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PSYC 1000_Chapter 2

by: Madeline Whallen

PSYC 1000_Chapter 2 Psych 1000

Madeline Whallen
Psych Notes
Ryan Ford

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About this Document

Chapter 2 Biology of the Mind and Neural Communication Neurons Neurotransmitters Nervous Systems Monitoring Activity in the Brain Genes
Psych Notes
Ryan Ford
neurons, Biology of the Mind, neurotransmitters, genes, Nervous Systems, neural
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Madeline Whallen on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Ryan Ford in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Psych Notes in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 2 Biology of the Mind and Neural Communication Neurons Nerve cells Dendrites allow communication btw neurons receive messages from other cells Cell Body Soma gt Axon gt Terminal Branches Myelin Sheaths covers axon and speeds up conduction Fingers toes parts of the brain These places don t need distance because they are all close together Cell body Dendrites Terminal branches of axon the cell s life receive messages form lunctions with other cells support center from other cells Axon passes messages away from the cell body to 7 other neurons 39 muscles or glands Myelin sheath 7 covers the axon Neural impulse action potential of some neurons electrical signal traveling and helps speed down the axon neural impulses Action Potential a neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave Flood of positive ions travels into the cell pushes out negative ions Creates conduction Cell sends action potential when it reaches a threshold Stimulus gt threshold gt depolarization gt action potential gt repolarization gt refractory period gt resting state Synapse junction between axon tip terminal of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body Neurotransmitters cells used to send signals across the synaptic gap Reuptake recycling transmitters that don39t get used Neurotransmitters Dopamine Happiness causes transporter to work in reverse Dopamine Pathways Focusing attention Controlling movement Serotonin Undersupply linked to depression Affects hunger mood and sleep Serotonin Pathways Regulate mood Acetylcholine ACh Muscle action learning memory Alzheimer s Norepinephrine Controls alertness and arousal causes ADHD like attention problems depression Gammaaminobutyric Acid GABA Major inhibitory neurotransmitter Undersupply linked to seizures tremors insomnia Glutamate Involved in memory Oversupply causes migraines and seizures People avoid MSG Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic involuntary movements and controls Sympathetic arousal ght or ight response Parasympathetic calming rest and digest Re ex Action decisions made without the brain Somatic voluntary movements Endocrine System A set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones Communicates a lot of the time through the blood Sexual organs thyroid pancreas adrenal glands etc Pituitary gland quotMaster Glandquot Takes commands from the hypothalamus Pituitary gland secretes many different hormones some of which affect other glahds Hypo thalamus brain region controlling the pituitary gland Parathyroids help regulate the level quotl h i39l39OiCl gland of calcium in the blood affects metabolism among other things Adrenal glands inner part helps trigger the fightor flight response Pancreas regulates the level 0 sugar ih the blood Testis secretes male sex i hormones Ovary secretes female sex hormones Monitoring Activity in the Brain EEG electroencephalogram Recording electrical waves sweeping across the brains surface Helpful for seizures and sleep study PET Scan position emission tomography MRI fMRI Allows you to see what part of the brain is active by tracing radioactive form of glucose goes while brain performs certain tasks magnetic resonance imaging Makes images from signal produced by the brain tissue after magnets align the spinning of atoms functional MRI Brain activity and function rather than structures Based on blood ow Real time updates during test Not radioactive TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation No images just stimulation Knocking out speci c systems of the brain temporarily to monitor activity and functionality The Brainstem Medulla Base of the brainstem Heartbeat and breathing Thalamus quotRouterquot all sensory info except smell is routed through the thalamus to the cortex Messages cross over to the opposite side of the brain ex Left hand is controlled by the right side of the brain vise versa Reticular Formation Arousal alertness Synapses with the thalamus Cerebellum quotLittle Brainquot Coordinates voluntary movement Nonverbal learning and memory The Limbic System Hippocampus Learning and memory Declarative memory procedure facts Episodic memory recalling memories as if they were an episode on TV Amygdala Two lima bean type structures Fear center Pairing memories and experiences Hypothalamus Controls pituitary gland Reward center Regulates body temperature food and water sex drive Cerebral Cortex Outer gray quotbarkquot wrinkles of the brain allow for more surface space Frontal Lobe Located at the front of the brain Decision making personality Starts developing rst but nishes developing last Occipital Lobe Located at the back of the brain Vision Temporal Lobe Located near your temples Auditory processing Prital Lobe Motor and sensory Phineas Gage got into an accident where a railroad spike entered through the inner corner of his eye and out the back of his head The spike went through an area of his frontal lobe He survived but had a MAJOR personality change This later inspired the icepick lobotomy Plasticity The adaptability of the brain to form new connections reorganize and reassign brain areas to new functions in response to damage Neurogenesis production of new brain cells Corpus Callosum connects the two hemispheres Split Visual Field The right visual eld will register in the left hemisphere vise versa Lateralization each side of the brain performs unique and independentfuncUons visual field visual field V Visual aria Curtis Wi uall area of left talljlosmm of right hemisphere hemisphere Genes Chromosomes 46 and DNA Fraternal Twins two eggs two sperm Most commonly male and female Identical Twins one egg one sperm the egg splits into two eggs Can only be same sex male male female female Are more alike than fraternal twins in personality behavior and abilities Parenting has a HUGE in uence Religion values manners attitudes politics habits etc Epigenetics environment can alter code Ex Obesity in adults turns off the weight regulation gene in offspring Evolutionary Psychology Natural selection and adaptation Arti cial selection Baylaev and Trut spent 40 years finding and breeding the most loyal friendly dog breeds Biologically driven phobias Derives from evolution and survival Ex Fear of heights comes from not wanting to fall off cliffs and die Staying away from the cliffs and heights increased survival


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