Test 1 Material -Pols 221
Test 1 Material -Pols 221 POLS 220 001
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Political Science Chapter 3 Social characteristics of Liberal democracies First liberal democracies socially or culturally have very low population growth rates The richer you become the less kids you want to have Secondly they have relative internal stability no revolutions Third adequate food housing and healthcare A fourth characteristic is long life expectancy and low infant mortality rates and finally number 5 liberal democracies generally have very high per capita incomes Make sure state is legitimate and talks about different forces tugging at state and potentially destroying it Chapter 4 This chapter looks at some of the ways in particular you can handle conflict in the state the state as an area of conflict resolution The big themes are interest groups political parties and elections What is the difference between interest group and political party There are many interest groups today with a wide range of issues they are interested in so being focused on what single issue is not the difference The key difference is an interest group wants to influence political agenda they have specific issues they want to promote normally they will focus on just a few issues but they want to shake the political agenda much like a political party But the key is where they both want to shake the political agenda but the political party also wants wield command and authority and make actual decisions that shape the political environment They want their hands on the levers of government One of the reasons interest groups don39t become political parties is an issue of purity fighting good clean fight when you get into politics your hands get dirty and you have to COMPROMISE Party Systems Look at state and ask how many parties in that state are competing for power and how many of those parties have a realistic chance of exercising power and winning an election If you look at states across the world today political scientists have noticed across states there are 4 party systems First One Party SystemThis is where one and only one power is allowed to compete or operate legally and surprise they win the election The party can be a political party it can be an organ of the government it can be part of the military or a militia it can be a family ect ie China and the Chinese Communist Party Second A Dominant Party SystemLots of political parties can legally compete in an election but in this system for whatever reason one party almost always wins the elections Probably the most current example is Japan with the LDP Since the end of WWII they have controlled Japanese politics for 90 of the time Until recently another example is Mexico For most history since Revolutionary War in Mexico the PRI Institutional Revolution Party has won almost every election they39re credited with winning revolution has only changed somewhat in last 15 years Third Two Party SystemTwo parties have come to dominate the political process One party on the right one on the left and they basically dominate the political system Other parties can compete but two dominate ie US and Great Britain with Labor and Conservative Party Fourth A MultiParty SystemWhere more than two parties compete and more than two parties gain power ie France there are literally 2025 political parties and oh so many have possibility of gaining some power or exercising some power Have no idea whats going to happen Tight vs Loose Political Party1 Tight A political party can exercise enormous control over its members so much so that it dictates to its members how are going to vote They almost always vote the same way In Great Britain and to a lesser extent France in Great Britain if you are in the conservative party and the leader says you are for this legislation you are more or less required to vote yes or you get kicked out of party and lose its support In a tight political party when things are coming up to a vote there is no suspense come to foregone conclusion which means you can pass things very easily Leadership tells you how you vote Loose like United States with Mary Landrieu they don39t like the way she votes but they cant real sanction her Most vote with their party but the participants can vote anyway they want with no real repercussions John McCain with Ted Kennedy Republicans go nuts 2 In Multi Party Systems Coalitions Parties and Coalition GovernmentIt isn39t likely one parry will gain a majority of power So you must form Coalition of two or more parties so you can gain majority in legislative body in order to pass bills and lawsThey have to work together and find working alliance How stable is a coalition government going to be Not very stable at all it will break apart because after all they are different political parties with different ideas So in coalition governments they are notoriously unstable with risk of fracturing And splitting apart and have to form a new coalition or new election and you start all over ie Israel is coalition when they get close to a deal with Palestinians it breaks start cycle over Closest US has is Tea Party wing with Republican Conservative Party Elections Two main ways states conduct elections Except Japan uses single non transferrable vote First main way Single Member District Plurality System or SMDP aka Winner Take All System First Past the Post System characteristic of US and UK Basically you divide country up into number of districts usually based on population each one selects one person to represent them in the national legislative body Then you have single election and you representative secures a plurality of the vote URALITY IS NOT A MAJORITY Simply the candidate that got the most votes Other candidates get nothing they39re losers people who voted for them are losers they get nothing What are some of the consequences of this system which parties will it tend to favor This svstem is doing to favor bid well established centrist types of parties with wide general support and lots of saved seats because as you go more left or right the vote will deplete and you will not get plurality This promotes two party system with one on left and one on right Also favors local regional parties with massive support in a particular area but not support around the country Because they have massive support in a particular area they can win a plurality against bigger parties in that area ie Separatist Party in Quebec they never win seat outside of Quebec but win allmost seats there ie Great Britain with Scottish Referendum vote on independence SEPT 18 Discriminates against third parties minor parties and fringe parties They have a very difficult time to ever get plurality BC need plurality Fosters two party system that helps to mandate strong stable working majorities in Legislative body Helps prevent coalition governments What does it do to voter turnout DecreasesDepresses it ie Democrats in Louisiana and Republicans in Massachusetts You can win majority of seats in legislative assembly but not have majority of popular votes ie George Bush and Al Gore hanging chad stolen election It is rare Elected PeopleBums but they39re our bums Vote for person may hope they are affiliated with a particular party Second type of electoral main system Proportional Representation It is nothing more than when you allot seats in the legislative body based on the proportion of votes a political party gets ie 100 seats in leg body someone gets 40 of votes they get 40 seats ect In this system when you go into the polls you vote for a party list which includes a list of candidates affiliated with a particular party You vote for one party and all its members on the list So what each political party does is bring forth a list of candidates and lets say there is 100 seats in leg assembly so there is 100 people on each list whatever percentage they get Le 30 first 30 on list go into legislation First person would be leader of party then deputy leader ect lts ranked by who39s most important in the party Rank determines how powerful you are in the party This system fosters multiparty system which creates coalition governments which are unstable Types of political parties you may get in Proportional Representative Party System Fringe parties may get members in legislative assembly They love this system Third and minor parties also love this system because they don39t have to do first past the post they get to send members Big large well established parties hate this system Voting in this system brings voters out because their vote will count unlike SMDP Often have 7580 voter turnout as opposed to 13 in US but the cost is instability ByElection This is characterized by an election outside the normal mandated process An election basically occurs when the seat of someone in the legislative body s seat is vacated for some reason by representative ie death promotion illness sex scandals a byelection occurs Most states in US have one when seat is vacated They are good bell weathers as how the party is doing there has been a lot of them recently trying to see which way the wind is blowing because they are often a good indication of who will win the election But this is not always the case for example party has massive majority in Legislative Body and a Byelection is coming up it wont change anything so most people wont waste time voting Sometimes you can get very strange results with third parties doing quite well Voter turnout tends to be low in by election Chapter 5 Mechanics of Decision making process in Liberal Democracies There are 3 main ways Parliamentary System Great Britain Presidential SystemAmerican and Semi Presidential System sometimes called the Dual Executive System sometimes called the ParliamentaryPresidential System France Each system has four main principles Parliamentary System a Electing Legislative Body Citizens in Parliamentary system elect a single group of people to represent them at the national level So you have single election to elect single group of individuals These are the only nationally elected individuals They39re going to be able to pass whatever laws they want b The executive power is lodged within a cabinet of executive figures and the people who make up the cabinet are generally people drawn from the national legislative bodyassembly If you39re in a cabinet you will have executive and legislative power there is no separation of powers in this system c Who is the leader of the cabinet and therefore legislative body Lodged in the office of Prime Minister He leads the government How do you become Prime Minister What are you the leader of You are the leader of the party that secured a majority of seats in the legislative assemblyparliament and he will pick others in his party for his cabinet who are very powerful He has majority so he basically can do whatever he wants He gives overall executive guidance to the country Recipe for Tvrannv d How long does the prime minister stay in power Until you have to call a new election in Great Britain it is every 5 years and of course if you win the election you can stay in power and theoretically stay in power forever or you can be forced out of power if parliament decides to vote no confidence in you or your government This happens very rarely Margaret Thatcher Advantages and Disadvantages in this system Advantages It is efficient This system holds people accountable The majority party gets total praise for blame Disadvantages If you vote for minority party you have no say so and have to wait for next election If you are part of minority there is little you can do with little input The minority party cant do anything Where do you go for help if you39ve been wronged NowhereVery little recourse if you feel you39ve been wronged The process of government is very slow Presidential System a there are two elections one for president and one for legislature President is chief executive officer and is independent from legislature Because you have divided power you have the possibility of friction between legislative and executive branches of government In fact friction is built in Allegiance is to themselves not 0 the party Rarely could the president dissolve the legislature because of fixed election terms Advantages and Disadvantages Advantage You have recourse if you feel you39ve been wronged This system encourages political participation at the grassroots with multiple avenues to seek redress No particular person is in charge of the system so when it comes to accountability it is difficult to fixate on one persongroup There is no efficiency especially in passing legislation SemiPresidential SystemDual Executive SystemPresidential Parliamentary System Characteristic of France and Russia today It is a hybrid 4 Principles of this system a You have two different elections for two different branches of government legistlation and chief executive officer b you have a separation of power between executive and legislative branches of government yielding possible gridlock necessity to compromise and certainly conflict c you have a subdivision of power within the executive branch In this system you have both a president and a prime minister and what usually happens is that the president is going to focus on foreign affairs basically and the prime minister will be in charge of domestic affairs So the prime minister runs country on a daily basis and be responsible for passing legislation and running the government nit and grit politics whereas the president is in charge of the country as a whole how it supports itself in the international arena d The final point is looking at the relationship between president prime minister and legislature In this system you will see the president is independent of the legislature The legislature cant impeach cant force him to resign like in parliamentary system HeShe owes hisher position to the people as a whole But in the system the president is going to have much greater control over the legislature than in presidential system The president has the power to dissolve the legislature and call new elections Legislature much more dependent on president rather than the other way around He can also selectappoint the Prime Minister and can dismiss the Prime Minister when he decides to The legislature has power as well because they must approve his choice of cabinet and prime minister If they decide not to do it he has to pick a new one whether it be cabinet members or prime minister Rationale for this kind of system Divides responsibility up neatly and nicely This goes all the way back to john Locke who said executive branch is composed of these two parts and might divided when it comes to executive power Not enough hours in the day for Barack to do absolutely everything in the world for the US A second rationale for this system It does this unique thing certain countries might needcombines strong but not tyrannical executive leadership with a legislature that can represent the country but which cant bring in most situations the country to a standstill Allowing legislature to represent different interests and groups and parties in the country but definitely puts the executive branch front and center legislature still subordinate France and perhaps Russia like this system in some ways The famous line from Charles Dugal how do you govern a country with 360 different cheeses There are at least 360 opinions on how you should govern country in France how can you move forward with all these opinions need strong executive branch He recognized that a country so distinct with opinions need stronger executive branch Disadvantage Its a system more tailormade to a specific type of country The reason Dugal decided to do this is because over last 200 years they went through 2 monarchies 5 republics and a fascist puppet government vici regime from 19401944 CorporatismNeoCorporatism It is not mutually exclusive to any system It is not characteristic of any particular system it is just the different ways these systems can operate as they mature Norway is a corporatist system all Scandinavian countries are Mexico in the early 1900s was as well even they were more under dictatorship France has a lot of corporatism as well What is it Corporatism has nothing to do with corporations It has to do with the latin word Corpore which means body or body of politics you could say A corporatist state will be one in which the major social and economic groups and organizations within itself they are going to be given privilege official positions of power in government they are going to have easyimmediate access to major political leaders and they will have a huge influence over the shaping of policy For example US is not a corporatist state In the US tradelabor unions major social and economic organizations they lobby the government they tend to vote democrat They tend to vote democrat Barak encourages this They influence his decisions but do they actually have official part in government No NRA shapes policy but are they recognized in government No in a corprotist state they would be recognized They receive official positions representative of the country They are incorporated into the government when someone propose legislation they consult these organizations You actually negotiate with these people They are part of the fabric of government They are part of important aspects of the country They sit around the table so when the government wants to propose legislation they have a huge amount of say The organizations and institutions they re part of the levers of power not in a constitutional way but they are highly consulted Rationale Why would you bring these groups in when they can say no way don39t support it What would it do to society as a whole Makes more cohesive political organizationgroup All the major groups will be on board when a decision was made What happens if the government decides to say we consulted you thanks but we re doing it They have to say yes The cost for having lots of say in policy IndependenceAutonomy When push comes to shove they have to go with the government or they would be removed and outside of system of advice Nothing in politics comes without a price You get more cohesive political body ie Scandinavian countries all on the same page
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