Developmental Psych Notes
Developmental Psych Notes 250
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Zok on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Katlin Rhyner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Developmental Psych Exam 1 Development The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout life Developmental Psych Patterns of continuity and change in human capabilities that occur through life Chapter 4 Dynamic Systems View Dynamic Systems Theory infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting Motor skill developed by Re exes Development of nervous systems Body s physical properties and its possibilities for movement Goal the child is motivated to reach Environmental support for the skill 0 Romanian babies Builtin reactions to stimuli 0 Govern the newborns movements automatic Rooting re ex Sucking re ex occurs when newborns automatically suck an object places in their mouth 0 Enables newborns to get nourishment before they have associated a nipple with food 0 Serves as a selfsoothing mechanism Moro re ex a neonatal startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden intense noise or movement 0 Believed to be a way of grabbing for support while falling Grasping re ex occurs when something touches the infant s palms 0 Responds by grasping tightly Swimming re ex infant that is places face down in water will begin to paddle and kick in a swimming motion Gross Motor Skills Involve largemuscle activities such as walking Development of Posture 0 Posture Dynamic process linked with sensory information in the skin joints and muscles which tell us where we are in space Development in the second year 0 Toddlers become more skilled and mobile 0 1318 mo pull a toy or climb up stairs 0 1824 mo walk quickly balance on their feet walk backward stand and kick a ball Fine Motor Skills Small muscle movements Synchronization of fingers and hands Perceptual Motor Coupling Perception and action are not isolated but rather coupled Individuals perceive in order to move and move in order to perceive Sensation and Perception Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors 0 Eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin Perception interpretation of what is sensed Visual Perception Visual acuity and human faces Perceptual Constancy 0 Size constancy object stays the same size regardless of distance 0 Shape constancy different shape with different angles Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Dishabituation Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation Perception of occluded objects Depth Perception the ability to perceive special relation in 3D Other Senses Hearing 0 Changes in hearing gt Loudness gt Pitch gt Localization Touch and pain Smell Taste Intermodal Perception Involves integrating information from two or more sensory modalities 0 Vision and hearing Chapter 5 Cognitive Development Piaget s Theory of Infant Development Cognitive Processes Schemes actions or mental representations that organize knowledge 0 Behavioral scheme 0 Mental scheme Assimilation using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences Accommodation adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences Organization grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higherorder system Equilibration and stages of development 0 Equilibration mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next Piaget s Step 1 Sensorimotor Stage Lasts from birth to 2 years 0 Construct an understand of the world by coordinating sensory experiences 0 Substages Simple re exes First habits and primary circular reactions Secondary circular reactions Coordination of secondary circular reactions Tertiary circular reactions novelty and curiosity Internalization of schemes Object permanence understanding that objects and events continue to exist 0 When they cannot be directly seen heard or touched VVVVVV Evaluation AnotBerror infants select a familiar hiding place a instead of the new hiding place b Conditioning Operant Conditioning Information retention Attention focusing of mental resources on select information Habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Dishabituation increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation Joint Attention Requires 0 Ability to track another s behavior 0 One person s directing another s attention 0 Reciprocal interaction Retention to information over time 0 Implicit memory Without conscious recollection 0 Explicit memory conscious remembering of facts and experiences 0 Childhood amnesia starting to remember things from the age of 4 Imitation Involve exibility and adaptability Deferred Imitation Occurs after a delay of hours or days Concept Formation and Categorization Concepts Cognitive groupings of similar objects events people or ideas Perceptual Categorization Conceptual Categorization Measures of Infant Development Developmental Quotient score that combines sub scores in 0 Motor language adaptive and personalsocial domains in the Gesel assessment of infants Bayley scales of infant development used to assess infant behavior and predict later development 0 Current version has three components gt Mental gt Motor gt Infant behavior profile Fagan test of Infant Intelligence evaluates an infant s ability to process information Predicting Intelligence Tests for infants contain items related to perceptualmotor development 0 Include measures of social interaction Defining Language Language form of communication 0 Spoken written signed 0 Based on a system of symbols 0 Consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them Infinite generativity ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using 0 Finite set of words and rules The rule system of language Phonology sound of system language Morphology units of meaning involved in word formation Syntax the way words are combined to form phrases Semantics meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics appropriate use of language in different contexts How language develops Recognizing language sounds Babbling and other vocalizations 0 Crying 0 Cooing 0 Babbling Gestures 0 Showing and pointing First words 0 Receptive vocabulary considerably exceeds spoken vocabulary 0 Vocabulary spurt 0 Overextension tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the words meaning 0 Under extension tendency to apply a word to narrowly Twoword utterances 0 To convey meaning child relies on gt Gesture tone and context 0 Telegraphic speech use of short and precise words Without grammatical markers Chapter 5 Biological In uences Broca s area in the brain s left frontal lobe that is involved in speech production can t find words Wernicke s area in the brain s left hemisphere that is involved in language production words don t make sense Language acquisition device Chomsky s term that describes a biological endowment enabling the child to 0 Detect the features and rules of language including phonology syntax and semantics Environmental In uences Behaviorist view of language learning has several problems Vocabulary development is linked to 0 Family s socioeconomic status 0 Type of talk that parenst firext to their children Childdirected speech higher pitch than normal child pays more attention 3 stages to enhance child s acquisition of language 0 Recasting 0 Expanding 0 Labeling Interactionist View Biology and experience contribute to language development Genie Video Held in extreme isolation tied to potty chair Made animal like gestures possibly beaten for making noise Emotional Development Emotion feeling or affect that occurs When a person is in a state of interaction that is important to him or her Play important roles in 0 Communication With others 0 Behavioral organization Biological and environmental in uences 0 Certain brain regions play a role in emotions brain stem hippocampus amygdala 0 Emotionlinked interchanges gt Provide the foundations for the infants developing attachment to the parent Early emotions 0 Primary emotions present in humans and other animals and emerge early in life 0 Selfconscious emotions require selfawareness especially consciousness and a sense of me Emotional expression Crying 0 Basic cry rhythmic pattern usually consisting of gt A cry gt Brief silence gt Shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry gt Brief rest before the next cry 0 Anger cry variation of the basic cry with more excess air forced through the vocal cry 0 Pain cry sudden long initial loud cry followed by breath holding Smiling 0 Re exive smile smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli 0 Social smile in response to an external stimulus Fear 0 Stranger anxiety fear and wariness of strangers 0 Separation protest distressed crying when the caregiver leaves Emotional regulation and coping 0 Caregivers actions and contexts can in uence emotional regulation 0 Soothing a crying infant helps infants develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver Temperament 0 Individual differences in behavioral styles emotions and characteristic ways of responding 0 Chess and Thomas classification gt Easy child generally in a positive mood 0 Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy 0 Easily adapts to changes 0 40 gt Difficult child reacts negatively and cries frequently 0 Engages in irregular daily routines 0 Slow to accept change 0 10 gt Slowtowarmup child low activity level 0 Somewhat negative 0 Displays a low intensity of mood 0 15 Emotional and Personality Development Biological foundations and experience 0 Biological in uences gt Contemporary view temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior 0 Gender Culture and Temperament gt Parents may react differently to an infant s temperament depending on gender gt Cultural differences in temperament were linked to parent attitude and behaviors Goodness and fit match between a child s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with Personality Development Trust Developing a sense of self Independence 0 Autonomy versus shame and doubt Social OrientationUnderstanding Social orientation faceface play Locomotion Intention and goal directed behavior Exam 2 Socioemotional Development in Earlv Childhood Chapter 8 The Self Initiative vs guilt 0 Childers use their perceptual motor cognitive and language skills to make things happen 0 On their own initiative then children in this stage exuberantly move out into a wider social world 0 Initiative and enthusiasm may bring guilt which lowers selfesteem Selfunderstanding and understanding others 0 Initially describes self by material characteristics 0 Selfunderstanding cognitive representation of self substance and content of selfconceptions Understanding others 0 Children start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits 0 Children begin to develop an understanding for joint commitments 0 Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget s theory Expressing emotions 0 Pride shame embarrassment and guilt are examples of selfconscious emotions 0 During the early childhood years emotions such as pride and guilt become more common 0 In uenced by parents responses to children39s behavior Emotional Development Understanding emotions 0 Children s understanding of emotion is linked to an increase in prosocial behavior 0 Children begin to understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in different people 0 By age 5 most children show a growing awareness of the need to manage emotions according to social standards Regulating emotions 0 Plays a key role in children s ability to manage the demands and con ict they face in interacting with others 0 Parents can be described as taking an emotioncoaching or an emotion dismissing approach Moral Development Involves 0 Thoughts 0 Feelings 0 Behaviors Regarding rules and conventions Moral feelings 0 Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development 0 Learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states in others and to anticipate what kinds of action with improve another person s emotional state help to advance children s moral development Moral reasoning 0 Heteronomous morality the first stage of moral development in Piaget s theory occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age 0 Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world removed from the control of people Moral Development Autonomous Morality in Piaget s theory older children 10 become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action one should consider the actor s intentions as well as the consequences Gender Immanent justice concept that if a rule is broken punishment will be meted out immediately Parentchild relations in Which parents have the power and children do not are less likely to advance moral reasoning 0 Rules are handed down in an authoritarian manner Moral behavior 0 Processes of reinforcement punishment and imitations explain the development of moral behavior 0 Situation in uences behavior 0 Cognitive factors are important in the child s development of selfcontrol Conscience 0 Moral thought feeling and behavior Parenting 0 Relational quality parental discipline proactive strategies conversational dialogue 0 Introduce kids to mutual obligations Gender identity the sense of being male or female Which most children acquire by the time they are 3 Gender role a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think act and feel Gender typing acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role Biological in uences 0 Chromosomes 0 Hormones 0 Evolution Social in uences 0 Social theories of gender 0 Social role theory gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men 0 Psychoanalytic theory preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the oppositesex parent 0 Social cognitive theory children s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of What other people say and do Gender molds important aspects of peer relations 0 Gender composition of children s groups 0 Group size 0 Interaction in samesex groups Cognitive in uences 0 Gender schema theory gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender appropriate and gender inappropriate in their culture Parenting Baumrind s parenting styles 0 Authoritative relationship is reciprocal responsive high in bidirectional communication supportive demanding 0 Authoritarian relationship is controlling powerassertive high in unidirectional communication unsupportive demanding 0 Permissive relationship is indulgent low in control attempts supportive undemanding 0 RejectingNeglecting Parenting styles in context 0 Authoritative parenting conveys the most benefits to the child and to the family as a whole Punishment 0 Corporal punishment is linked to lower levels of moral internalization and mental health 0 Handle misbehavior by reasoning with the child especially explaining the consequences of the child s actions for others Coparenting 0 Support parents give each other while raising a child Child Maltreatment Physical abuse Child neglect Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Context of abuse 0 13 of parents who were abuse themselves when they were young go on to abuse their own children Developmental consequences of abuse 0 Adolescents who experiences abuse or neglect Sibling Relationships and Birth Order Sibling Relationships 0 Emotional quality of the relationship 0 Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship 0 Variation in sibling relationships Birth order 0 Older siblings goal oriented responsible 0 Younger Siblings more agreeable with other people Changing Family in a Changing Society Working parents 0 Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping and have more egalitarian views of gender than do children of nonworking mothers Children in divorced families 0 Children from divorces families show poorer adjustment than their counterparts in neverdivorced families 0 Predivorce period 0 Frequent visits by the noncustodial parent usually benefit the child 0 Children with a difficult temperament often have problems in coping with their parents divorce 0 Income loss for divorced mothers is accompanied by increased workloads high rates of job instability and residential moves Gay male and lesbian parents 0 Most children from gay or lesbian families have a heterosexual orientation Cultural ethnic and socioeconomic variations 0 There are trend toward greater family mobility migration to urban areas LowerSES parents 0 More concerned that their children conform to society s expectations 0 Create a home atmosphere in which it is clear that parents have authority of children among others HighSES parents 0 More concerned with developing children s initiative and delay of gratification 0 Less likely to use physical punishment and more likely to reason with children Peer relation play and television Peer relations 0 Provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family Play 0 Play therapy is used to allow the child to work off frustrations and to analyze the child s problems Important context for the development of language and communication skills Types of play Video Dr 0 Sensorimotor 0 Practice 0 Pretense symbolic 0 Social 0 Constructive 0 Games activities that are engages in for pleasure and have rules Television 0 Many children spend more time in front of the television set than they do with their parents 0 Extent to which children are exposed to violence and aggression on television and video games raises special concerns 0 Television can also teach children that it is better to behave in a positive prosocial way Money and the Boy with No Penis Penis burnt off in failed circumcision Raised as girl for 14 years At the age of two was given change of sex surgery At age 6 Brenda seemed to consider herself as a girl according to Dr Money At age 7 Brenda began acting and playing in masculine ways Contributed to Dr Money s theory of gender neutrality Earlier than age 6 and 7 Dr Money thought there could be some issues Dr Money tried to have Brenda focus on the difference in genitalia it was obviously distressing to Brenda Dr Money showed Brenda a book with pictures of women giving birth Dr Money tried to convince Brenda to have her vagina reconstructed Around the age of 1314 her father told her about her true identity Both BrendaDavid and brother Brian committed suicide
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