Crim 210 Crim 210-001
Popular in Introduction to Criminology
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Toni-Ann Annunziata on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Crim 210-001 at George Mason University taught by Salih Alexander in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
Reviews for Crim 210
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/16
Discussion Questions Section 1 1 Drug possession would be considered mala prohibita because it is not that large of a crime vandalism may be considered mala in se because there was always intent. Drunk driving would be considered mala prohibita because it wasn’t always illegal. Collaborating with the enemy is mala in se because that’s is a high level of crime. Sale of alcohol to minors would be mala prohibita because its not illegal everywhere. Fraud is mala in se because it isn’t bad everywhere. Fraud would be considered Mala In Se because it has always been bad. Spouse would be considered Mala Prohibita because it is acceptable in some areas. Adult male have consensual sex with a child and prostitution would be considered Mala Prohibita because it is not bad everywhere 2 Ideology is important for criminologists to use when evaluating their work because it helps them keep in line their ethics and values. However, it may benefit the criminologist to not pay attention to ideology occasionally, this is because their opinions may disrupt a case in a way it shouldn’t 3 Cold-blooded murder, assassinations an unpopular political leader, killing in a repeatedly abusive spouse, raping a stranger with threats to use a deadly weapon, committing rape on a date by threatening bodily harm. Molesting a young child, Driving while extremely drunk, grand larceny, burglary, alcohol consumption by minor 4 A conflict of visions is explained to be what people view the world as or what it should be like "The use of usefulness of Criminology" 1 Experimental criminology has to do with the manipulation of social behavior, while analytical criminology has to do with detached observation of behavioral patterns 2 Fielding rather than Beccaria should be the father of criminology because fielding was first to publish anything on criminology 3 It would be impossible to integrate other sciences becoming multi-method, multilevel and multi-theoretical because everyone thinks on a different level and not everyone is on the same page Section 2 1 Jason Derek Brown is among the FBI's top 10 most wanted and he is wanted for committing murder and Armed Robbery in Phoenix, Arizona he shot and armored car guard and then ran off with the money at a movie theater. Jason is a white American male with blond hair and green eyes. He is also abut 170 pounds and 5'10'' 2 People should not make statements based on self-report data because this data is not necessarily accurate. People are reporting this information by themselves, therefore that data may not be accurate 3 It is difficult to ask people questions about delinquent, criminal behavior, or victimization because people may lie about, it or it may bring up recent would cause trauma for some 4 To make law enforcement agencies implement NIBRS, I would make sure that NIBRS was a section on each report then must fill out when talking to a victim. "Gender gap Trends for Violent Crimes" 1 Social construction of crime statistics is based on gender, environment and how police interpret criminal behavior. 2 Police officers used to focus their suspects to be men because it was believed that men are responsible for most criminal acts. However, this is changing due to the fact that "all are equal" 3 The media displays the fact that all are equal and that police officers are no longer allowed to be bias without being degraded "Methamphetamine Use, Self reported violent crime…" 1 This article decreases my confidence in the validity of self report data because most people that report themselves have a criminal history or background. Also, there is not an even number of people when it comes to race, ethnicity, or gender 2 Most people that are on Meth have a relation to violence or violent activity. People that have been arrested for meth or a violent act, generally have a correlation with the opposite 3 A way to make the self report more valid would be o include gender as a factor and race should not be "Race and the probability of arrest" 1 NIBRS is better than UCR/NCVS because it combines the best features of both. Rather than just having self reported data or police reported data, it is combined. For example, NIBRS includes details of race, ethnicity and gender. 2 Changes of discriminatory may go case to case and there is not necessarily a heavy involvement of officers discriminating. 3 The greater probability of arrest for white offenders would be because the population contains a majority of Caucasians rather than minorities. Section 3 1 I do not know anyone who is a victim 2 It is not surprising that perpetrators are most likely to be victims as well because many perpetrators started out as being a victim and then they were turned into a perpetrator. This is because when people are victims at a young age, they are most likely to turn into a perpetrator because this is what they know and they do not necessarily think that it is bad. 3 New Jersey has many different forms of assistance when it comes to victims. Such as victim information and impact forms, counseling and support services, case status notification, court accompaniment and transportation services, child care to attend meetings and court proceedings, HIV testing of defendants and HIV information and referrals for victims, assistance in obtaining restitution, employer and creditor intercession, assistance with property return, victim- witness waiting rooms, parole eligibility and release notification. "Violent Victimization as a Risk Factor for Violent Offending Among Juveniles" 1 Juveniles who are victimized have a great chance of offending. Also, those who are violently offend have a good chance of being a violent victim. 2 It is hard to implement these factors because there is no way to really know how to stop violent crime within juveniles. However, one could use this information to try to decrease the number of children being victimized. 3 The victim precipitation theory closely relates the relationship between offending and victimization. This theory explains how some people initiate being victimized by the way that they act or the way that they dress. "Age, Criminal Victimization, and offending" 1 According to Menard, how does the relationship between being a perpetrator and being a victim of crime change over the life course? 2 There is an increase in victimization and offending if one is exposed to illegal behavior. This is because the offender is exposed to prior behavior so that they believe it is acceptable. 3 Offending is decreased at all stages of the life coarse while victimization is not. This is because offenders may be younger however they have the ability of offending people of all ages. Key Terms Section 1 1 Constrained Vision- believers in this vision view human activity as constrained by an innate human nature that is self centered and largely unalterable 2 Correlates- factors that are related to the phenomenon of interest 3 Crime- act in violations of a criminal law 4 Criminality- Clinical or scientific term rather than a legal one; property of individuals that signals the willingness to commit those and other harmful acts. 5 Criminology- interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyzes data on various aspects of crime and criminal behavior 6 Enlightenment- Age of reason 7 Harm- wrought by criminal activity exacts a huge financial and emotional price 8 Hypotheses- statements about relationships between and among factors we expect to find based on the logic of our theories 9 Ideology- general emotional picture of "how things should be" 10 Level of analysis- segment of phenomenon which is measured and analyzed 11 Mala in se- inherently bad (bad to everyone) 12 Mala prohibita- bad because they are prohibited 13 Necessary cause- factor that must be present for criminal behavior and in the absence of which criminal behavior has never occurred 14 Policy- course of action to solve some problem that has been selected from among alternative courses of action 15 Sufficient cause- factor that is able to produce criminal behavior without being argued by some other factor 16 Theory- set of logically interconnected propositions explaining how phenomena and related and frim which a number of hypotheses can be derived and tested 17 Unconstrained vision- denies the existence of an innate human nature Section 2 1 Arrest- an act of being legally detained to answer criminal charges on basis of an arrest warrant; officer has probable cause that person arrested committed a felony 2 Cleared Offenses- crime that’s cleared by arrest of suspect or exceptional means 3 Crime rate- rate of given crime is actual number of reported crimes standardized by some unit of population 4 Dark figure of crime- crimes committed that never come to official attention 5 Hierarchy rule- required policy to report most serious offense committed in multiple offense single incident to FBI and to ignore others 6 Index Crimes- Part 1 offenses 7 National Crime Victimization Survey- biannual survey of large number of people and households requesting info on crimes committed against individuals and households 8 National Incident-Based Reporting System- comprehensive crime statistic collection system that is currently a component of the UCR program and is eventually expected to replace it entirely 9 Part 1 offenses- 4 violent (homicide, assault, forcible rape and robbery) and 4 property offenses (larceny, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson) reported to Uniform Crime Reports 10 Part 2 offenses- Less serious offenses reported in UCR and recorded based on arrests made rather than cases reported to the police 11 Self-reported surveys- collecting of data by criminologists themselves asking people to disclose their delinquent and criminal involvements or anonymous questions 12 UCR- Uniform Crime Reports; Annual reports compiled by the FBI containing crimes known to the nations police and sheriffs departments, the number of arrests made by these agencies, and other crime-related information Section 3: Victimology 1 Human Trafficking- illegal trade in human beings through abduction, use or threat of force, deception, fraud or sale for the purposes of sexual exploitation or forced labor 2 Rape trauma syndrome- A syndrome sometimes suffered by rape victims that is similar to posttraumatic stress syndrome 3 Routine activities/lifestyle theory- A victimization theory that states that there are certain lifestyles that disproportionately expose some people to high risk for victimization 4 Victim precipitation theory- a theory in victimology that examines how violent victimization may have been precipitated by the victim when he or she acts in certain provocative ways 5 Victimology- A subfield of criminology that specialized in studying the victims of crime st February 1 : What is Criminology? Criminology- science of crime and criminal behavior Interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyzes data on crime and criminal behavior Crime generally occurs between same races- black v black crime and white v white crime Crime Going to change depending on what you are talking about and where you are For example, o Smoking marijuana in Colorado vs New Jersey Social norms change and so do certain crimes Criminality Willingness to commit crimes A short history of criminology The enlightenment (1650-1800) o Members f the "classical School", Such as Beccaria emphasized human rationality and free will Industrial revolution o Positivism Progressive Era (1890 to 1920) o Characterized by liberal efforts to bring about social reform o Focus of criminology shifts from biological determinism to affricate level-social factors that contribute to crime The "Chicago Scholl"/ Social Ecology Idea of bargains working together and invasions- anything invades an area o 1950"s to 1970' s There was a move to understand psychological processes and socialization Control theories Labeling theories The tumult of this period also fostered several critical theories Marxism- rich keeping down the poor o 1980 The conservative mood in the U.S. fed a resurgence in classical thought Rational choice Deterrence Routing activities o 1990s- early 2000 Biosocial theories experienced The role of theory in criminology Criminologists are interested in finding out factors that cause criminal behavior The first step is to identify correlates- one thing that doesn’t have to do with the other Theory Many competing theories in criminology o Term "truth" is never used, rather, what is more useful o A theory should be simple and if there are two and one is complicated, its generally not that one o Predictive accuracy o Predictive scope o Simplicity o Falsifiability How to think about theories Measure on the level you are talking about Ideology How you feel shows how you research Constrained - Unconstrained- determined by social and historical factors around you Everything that one does is a product Theory and social policy Crime control- crime has to happen and there is planning or crime prevention- based on individual theories that do not have a lot of success, not looking at people who aren't committing crime, rapid response and active policing Some programs don’t work because there is the wrong theory The use and usefulness of criminology Criminology awakened by rising crime rates of later twentieth century
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'