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Biology 111 Note Packet 2/15/16 - 2/17/16 (Chapter 4 and 5)

by: amber weiss

Biology 111 Note Packet 2/15/16 - 2/17/16 (Chapter 4 and 5) Biology 111 Sec 008

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Edwardsville > Biological Sciences > Biology 111 Sec 008 > Biology 111 Note Packet 2 15 16 2 17 16 Chapter 4 and 5
amber weiss
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This is what we covered in class on February 15th and 17th... It covers the end of chapter 4 and all of chapter 5
Topics in Contemporary Biology
Thomas Buettner
Biology111 Chapter 4 and 5
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by amber weiss on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 111 Sec 008 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Thomas Buettner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Topics in Contemporary Biology in Biological Sciences at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Biology 111 Condensed Notes Chapter 4  Cell theory: all living things are made up of cells, or are cells and come from other cells  Cells are surrounded and filled by water  Main function of the cell membrane is like the gate keeper; controls what enters and exits  Hydrophilic: exposed to water  Hydrophobic: shielded from water  Prokaryotic cells: minimum, lacks the nucleus  Eukaryotic cells: nucleus is wrapped around DNA  Cilia: hair-like  Flagella: long projection, tail used for movement  Nucleus: genic control of cell- activities, density in cell  Mitochondria: energy  Skeletal: gives it the shape Plants Animals 1. Nucleus 1. Nucleus 2. Cytosol 2. cytosol 3. Mitochondria 3. centrioles 4. Central vacuole 4. lysosomes 5. Ribosomes 5. ribosomes 6. CHLOROPLAST 6. MITOCHANDRIA 7. vacuoles  VACUOLES ARE STORAGE SACS  GENES CODE FOR PROTEIN  Nucleus  DNA  Genes  Chromosomes: condensed molecule of DNA  Nucleus is like a library; stores information  Endoplasmic Reticulum: [“endo” means inside] {“reticulum” means network}  Nucleolus: density in density (rRNA) the little dot inside the nucleus  rRNA: concentrated ribosome RNA  Ribosomes: site for protein synthesis  make protein; protein factories  Bacteria: HAS to have: DNA, membrane, cytosol, and ribosomes  Think of a prokaryotic Cell as a 1 giant school room, with all 6 grades in 1 room  Think of a eukaryotic cell as different rooms, compartments (different enzymes)  Cytoplasm: is cytosol and organelles  Endoplasmic reticulum: continuous nuclear membrane  Endoplasmic reticulum + ribosomes: rough ER- exported, secreted  Free ribosomes: are the ribosomes that are NOT attached to the ER Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 1. have their own prokaryotic chromosomes 2. have their own prokaryotic ribosomes 3. double membranes Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Chromosomes: Single Multiple Small Large Circular Linear Ribosomes: Smaller Larger 1. Microfilaments: scaffolding, shape and motility;Actin= protein 2. Intermediate: anchor organelles (nucleus) 3. Microtubules: rigidity, track movement, organelles, scaffold, (railroad tracks) Tubulin=Protein  Flagella: microtubules are made out of this; sperm is the only flagella cell In our bodies, they move the entire cell  Cilia: short, hairy, move substances or cell Biology 111 Chapter 5  Fluids= phospholipids  Mosaic: proteins  Passes easy because they are small, nonpolar, uncharged I. Transport Mechanisms A. Passive Mechanisms {does not need input energy} 1. Sample diffusion 2. Osmosis: diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane 3. Facilitated diffusion B. Active Mechanisms 1. Active transport {needs input energy ATP} 2. Vesicular transport a) Exocytosis b) Endocytosis 1) Phagocytosis 2) Pinocytosis 3) Receptor mediated endocytosis  Isotonic solution: the concentration of solute us the same on both sides of a membrane, and the cell volume will not change  Hypotonic solution: the solute concentration is lower outside the cell, water molecules move into the cell, and the cell will expand and may burst  Hypertonic solution: the solute concentration is higher outside the cell, water molecules move out of the cell, and the cell will shrink  Exocytosis: is used to export bulky molecules, such as proteins or polysaccharides  Endocytosis: is used to import substances useful to the livelihood of the cell  Phagocytosis: is the engulfment of a particle by wrapping cell membrane around it, forming a vacuole  Pinocytosis: same things except that fluids are taken into small vesicles  Receptor-mediated endocytosis: use receptors in a receptor- coated pit to interact with a specific protein, initiating formation of vesicle  Kinetic energy: energy of motion  Potential energy: energy that possesses as a result of its location structure  Chemical reactions either… - Release energy (exergonic reactions) or - Require an input of energy and store energy (endergonic reactions)  Exergonic reactions release energy  Endergonic reaction: requires an input of energy and yields products rich in potential energy  Enzyme: catalysts, increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by reaction  Enzyme: - Increase of a chemical reaction by lowering energy of activation - Proteins


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