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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Katie Vu on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ENGL 20933 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Abunasser in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Non-Western World Literature in Foreign Language at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 1 Facts To Know: Mainstream Pop: 1) National Audience; Regional Radio vs Coast to Coast broadcasts • Regional radio tended to play C&W and R&B, as those were targeted towards the lower income white families and AfricanAmericans • National radio played mainstream pop, as their audience was white, middleclass families 2) TPA and sheet music • Tin Pan Alley was a section of NYC were songwriters and producers had clustered to form the geographic heart of the sheet music business • Sheet music was the principal way to sell music in the first 1/2 of the 20th century • TPA has now become shorthand not just for a body of music produced at that that time, but also for a way of doing business in popular music • in the TPA era, the basic unit of trade was the song itself 3) Big Bands to Singers • Big bands (19351945) employed a rhythm section of bass, drums, piano, & guitar combined w/ a horn section of trumpets, trombones, & saxophones to create arrangements of TPA songs • led by instrumentalists, singers were merely featured soloists • some singers broke off from big bands; first successful solo singer was Bing Crosby 4) Frank Sinatra • Made the singer, not the band, the star of the show • Went solo in 1943, became a teen idol • Drew many imitators • established a new model of the popmusic singer 5) Patti Page • “ow Much Is That Doggie in the Window?” • representative of the erally wholesome & inoffensive approach found in much early to mid1950s pop • “he Tennessee Waltz” topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950 6) Les Paul and Mary Ford • “I’m Sittin’ on Top of the World”, 1953 hit • a good example of the happy, wholesome sound of early 1950s mainstream pop & a showcase of the duo’s trademark layering of guitars & vocals • Among the most popular acts during the first 1/2 of the 1950s Country and Western: 1) Regional Audience , 2) Jimmy Rogers (country) 3) Gene Autry (western) 4) Shift from regional to national 5) National Barn Dance/Grand Ole Opry 6) Hank Williams Rhythm and Blues: 1) Regional Audience 2) Shift from Regional to National 3) Sun, Chess, King, Atlantic labels 4) Rural Blues, Robert Johnson 5) Jump Blues, Louis Jordan 6) Chess Electric Blues, Howlin’ Wolf, Muddy Waters 7) Atlantic Black Pop, Ruth Brown 8) Doo Wop, the Chords 9) Hokum Blues, Big Joe Turner Chapter 2 Facts To Know: Rise of Youth culture – expendable income for young people Rock ‘n’ Roll from 3 different angles: 1) From R&B – a. Chuck Berry • first signed w/ Chess Records • “Maybellene”: a remake of C&W tune called “Ida Red” • his love of country heavily influenced his vocal delivery of his songs • iconic duck walk” • his intention wasn to reach adult black listener but to write songs specifically geared toward the average teen • loved story songs”; “School Day” is one such song • most o fhis songs are in simple verse or simpler versechorus form b. Little Richard • most flamboyant performer in the early years of R&R • “Tutti Frutti” • sometimes maniacal screaming and singing; often played piano with one leg propped up over the piano • the first R&R artist to cultivate the an” persona • a prime target for covers by other artists c. Fats Domino • Recorded on the West Coast independent label Imperial , • sang in a relaxed manner • Projected a warm, friendly image • “ Blueberry Hill” • stark contrast to Big Joe Turner 2) From Country – a. Elvis • first signed with Sun records (Sam Phillips) • Phillips sold Presley contract to RCA for $35,000 • Presley’s first single for RCA was “Heartbreak Hotel” • drew broadly from folk, C&W, R&B, and gospel for his tunes • set the stage for Rockabilly • was in the U.S. Army from 19581960 b. Buddy Holly • one of the first major figured in rock music who was significantly influenced by the rock n rollers in 1955 and 1956 • signed with Decca Records; dropped from the label bc of bad recording sessions • him and his band, the Crickets, began recording for Norman Petty and his indie label • changes notes and rhythms of verses, changes the timbre of his voice • most influential among later rockers as a songwriter • “ Peggy Sue”, “Oh, Boy!”, “Maybe Baby” • Died in February of 1959 (plane crash) c. Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash (At Sun) • Carl Perkins: “Blue Suede Shoes”, “Honey Don’t” “Blue Suede Shoes” was the first millionselling single for Sun his career suffered when he and his band were involved in an auto accident several of his songs were later covered by the Beatles • Johnny Cash “Folsom Prison Blues” “I Walk The Line”; reached #17 on the pop charts & became the first of 4 Top 40 pop singles he’d release on Sun • Jerry Lee Lewis “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On” “Great Balls of Fire”, “Breathless”, “High School Confidential” married to his 13 year old cousin; married twice before; career suffered after this news was revealed 3) From Mainstream pop – the controversy of the Cover – The Whitening of R&B a. Bill Haley and His Comets , • 1954; signed with Decca & released a cover of e, Rattle, and Roll” and “We’re Gonna Rock Around the Clock” • Shake, Rattle, and Roll” was the most popular of Haley’s early singles “ • late 1954, released m, Dim the Lights” • represented a whitened version of R&B, but still found popularity in black markets b. Pat Boone • recorded for Dot Records • covered Fats Domino’s “Ain’t it A Shame” (renamed “Ain’t That a Shame”); outperformed the original • had a lot of other hits that wereners • cultivated a polite, cleancut personal image • Boone ’s music and manner were much more readily assimilated into middleclass white culture • his career was both dependent on and fueled by the rise of rock & roll • played a crucial role in establishing rock and roll w/in mainstream pop Sun Records – Sam Phillips • 1950: radio announcer and technician opens up his Memphis Recording Service, specializing in recording black blues singers • 1952: Phillips opens his own label: Sun Records • really allowed the artists to experiment; would usually let the tape roll till the artists came upon something • got Elvis started on his career RCA Records • RCA didn ’t think Sun Records had the resources to promote Elvis nationally • RCA paid Phillips $35,000 for Presleycontract • Presleys first hit for RCA was “Heartbreak Hotel” • Presley started making TV appearances and Tom Parker (of RCA) looked for movie opportunities for Presley • Before RCA paid an enormous sum for Elviss contract, most major record label companies weren’t interested in rock and rollers • after RCA paid for Elviscontract, more major record labels began to add R&R artists to their roster, pushing R&R more towards mainstream music Alan Freed – The Rock and Roll Party; The Moondog Radio Show, Clevland and NYC • Freed was originally an announcer for a radio station in Cleveland; became the host for The Moondog Radio Show on July 11, 195 • premiered on WJW, a clearchannel station w/ a signal that reached beyond the Ohio State Line • radio programming originally targeted towards black audiences was now being enjoyed by white teenagers as well , • Freed was among the first of a new wave of DJo develop R&B programming •the most influential DJ in R&R breakthrough to popular mainstream music •debuted in NY; repeated his success in Cleveland on a much bigger stage •renamed the show “The Rock and Roll Party” •was the Father of R&R to many teenagers •promoted concerts, produced films, worked in TV •starred in films like k Around the Clock” and “Don’t Knock the Rock” Dick Clark – American Bandstand Payola Investigations End of First Wave Chapter 3 Facts To Know: Teen/Pre-teen Market – 1) Brill Building, Aldon Publishing – Neil Sedaka, Carol King, Gerry Goffin • Brill Building, like TPA, is a place but also a musical style and a set of business practices • Aldon offices run by Al Nevins & Don Kirschner: offices contained a number of small rooms equipped w/ pianos; songwriters or teams would work all day creating new pop songs • Neil Sedaka, Carol King, Gerry Goffin some of the bestknown professional songwriters in the business • Brill Building approach allowed many professionals in the music business to establish more control after rock and rollt wave • once a song was produced, it was matched to the appropriate performing group • no rebellious or unpredictable singers, lyrics werennsive 2) Teen Idols: • cast as ideal boyfriends: wellgroomed and attractive, sensitive, not sexdriven • most were white (usually of Italian descent) a. Frankie Avalon • “Dede Dinah” (p7 r8, 1958), “Venus” (p1 r10, 1959) • part of many each party” films made 19631967 b. Neil Sedaka • “Breaking Up Is Hard To Do” (p1 r12, 1962) • became popular among black audiences, scored a Top 20 R&B hit c. Fabian • “Turn Me Loose” (p9, 1959); written by Brill Building producers; Fabian’s vocals indicate he can barely sing the tune , • made appearances on television & film; appealed visually to audiences and were central to his success as a recording artist d. Chubby Checker – the Twist • name compares to Fats Domino • real name: Ernest Evans • covered “The Twist”; originally sung by Hank Ballard • “The Twist” rose to #1 on the pop charts & started the era of specific dance songs (ex: the mashed potato, the locomotive) • Chubby later released et’s Twist Again” in 1961 and that rose to #8 on the pop charts 3) Phil Spector – Girl Groups; Wall of Sound • Phil Spector was the most ambitious producer of the early 1960s and the most important producer of girlgroup pop • Demanded total control of the recording process; wanted his records to have a signature sound • Wall of Sound: • recorded a large # of instruments in a relatively small space • the sound from one instrument would spill over into the mic of the next, all of the sounds would be mixed together into a monophonic backing track • “Doubling”: a technique that requires two or more instruments to play the same note • Spector relied on heavy amounts of reverb to thicken the recordingund” & blend the instruments & voices • vocals were layered over the mono backing track, strings added to finish it off • this Wall of Sound” wasn’t easily reproduced by other producers a. Ronettes’ – Then He Kissed Me, Be My Baby b. Shirelles’ – Will you Still Love Me Tomorrow Soul 1) Leiber and Stoller – a. The Coasters b. Sam Cooke c. Nat King Cole d. The Drifters Folk – We’ll get to folk later on Surf Music: 1) Beach Boys – influenced by Spector 2) Jan and Dean 3) Dick Dale and the Del Tones , Music listening skills Recognize Duple/Quadruple or Triple meter Differentiate between C&W, R&B, Mainstream Pop, R&R, Rockabilly, Girl Groups, Doo Wop, Teen Idols; Soul; Surf Music; etc. Recognize individual instruments (i.e. identify the instrument that is playing the melody, or providing rhythmic interest in this clip, etc.) Identify beginnings/endings of sections (i.e. the chorus of this song begins at 1:23, etc.) Musical vocabulary to identify Simple Verse, Simple Verse/Chorus, Contrasting Verse/Chorus, AABA, 12 Bar Blues Simple verse: a simple verse form consists of a series of verses, all of which use the same underlying music. A simple verse form contains no chorus or bridge sections, though the verses may contain a refrain Simple Verse/Chorus: the verse & chorus sections employ the same underlying musical material, though the lyrics & sung melodies of each section are different. The form consists of these verses & choruses presented in alternation, though more than one verse may occur before the chorus Contrasting Verse/Chorus: the verse & chorus sections employ contrasting musical material. The form consists of these contrasting verses & choruses presented in alternation, though more than one verse may occur before the chorus. AABA: uses 2 verses (A, A), a bridge (B), and a return to the verse (A) as its basic organizational pattern. Once the complete AABA pattern is presented, a song may repeat all of the pattern (full reprise) or only part of it (partial reprise). AABA form is strongly associated w/ TPA popular song style, though it also occurs frequently in rock music 12 Bar Blues: a structure that forms the musical basis for many verses, choruses, & even bridges in rock music. Can be divided into 3 4bar phrases. The lyrics to the first phrase are frequently repeated in the 2nd phrase, w/ new lyrics appearing in the 3rd phrase, creating a kind of question / question repeated / answer model as the words unfold. Also employs a specific arrangement of chords. Strongly associated w/ 1950s rock and R&B. Melody: Rhythm: refers to the organized patterning of the temporal dimension in music. More specifically, we can refer to a rhythmic figure in the , music, which is usually a short segment w/ a clearly defined profile of some kind. Meter & meter classification are aspects of the broader aspect of rhythmic organization. Meter: establishes how we’ll notate music w/in a certain meter classification. 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 are most common, and among compound meters, 6/8, 9/8, and 12/8 are most common Timbre: the quality of a particular sound. The character that differentiates one instrument from another. Effects such as reverb & equalization can change an instruments’ timbre. Dynamics ,
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