi) while Artemisia had helped 1 possibly finished her artist training by 1609 2 household of Orazio did not accommodate apprentices a loner, trade in isolation without an active workshop b borrowed workers from Tassi 11 Orazio's style a painting directly on the canvas without preliminary drawings b not much of a draftsman i did not teach drawing ii only sketches of babies for speed purposes iii confined self in room with models and did not leave or let anyone else in c preferred painting from live models i influence of Caravaggio d lack of own tools i explains Artemisia’s ‘inept’ rendering of anatomy 12 Artemisia in Florence a able to train and learn basic anatomical structure i Saint Cecilia, and Allegory of Inclination; highly accomplished works, in which a brilliant rendering of textures is wed to an elegant depiction of the human figure b Artemisia learn from Orazio the practice of painting from the model and of posing human figures after famous works of art i in all likelihood Orazio owned a number of prints which must have been fundamental for broadening her visual experience c evidence she went to mass during her time in Rome i church of Santa Maria del Popolo 1 familiar with Caravaggio’s canvases in the Cerasi chapel ii church of San Lorenzo in Lucina and Santo Spirito in Sassia iii Sant’Onofrio, and a few major Roman Basilicas 1 San Giovanni in Laterano, Saint Peter’s, and San Paolo fuori le Mura iv Quorli took her to see the Palazzo del Quirinale 1 Guido Reni’s frescoes in the papal chapel 2 home of Quorli and his collection of paintings including a Susanna v more interested in viewing works she was familiar with, mostly those her father had created 13 Filippo Baldinucci: claim that Artemisia painted many portraits in her youth in Rome a claimed two paintings from trial b highly unusual for a woman to become a history painter i many sons accessible to Artemisia, therefore she became a portrait painter of mostly men 14 Could not write or sign her name a court documents from trial unsigned by her b men affluent in writing, down to the artisan class 15 Artemisia the painter a in beginning, may have painted for the market b father assistance by providing patrons i Alessandro Biffi; owned her first selfportraits as an Allegory of Painting, Madonna and Child, and Orazio’s David 1 Spada collection ii early work extraordinarily powerful 1 ie, Spada Madonna 1609; possibly modeled from Sansovino’s marble Madonna in Sant’Agostino, also on Orazio’s painting in Bucharest a emotional relationship between mother and child, command of space implied by oblique placement of chair i Orazio’s Madonna and Child more static and less spatially resolved b unequal length of Virgin’s arms; probably convinced Orazio to train Artemisia into a History Painter iii Susanna and the Elders; change to history painting 1610 1 anatomical precision, contrast of textures, light that strikes Susanna; more accomplished than in the Naples Judith Slaying Holofernes 2 Susanna possibly figured off of Artemisia 3 probably a collaboration between Artemisia and Orazio 4 no one saw father/daughter collaboration 5 canvas most likely a commission (says Bissell) and was probably a subject not chosen by Artemisia a even if Artemisia intended her canvas as a personal vendetta against Tassi, the mood with which she infused it is barely distinguishable from that of Caravaggio’s picture. The goriness and violence are similar, as is the distaste for the task shown by the two Judiths. In both, a feeling akin to sadness is combined with a finicky fear of dirtying one’s clothes. 290 iv Artemisia’s Judith 1 as a reaction to seeing the Caravaggio, private collection a did the client who commissioned the work also have Artemisia take the Caravaggio as a model? b Caravaggio’s Judith; motionless composition 2 forceful energetic arrangement of figures a casts self as the aggressor, substituting her features for those of Caravaggio’s aristocratic heroine b Judith at the same time a more ordinary and a more muscular figure 3 as a product of her own claustrophobic environment; became obsessed with her own features and repeated them time and again in her paintings, a mirror making up for so many constraints 291 a trial granted Artemisia more freedom b benefit of Tassi not marrying her; artistic freedom and development i recognized her value as a painter, attempted to move with her to Florentine court ii more learned than her father iii more interested in a variety of sources if she learned from Tassi, it does not appear in her work Sixtus V and the Quirinal Marder 1 Sixtus V a remembered for his efforts to remake the face of Rome b 15851590 c entirely rebuilt Lateran Palace d dome of St. Peter’s completed e cut wide streets’ ancient obelisks erected f antiquities restored, others demolished and quarried g civil law and architectural order restored to all quarters h urban planning not criticized i Quirinal Hill 1 prominently depicted in the largest room of the Lateran Palace 2 city views dominate end walls of salone grande 3 a fountain and surrounding area; Borgo Felice di S. Bernado a part of his own given name; Felice Peretti Montalto b confraternity S. Bernard 4 modern literature of architectural proposals no context in time, topography or intention a meanings, motivations can be constructed b erratic progress c highly irregular rhythm of grand planning schemes 2 Quirinal Hill a under aura of the Baths of Diocletian b Pius IV begun in 1561 church of S. Maria degli Angeli i After Michelangelo c Piazza delle Terme d irregular roadways jogged over surrounding fields to Porta S Lorenzo and Esquiline Hill to S. Maria Maggiore e Via Pia of the Lateran frescoes; spine of the Quirinal Hill i aligned by Pius IV in 1561 w/ Michelangelo’s designs ii historical prelude to Sixtus V’s activity f during papacy of Gregory XIII 15751585 i private citizen proposal to bring new aqueduct to Rome ii proposal lost, papal brief approving plan appeared in 1583 iii general and specific g early 16th c i Rome outgrow medieval boundaries ii Porta del Popolo iii oldest functioning aqueduct; Acqua Vergine iv poorly integrated hills remained preserves of country retreats or vigne scattered within the city walls h Pius IV i deficiency became increasingly obvious and was unable to support extensive settlement i to irrigate was to fertilize their previous investments i technical difficulties ii too expensive iii death of Gregory XIII j future Sixtus V i purchased villa on the Esquiline ii grounds acquired and enlarged in many stages k Cardinal Montalto i announcement of intention to build new aqueduct 3 Acqua Felice a employed 2,000 on the daily b 4,000 overall c Matteo Bartolini da Citta di Castello i replaced by Giovanni Fontana 1 brother of Sixtus V’s personal architect; Domenico Fontana d originally conceived as a private undertaking i became public enterprise; overseen by Pope, finished by architects e brought the first new supply of water to Rome since destruction of ancient aqueducts by gothic invaders i terminal wall fountain, Fontana Felice 1 resembled a triumphal arch covered with papal emblems 2 alludes to victory of Pope’s will over enormous difficulties and to Imperial Rome 3 attic inscription heralds achievement of ancient conquest 4 Montalto emblems in arch spandrels 5 papal stemma above attic 6 crowing cross to papal auspices under aqueduct completed a a Christian triumph over the discretion of the city by heathen troops b in the central niche the figure of Moses, striking the rock to bring forth water, provides a thinly disguised allusion to Sixtus V by whose will and persistence this victory was achieved 7 water flowed where the baths had operated in antiquity 8 lure inhabitants away from the Tiber Mochi’s Edge, Estelle Lingo 1 St. Veronica a St. Peter’s b edgiest statue of the 17th c i unsettled viewers to present day c daringly extended veil d billowing of the mantle e finlike folds from saint’s forward leg f cuts into surrounding air 2 17th c biographer Giovanni Battista Passeri a folds of St. Veronica i raised beyond the norm b of Roman sculptor Orfeo Boselli i common reaction to a certain ‘statue by a famous master’ was to ask ‘what do so many wheeling folds on a sleeve mean?’ c folds as ‘too continuous’ d biography was the only life of the sculptor written in the 17th c i later writers confused Mochi’s career with that of a Florentine pietre dure specialist of the same name e opened biography of Mochi by observing how people tend to adhere to their native tradition and remain blind to it's shortcomings i especially from region with rich culture ii ‘I say this with regard to Francesco Mochi, who was born in the state of Florence, and wanted always to show himself a rigorous imitator of the Florentine manner. I don’t pretend to play the impertinent judge in censuring the style of any nation. But, following the common opinion, I concur that Tuscany is obstinate in it's hardness, and Lombardy careless in it's negligence.’ f comments reflect the general perception that the great artistic accomplishments of the century had been achieved by combining the strengths of regional styles, especially the integration of colore, the more natural color and freer brushwork associated with northern Italian art, with the disegno for which Florence was famed 3 Edges reveal about sculptural practice and criticism a Rudolf Wittkower i assessment of Mochi’s art as highly influential ii Mochi’s innovations were eclipsed by Bernini iii reverted to an austere form of mannerism in later works 1 unfinished Baptism group for S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini iv St. Veronica marked the start of the decline b Mochi’s Annunciation group for Orvieto cathedral i ‘a fanfare raising sculpture from it's slumber’ ii heralding the advent of the baroque style c Valentino Martinelli i significance lay in Mochi’s opposition to the prevailing style of Bernini ii condemned the Veronica as ‘an imprudent concession to current taste’ and a ‘great hysteric launched against the wind’ d Mochi’s sculpture largely fallen into a historiographic crevice between two stylistic epochs i lacks full monographic study 4 Florentine artistic tradition a era marked by religious reform and accelerating stylistic change b Mochi grew up amidst colore i disegno ii colore famously championed by the Carracci, advocates of the ‘living flesh’ c biographer Carlo Cesare Malvasia i style of contemporary central Italian painting and it's derivatives as ‘statuettelike’ (statuino) with washed out color and licked brushwork. d Raffaello Borghini’s art critical dialogue Il Riposo of 1584 i a lack of compelling colorito is discussed as a failing of the Tuscan painter Santi di Tito 1 Mochi’s early teacher e ‘statuettelike’ i northern critiques of central Italian paintings ii underscores how closely the central Italian pictorial ideal had been associated with sculptural qualities 1 expressed by Michelangelo a contribution to Benedetto Varchi’s 1549 book on the paragone between painting and sculpture b ‘It seems to me that painting is considered better the more it tends towards relief, and relief considered poorer the more it tends towards painting’ 2 stress upon volume or rilievo; a prized quality of painting deep roots in Florentine artistic tradition f Leon Battista Alberti commended in painting ‘those faces which appear to stand out from the panel as if they were sculpted’, and counseled young artists to ‘imitate a mediocre sculpture rather than an excellent painting’ g discussion of the paragone i advocates of painting as greater stressed the larger difficulty of creating the illusion of relief as opposed to it's material reality in sculpture ii Michelangelo; dural sense of rilievo as both an aesthetic ideal and a form of sculpture to turn this claim against it's adherents by emphasising that their very ideal remained inherently sculptural h Time of Mochi; i sculptural ideal for painting was being overturned, significant implications on painting and sculpture 5 Sculpture v. Painting a no evidence in the early sources that specific critical concerns were articulated regarding the state of sculpture as they were for painting i developing critical investment in colorito shifted the focus of discussions about ideal art to a characteristic that at base belonged to painting b sculpture’s fundamental lack of colore was inevitably highlighted i Annibale Carracci’s praise of Alessandro Vittoria’s portrait busts; appearing like ‘petrified human heads rather than things worked with the chisel’ ii rising interest in living colore; sculpture appeared newly dead iii 17th c Passeri: 1 sculptors, who don’t exert themselves in the difficulty of painting, the manipulation of light and shade, seek to show perfection in other ways. Nevertheless, if they strive to display a noticeable intelligence regarding anatomy they produce an odious dryness and a harness that should be avoided, while the painter through the benefit of colorito, the deception of shading, and the observation of contrasts, renders his work perfect by another means. iv sculptors took on the challenge directly, pushing to the limit marble’s ability to register the softer effects of colore 1 Pietro Bernini a experiments found culmination in his son Gianlorenzo Bernini’s ambitious rivalry with painting v Mochi adhered resolutely to the longstanding Florentine affinity for firm contours. 1 Florentine tradition under pressure to change on another front a 1582, (two years after Mochi’s birth) i Bartolommeo Ammannati, Tuscan sculptor and architect; published open letter to the members of the Florentine Accademia del Disegno, (where he belonged) 1 previous decade, Ammannati greatly affected by contact with the Jesuits 2 much of the letter is a confession of his remorse at having sculpted nude figures in his youth 3 letter considered of little arthistorical relevance; Ammannati position, if intensely personal, also revealing for the historiography of sculpture 4 called upon fellow academicians to reconsider the critical standards by which sculpture was evaluated a ‘I know well that many of you realize that it is not less difficult, nor less of a real art, to know how to make a beautiful drapery around a statue, positioned and arranged with grace, than to make it completely nude and uncovered’ 6 Crisis; the irreconcilability of current critical standards for sculpture with the reality of the wider practice of the art in the postTridentine era a painters and sculptors; church commissions increasingly required careful navigation of growing concerns about the nude. i Florence; development whether resisted or embrace d felt acutely 1 constituted another challenge to their artistic tradition ii Sculptors; larger commissions oscillated to a great extent between all’antica ‘nudes, satyrs, fauns, and similar things’ 1 condemned by Ammannati’s letter 2 single draped figures of saints 3 Tuscany, body was sculptor’s primary material as much as the region’s plentiful stone b Passeri; i stressed Mochi’s devoutness 1 never carved mythological works 2 only religious subjects 7 Mochi a Florence to Rome 1603 b Mario Farnese; reformminded branch of family, protector of Mochi i most important work during periods away from Rome ii Annunciation group and a St. Philip for Orvieto iii bronze equestrian monuments to Ranuccio and Alessandro Farnese in Piacenza (161229) iv 1609 working for the Barberini c return to Rome in 1629 received commission for St. Veronica i Maffeo Barberini reigning as Pope Urban VIII 1 entrusted decoration of St. Peter’s to Bernini 2 charge of overall conception of the crossing decoration a four colossal statues of saints associated with the basilica’s most important relics: i Mochi’s St. Veronica ii Bernini’s St. Longinus iii Andrea Bolgi’s St. Helen iv Francois Duquesnoy’s St. Andrew b Bernini provided initial designs for each of the statues i Mochi permitted greater independence than other sculptors 1 carved sculpture in own studio rather than in S.Peter’s workshop c fullscale stucco models of all four pier statues were made first and unveiled in their intended niches i evaluated by the Pope, the Congregazione, and the Roman public ii Mochi’s S.Veronica approved in advance by the Pope 1 disruption of the overall programme 2 Veronica as ‘Nympha’ a the all’antica figure so named by Aby Warburg b fluttering draperies stored emotional forces from pagan antiquity c conception of the Pathosformel; antique motifs that recur in later art, visual time travellers with the power to catalyse emotion and destabilise convention d question of function and performances of this visual topos in the early modern period 8 Nympha a Aby Warburg b derived from relief carvings of bacchantes and nymphs found on ancient gems and sarcophagi c 15th bringer or bearer, Warburg ‘Miss Hurrybring’ i Domenico Ghirlandaio’s Birth of S.John the Baptist 1 Tornabuoni Chapel in S.Maria Novella d Adrian Randolph; Donatello gave the Nympha an early and highly influential interpretation in his statue of Dovizia, or wealth, executed 1430 and mounted on a column in Florence’s Mercato Vecchio i statue disintegrated in early 18th c ii deduced from painted representation and from the terracotta variants that were produced for Florentine homes as talismans of wealth and abundance: a young woman, bearing a cornucopia and a basket of fruit, steps forward lightly, a breeze animating her all’antica drapery and revealing the contours of her legs iii functioned as a signifier of Florence; beauty, abundance, and antiquity e Warburg: animated drapery a characteristic of the Nympha i praised in Alberti’s On Painting: 1 Since by nature draperies are heavy and fall straight to the ground, it will be a good idea, where we wish to have drapery in movement, to put in the picture the face of the West or South wind blowing between the clouds and rippling the garments. Thus will arise the particular grace that the bodies on the side which they are struck by the wind will to a large extent display the nude beneath the drapery, while on the other side, the draperies blown by the gentle wind will fly through the air. ii Leonardo fan of drapery; ‘As much as you can, imitate the Greeks and Romans in the manner of revealing limbs when the wind presses draperies over them…[appropriateness for nymphs and angels] who are shown dressed in very thin garments, driven or pressed by the blowing of winds’ iii adapted for scenes of mourning where the bacchante’s agitated drapery conveyed the frenzy of grief 1 relief of the Crucifixion by Bertoldo di Giovanni a pupil of Donatello b early teacher of Michelangelo iv complexity and elevation of drapery could be achieved more readily in painting or relief than in freestanding sculpture 1 Ammannati; particular interest for Mochi 2 Del Monte Chapel in S.Pietro in Montorio in Rome a early 1550s Ammannati Justice i lively forward stride out of the niche and exquisitely carved drapery, both billows decoratively and clings revealingly to her legs NYMPHA alert f brought to highpoint of refinement by Botticelli i variants of the type continue to make occasional appearances in sixteenthcentury Florentine art 1 Pontormo’s Visitation as the SS.Annunziata in Florence 2 Francesco Salviati’s fresco Visitation at the Florentine Oratory of S.Giovanni Decollato in Rome g Reformed Ammannati i 1580s ii rethought figure for the tomb of Giovanni Battista Buoncompagni in the Camposanto in Pisa iii single sculptural commission cited with pride in penitent letter to academicians h In her final form, Mochi’s VeronicaNympha strongly cues the viewer’s emotional response of compassion for Christ’s suffering, while also performing the theologically appropriate affirmation of the miraculous. i Passeri; ‘from the movement of the eyes and mouth, one realizes that she exclaims in a high voice the admirable portent of the impression on that most Holy Sudarium’ ii Veronica as a ‘Miss Hurrybring’ transformed the pilgrim’s encounter with the relic from one of meditative contemplation to a confrontation with the eruptive presence of the supernatural 9 contemporary opinion of S.Veronica a result of much study and effort b Pope Urban; ‘lingered looking at it because it is very beautiful and well made.’ i Tuscan Barberini celebrated origins; Urban sympathetic to Mochi’s commitment to Florentine tradition
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