Exam 1 Material
Exam 1 Material PY 335
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verified elite notetaker
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Jennie Benyo on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 335 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Mary Bogginano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Motivation and Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Motivation – a process that energies an individual toward a goal/external event. Goal directed to bring pleasure or avoid displeasure. Drive – internal sensation that fuels motivation state to keep us alive Drives evolved to strengthen survival Thirst, hunger, nausea, pain, curiosity (born with) Some drives are learned Biological drives – born with (4 F’s) Feeding Fighting Fleeing Mating Biological needs are not biological drives Learned drives Drugs Eating disorders Education Career Maslow – hierarchy of needs What makes successful people successful? Selfactualization Esteem Love/Belonging Safety Physiological Selfactualization doesn’t mean worth You can be disabled but can be selfactualized *Psychology – science of behavior Cognition/mental functionality Old theory – throwing fits were caused by the devil Devil was a huge assumption. First evidence of schizophrenia behavior Spider making web after being soaked in the blood from someone with schizophrenia. Renee Descartes Selfactualized Scientist and mathematician “I think therefore I am” Introduced stimulus and reflex Discovered we have nerves Sensory input transmits up through the body to the brain by nerves and respond with a reflex. Worked for all behavior expect mind Dualism – mind and body are separate. Thomas Hobbes Contemporary The mind is part of the mechanics of the body and the mind was just another reflex. Empiricism – knowledge that comes from experience Everything begins with sensory experience even mindful things. Charles Darwin Known for evolution theory Survival of the fittest Traits that lead to survival are more likely to carry on. We behave because we develop the structure therefore the function to behave the way we do. “Structure dictates function” The mind is something humans are good at because of the structure. Sigmund Freud Suggest we’re not always aware of our motivation subconscious level. Unconscious urges and desires Walter Cannon Invented homeostasis – internal stability Constantly motivated to maintain homeostasis Example: hunger motivate us to keep food in us Discovered effects of adrenaline Edward Thorndike Law of Effect – effect of what an animal does effect what the animal will determine what it does in the future. Creates learning Does something good/rewarding so we continue to do the good behavior. Motivated to do things rewarding and punishing “Behaviorism” Ivan Pavlov Behaviorism Behavior and motivation depend on the environment If a behavior seems complicated its because the environment is difficult Motivation is learned from environment John Watson Father of Behaviorism Most radical We can only infer from behavior How people perceived colors Donald Hebb All the things we can’t see like thought are formed by an interaction in the brain Brought together mind and body Environment shapes motivation but it is still the interaction Central Nervous System (CNS) No organ that can survive without brain Nothing you can do, think, feel that doesn’t involve the brain Your brain is the only organ that can think about itself The brain weights about 3 pounds but is mostly water Brain contains 10 to 100 billion specialized cells called neurons Born with 10 billion Human brain is largest relative to body size Brains basic fuel is glucose, which is converted to energy. Brain uses 25% of body’s glucose Nerves are outside the brain Extension of the neurons Neurons are in the brain Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS Expand energy Conserve energy Eyes Dilate Constrict Nose Decrease mucus production Increased mucus production Salivary Decrease salivation Increase salivation Heart Increase heart rate Decreased heart rate Blood Vessels Constrict Dilate Sweat Glands Increased sweating Decrease sweating Lungs Relax Contract Stomach Relax Contract Adrenaline Glands Increase adrenaline Decrease adrenaline Liver Increase release of glucose Decrease release of glucose Bladder Bladder relaxes Bladder contracts Genitals Ejaculation/Orgasm Erection/Lubrication Sympathetic NS kicks in when you use the bathroom Parasympathetic NS kicks in when you hold in your bladder Sympathetic Nervous System 1. Expand energy. 2. Nerves exit from thoracic and lumbar. 3. Short preganglion long postganglion. 4. Nerves are more interconnected for fast and whole responses (activated together) 5. Acetylcholine (ACh) at ganglion level. Norepinephrine (NE) at organ level. 6. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors at ganglion level. NE binds to alpha and beta at organ level. Parasympathetic Nervous System 1. Conserves energy. 2. Nerves exit from cervical and sacral. 3. Long preganglion short postganglion. 4. More independent of each other. 5. ACh at ganglion level. ACh at organ level. 6. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors at ganglion level. ACh binds to muscarinic receptors at organ level. Ganglion – collection of neurons bundled together, Chemicals inside nerves make them work. All reactions are due to norepinephrine hormone. Receptors receive hormones. Each hormone has its own family of receptors. ACh binds to nicotinic and muscarinic. Norepinephrine binds to alpha and beta receptors. ACh will never bind to alpha or beta receptors and NE will never bind to nicotinic or muscarinic receptors. Any drug or hormone that binds to a receptor and turns it on is called an agonist. Any drug or hormone that binds to a receptor and blocks it is called an antagonist. Most drugs are either agonist or antagonist. Muscarinic is the chemical in magic mushrooms. Acetylcholine (ACh) First neurotransmitter discovered All in homeostasis Deadly effects if too much or too little in system. Examples from too much ACh in system Black widow spiders will kill because their venom causes the body to create too much ACh. Nerve gas will increase the release of ACh. Examples from too little ACh in system Belladonna – a flower with poison that causes eyes to dilate. Too much of the poison causes a decrease in ACh. Botulism/food poisoning. Inside the brain too little ACh causes the memory loss in Alzheimer’s. Most important hormone for memory. Dtubocurane – causes paralysis but feeling is still there. Anticetylcholine effect like dry mouth and blurred vision. Caliber Bean Was used to subject guilty or innocent people before trial by jury. Guilty people would nibble on the bean, which caused the poison to metabolize quicker and kill you. Innocent people would swallow the bean whole, which caused the bean to pass through the body before poison metabolized and people lived. Physostigmine comes from bean Increases ACh It is a treatment for glaucoma. Percy Lavon Julian discovered this bean. Pineal melatonin – control circadian (daily) rhythms Posterior Pituitary vasopressin – water/salt balance and blood pressure oxytocin – labor, lactation, and social interaction Anterior Pituitary growth – all tissue and cell division adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) – a stress hormone, stimulates adrenal glands to stimulate release glucocorticoids folic stimulating hormone (FSH) – stimulates development in follicles around ovaries and release of estrogen. Stimulates production of sperm luteinizing hormone (LH) – stimulates ovulation prolactin – lactation Thyroid thyroxin – regulates metabolic rate and protein synthesis Thymus thymosine – immunity functions/helps fight disease Adrenal Medulla epinephrine norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex cortisol – type of glucocorticoid. Glucose/sugar into cells. Anti inflammatory aldosterone – involved in water/salt balance menocratucolocoin testosterone – sexual arousal/libido Pancreas insulin – enables glucose and fats to enter cells Ovaries estrogen – puberty/secondary sex characteristics progesterone – prepares uterus for pregnancy Testes Puberty Homeostasis – state of balance in the bodies internal environment that relies on negative feedback. Biological Rhythms – regular patterns and bodily changes Circadian – changes over 24 hours Sleep/wake cycle People infected with rabies would: Try to bite people Have hyper sexuality Have aggressive behavior Have insomnia Be hypersensitive to odors (i.e., garlic) Have an aversion to seeing themselves in mirrors Pallid/ashen look. Origin of Circadian Rhythms Scientist thought it was due to light and dark cycles Cave experiment – kept a 24hour rhythm Internal clock – suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which signals pineal to secret melatonin Lesion (destroy) SCN disrupts sleep/wake cycle Zeitgeber – cues that train circadian rhythms from outside Examples: light, coffee, or social interaction SCN receives information from retina Arousal – bringing into action or readiness from a state of inactivity. (SNS helps) Hebb’s Optimal Arousal Theory How it perfects performance Performance is best at intermediate level of arousal Thought it was a bell shaped curve. We see best with immediate level of light Smell, hearing, touch, and taste too Low arousal when sleeping High arousal after drinking six red bull YerkesDodson Theory of Arousal Didn’t think it was just a bell shaped curve. 2 elements they manipulated: Difficulty of task Electric foot shock (mild, medium, or high) Wanted to know what level of foot shock would be enough for learning. Law: any given task there is an optimal level of arousal. Lower arousal is best for difficult tasks. Higher levels of arousal are best for easy or habitual task. When learning a new task its better to be low aroused. Large groups cause high levels of arousal. Performers do better with large audiences. Social facilitation – presence of others improves habitual responses. Evaluation Apprehension – motivation to present yourself in the best light possible Sleep 1/3 of our lives are spent sleeping Bottle nose dolphins half sleep Left side of their brain sleeps while the right is awake and vise versa. Dement & Fleitman Used Electroencephalogram (EEG) Discovered we go through sleep stage Wave forms 1. Frequency – measured in hertz Hertz 1 cycle per second 2. Synchronicity – Regular or irregular. Regularity is the wave patterns. 3. Amplitude – Measure in volts (mV). How high or low the wave departs from its mean 4. Name Stage Wave Name F (hertz) Synch. Amp. Other (Awake) Beta 13 – 30 Irregular Low (Drowsiness Alpha 8 – 12 Regular Medium ) Very relaxed Stage 1 Theta 3.5 – 7.5 Irregular Medium Transitory Stage 2 Theta & 0.5 – 7.5 Irregular Medium Spindles & Delta Kcomplex Stage 3 10 – 50% 0.5 – 3.5 Irregular to High Slow wave Delta regular Stage 4 Delta 0.5 – 3.5 Regular High Slow wave REM Theta & 3.5 – 30 Irregular Low “Paradox Beta sleep” Know Relationships between slow wave and REM Know babies have high REM Sleep is the brains time to learn and store facts into memory We are in PNS during sleep We are In PNS and SNS during REM Increase in heart rate, eye movement, and vaginal secretion/erection Paralyzed during REM Spindles important in memory and learning Time in REM increases as you go through the night Time in slow wave sleep decreases We go through 4 – 5 cycles through the night REM decreases as we get older Total sleep time decreases as we get older Neuroanatomy of sleep The cerveau isole isolating the brain Lesion through the midbrain Severe hindbrain from the rest Increased time sleeping Reticular Activating System RAS (or RF) Excitatory part of the brain During sleep it becomes inactive Raphe – in charge of sleep (to fall asleep) Has to increase neural firing Pons is important in REM sleep When lesion it causes weird behavior during REM Pons causes the paralysis during sleep Chemistry of Sleep Michel Jouvet Injected cats with neurotransmitter precursors Injected Effect in Brain On Sleep Where 5HTP Increases 5HT & decrease REM Induced sleep & SWS Raphe LDOPA Increase dopamine Increase wakefulness RAS Physostigmin Increase ACh Increase REM Pons e If in REM and given physostigmine you will wake up Randy Carter 264 hours or 11 days Reported feeling sleepier during night Wasn’t losing any motor concentration Concentration faltered when he was doing math he felt distracted trying to stay awake st 1 day of sleep he slept for 15 hours the he went back to 78 hours of sleep Dead Puppy Experiment Walk puppies until they died Sometimes 2 days and others 17 days without sleep Does lack of sleep cause death Autopsy saw symptoms of chronic stress Enlarged adrenal glands Internal bleeding Fluid in lungs Stomach ulcers Functions of Sleep 1. Restoration theory sleep repairs the wear and tear of activity Looked at teenager Took marathon runner and looked at sleep They stayed a little longer in slow wave sleep Anytime core temperature measures you sleep more Quadredpleject Little decrease in deep sleep 2. Adaptation (or protection) Theory we sleep to keep us out of harms way Sleep during the night and see better during the day Animals more likely to be killed will sleep less 3. Facilitation of Learning and Memory Consolidation Theory facilitates learning and helps make memories Took freshmen in groups and took discrimination test Some students tested after 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours Others got to go home and sleep before taking the test Students who slept did the best REM has a special function in emotion Circumcision film experiment Freshmen shown film Anxious the first time but not the second time they watch Students deprived of REM sleep were just as nervous the second time they watched the filmed Students remember words Half slept and the other half were REM deprived Recited words but missed emotion words like (anger, frustration, romantic) Hippocampus processes memories Sends messages to neocortex Neocortex stores memories Unimportant memories are stored in storage processing Dreams During REM as memories are getting stored nearby neurons are being fired Dreams are a side effect of memory processing Dreams are the mind watching memories being processed Dreams are something recent (the action) but the things (the nouns) are stored memory The brain is developing the fast when we are babies and this is why infants stay in REM sleep so much Sleep Disorders 1. Insomnia – in ability to fall asleep but trouble going back to sleep. 2. Sleep apnea – breathing disorder. Common in the south because of obesity. Causes obstruction of breathing tubes (not getting enough oxygen). CPAP is the direct airflow of oxygen. 3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) – death of healthy infant. Infants need to sleep on back. Serotonin in back of brain wakes you up to get oxygen. Babies have underdeveloped serotonin receptors. Coincide with moms who do drugs. 4. Slow wave sleep disorders (stages 3 and 4) Nocturnal Enuresis – bed wetting Somnambulism – sleep walking Pavor nocturnus – night terrors (tend to grow out of) 4. Narcolepsy – Sleeping at inappropriate times Excessive daytime sleepiness Sleep attack – just falling asleep (last 25 minutes) Cataplexy – complete loss of muscle tone Going into REM when they shouldn’t Getting too excited Orexin – found /scientist studying eating disorders Orexin “orexin knockout”: born without genes that make orexin Made in hypothalamus Missing orexin causes narcolepsy Also know as hypocretin naturally made in later hypothalamus Hypocretin receptors so synthesize drugs to help with narcolepsy Thirst Thirst is the most important drive Humans can only go 3 days without drinking or they will die 70% of the human body is water We lose water everyday Urinating Defecating Sweating Exhalation Evaporation from any moist area on the body We have a drive to keep hydrated Some animals can go in the desert without water Humans learned to drink when we eat When we eat we’re taking in solutes like salts so you can dilute out salts in food Early Theories Dry mouth theory Cannon Bard Having a dry mouth causes thirst You can coat mouth to not feel dry or wet but you still get thirsty. Some people don’t have salivary glands but they drink the same amount of water as people with salivary glands. Shamdrinking experiment “Fake” drinking Allowed animals to drink but they pulled it out from the stomach Dog doesn’t satisfy thirst Water has to get into blood stream and get to cells in order to get rid of thirst. Dehydration is a main concern of soldiers Quickest way they can die during war Water leaves body from inside and outside cells Intercellular inside the cell Extracellular outside the cell About 60% of water goes inside the cells About 40% goes other place Not enough water we feel thirst 2 Types of Thirst Osmotic Thirst loss of water from inside your cells occurs when high concentration of solute on outside of cells Most common type of thirst Makes water from inside cell flow out Trying to achieve osmosis (balance) Membrane only allows certain things in Osmotic comes from osmosis Cells become small and have less water Membrane is permeable to glucose then no need for water to come out to balance out Andersson (1950s pioneer in understanding of drinking) Goat farmers wanted goats to produce more milk Injected salty solution into different parts of hypothalamus Hypertonic solution (salty) didn’t produce more milk but goats drank more water because brain thinks it has too much salt in body Osmo receptors in hypothalamus that send signals to Lateral Preoptic Hypothalamus (LPH) Deprived of water causes for high firing of LPH neurons Dr. Striker lesion LPH and injected salty solutions in rat but doesn’t do anything for thirst If something happened to LPH and other parts of the body didn’t support thirst drives you would die Hypothalamus will signal posterior pituitary to secrete vasopressin for salt/water balance Antidiuretic will release water Diuretic will store water (kidneys to retain water) Second Type of Thirst Hypovolemic Thirst (low volume) loss of water from extracellular compartments. Big compartment is blood. Serious condition Brought on by loss of blood or blood volume Vomiting and diarrhea at the same time Not only losing water but also electrolytes (essential salts) Good drink would be Gatorade because of the loss of salts Heart detects a drop in blood volume Baroreceptors located in right atrium Barometric pressure Act like stretch receptors When enough volume they stretch but loss of volume they don’t stretch Once they detect change triggers posterior pituitary to produce vasopressin (regulate blood pressure) Vasopressin gets kidneys to store water Fitzsimmons (proving hypovolemic) Put balloon in vena cava of dog to stop flow of blood when inflated Dog started drinking water ReninAngiotensin in kidneys to detect change and release hormone called renin (also an enzyme) converts angiotensinogen into AII 1. Causes blood vessels to constrict and compensate for the drop of low blood pressure 2. AII excites neurons in subfronical organ, which will increase drinking (makes you thirsty) 3. AII will increase vasopressin secretion 4. AII stimulates adrenal cortex to secret aldosterone, which is in charge of retaining salt and gives you a craving of salt. People with high blood pressure don’t need to take in salt PMS bloating retaining water and salt Cut salty foods and drink lots of water What causes hangover (nausea and headache) Dehydration Drink a glass of water after every drink
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