PSYC 1000_Chapter 4
PSYC 1000_Chapter 4 Psych 1000
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Madeline Whallen on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Ryan Ford in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Psych Notes in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 4: Life Span and Development Conception: male sperm meets female egg. Creates a zygote or a fertilized cell. Parental Development: rapid cell division, embryo implants to uterine wall. Fetus: 9 weeks, embryo already has hands, fingernails, face and other features. Dangers Teratogens “Monster makers” Substances like viruses and chemicals can damage the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Caused by mother drinking high amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. Inborn Skills Habituate: becoming less agitated to new sounds, experiences, etc. Reflexes Do not have to be learned. Rooting Reflex: when you touch a baby’s cheek their head turns. Sucking reflex. Walking reflex. Naturally looking for and recognizing faces. Maturation Crawl, then walk, then run. Sequence never changes. Rate of change is different for each person. Neurons 750,000 cells per minute are grown in the middle trimester of child development. Pruning: brain gets rid of neural connections and pathways that don’t need to be used. If you don’t use it, ya lose it! Enriched environments enhance brain development. Developmental milestones like speech. Memory Starts making memories at around age 3. Procedural memories start from birth. Cognitive Development Cognition: mental activities that help us function. Ex. Problem solving, self-talk, inner thoughts. Jean Piaget—(PJ) Schemas A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Assimilation: incorporating experiences into a schema. Accommodation: adjusting schema to fit experiences. *Think of a schema as a box. When you learn new things you put them in inside your box to reference later in other experiences. Assimilation would be registering an experience in a way that fits into your box (learning that a cat is recognized by four legs, two ears, brown fur and a tail, then seeing a dog, and calling it a cat because it has the same features). Accommodation would be getting a bigger box to fit the new experience (knowing the difference between cats and dogs).* PJ believed that cognitive development was: 1) Nature in addition to nurture 2) Stages Birth—2 years: sensorimotor. Object permanence. Stranger anxiety. 2—6 or 7 years: preoperational. Pretend play. Egocetracism. 7—11 years: concrete operational. Conservational (thinking that a taller glass has more water than the shorter glass even though they have the same about of liquid in them). Mathematical transformations. 12—adulthood: formal operational. Abstract logic. Potential for mature logical reasoning. Autism Spectrum Disorders Issues, difficulty with: Mutual social opportunities and interaction. Symbolic language and play. Breaking from routine. Mirroring the thoughts of others (mind blindness). Low spectrum autism: not very noticeable, can still function in a regular social environment. High spectrum: very noticeable, harder to function under normal social conditions. Attachment Emotional tie to others. Mostly linked to body contact. Familiarity: critical period to imprint to the first object they see. Mary Aisnworth The Strange Situation: study on young toddlers and attachment to their mother when introduced to strangers. Then recording the child’s behavior when the mother leaves the baby in the room with the stranger, then returns. Secure attachment Mild stress when mother leaves. Seek contact when she returns. Anxious attachment Not exploring, clinging to mother. Remains upset when she returns. Avoidant attachment Indifferent to mother’s departure and return. Temperament: a person’s characteristic style an intensity of emotional reactivity. Easy: calm. Difficult: upset, crying. Resiliency: bouncing back, attaching, and succeeding from a life without a safe, nurturing, affectionate environment. Ex. Oprah Winfrey. PUT YOUR KID IN DAYCARE Increases neural pathways at an earlier stage in life that include development of communication, interaction with peers, learning to share and deal with conflict, etc. Parenting Styles Authoritarian Expect obedience. “Because I said so” mentality. Too harsh. Permissive Submitting to the child’s wishes. Too lenient. Authoritative Firm rules but respectful of child’s wishes. Just right Adolescence Lifespan perspective: the idea that development is lifelong process. Puberty: sexual maturation, physical and emotional changes. Brain Development During puberty the brain stops automatically adding new connections. Pruning unused neurons and synapses. Frontal lobe is still forming. Peak of learning ability but cannot inhibit impulses. Good accelerator, bad breaks. Moral Reasoning—Lawrence Kohlberg Pre conventional morality (up to age 9) “Follow the rules or you might get in trouble.” Conventional morality (early adolescence) “Follow the rules because people get along better when we do.” Post conventional morality (late adolescence—adulthood) “Rules can be broken for a higher purpose.” Moral intuition: gut feeling (heightened feelings and emotions, disgust). Erik Erikson—people go through a progression of feelings that define that particular stage of development. Trust vs. mistrust (infancy-1) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3) Initiative vs. guilt (3-6) Compliance vs. inferiority (6-puberty) Identity vs. role confusion (teens-20) Intimacy vs. isolation (20-40) Generativity vs. stagnation (40-60) (midlife crisis) Integrity vs. despair (60+) Influences on Identity Peer influence Important in adolescence. Selective relationships between peers. Building cooperation skills, path to popularity, recreational habits, clothing and cultural choices, good/bad habits. Parental influence Education, self-discipline, religion, charitableness, responsibility, and style of interaction with authority figures. Parents can sometimes try and influence who their child’s peers are. Adulthood Physical development Physical decline. Sensory changes. Lifespan and death. Cognitive development Memory. Social development Responsibility. Peak age during 20’s—biological maturation. 40-60—visual acuity plummets. Around age 50—women go through menopause The inability to become pregnant. Good news: over a lifetime your immune system has a lifetime’s accumulation of antibodies that can fight off minor illnesses. Bad news: immune system declines with age, so now it’s much easier to contract major illnesses. Exercise Keeps the telomeres (tips of the chromosomes) together and healthy. Stimulates neurogenesis (formation of brain cells). Life expectancy: average expected lifespan. Women live longer than men. By age 100 women outnumber men 5:1. Changes in the Brain with Age Frontal lobe is the first are of the brain to start to lose function. Harder to form new memories. Age 80—healthy brain is 5% lighter than it was when the person was 20. Alzheimer’s and Dementia Decreased ability to recall recent events. Dementia is NOT a normal part of aging! Emotional unpredictability, confusion, disorientation, inability to think or communicate. Cross-sectional Study: comparing people at different ages all at the same time. Longitudinal Study: study attributes of the same people as they age. Older people tend to think to the positive as a result to counteract negative aging. Death of a spouse takes a huge toll, but time is a proven healer.
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