BIOL 202 Human Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide
BIOL 202 Human Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 202
Lansing Community College
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany Bedard on Friday February 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 202 at Lansing Community College taught by Neliswa Ndibongo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at Lansing Community College.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Exam 1 Study Guide C HAPTERS 1, 4, 5 AND 6 • 1.1 Organization of the Body • Know that we move from cell ▯ tissue ▯ Organ ▯ Organ Systems We move blood, wastes, plasma etc. from system to system as well as nerve responses • Define and describe the functions four types of cells/tissue Neurons/Neuron Tissue- transmit signals for communication, have branches to receive or transmit messages (recieve info from receptors, transmit info from muscles and other organs), some process info. Muscle cells/Tissue- specialized to contract, voluntary or involuntary. Epithelial cells and tissue- sheet like layers of cells, lines external body surfaces, lines hollow organs or vessels. (Interior=lumen), functions as a barrier and a transport membrane. Glands are formed from epithelium, make a product. Exocrine (sweat, salivary, have ducts -exit the body) Endocrine (pituitary, adrenal, no ducts. Hormones are released into the blood) Connective cells/tissues- Most diverse, characterized by extracellular matrix, anchors and links structures of the body, (example: bone, tendons, fat, blood) • Be able to name the various organ systems along with their primary and/or their secondary functions Endocrine-provides communication between cells thru release of hormones into the bloodstream. Nervous- provides communication between cells thru electrical signals and release neurotransmitters. Musculoskeletal- support the body, allow voluntary movement, allow facial expressions. Cardiovascular- Transport molecules throughout the body in the bloodstream Respiratory- Bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide Urinary- Filter the blood to regulate acidity, blood volume and ion concentrations, eliminates wastes. Gastrointestinal-Break down food and absorb it into the body Reproductive- Generate Offspring Immune-Defend the body against pathogens and abnormal cells. Integumentary- protects the body from the external environment. • Body compartments: • What is considered inside the body? Immediate environment of most cells, includes tissue fluid and plasma. • What is considered outside the body? External side of the epithelial body barrier. examples: surroundings external to skin, air in lungs, food in stomach, urine in bladder. • Know the various fluid compartments and their relative volum es TBW- 42 L (total body water- includes dissolved materials) ICF- 28 L (fluid inside cells) ECF- 14 L, Plasma 3L, ISF 11L. (fluid outside cells but within the body, ECF is the internal environment.) • 1.2 Homeostasis: A Central Organizing Principle of Physiology • What is it? The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. Regulates temperature, volume and composition. Requires organ system integration, disruption of homeostasis is the basis for disease and death. • Why is it important? Without homeostasis body systems can fail resulting in disease and death. • How does it work? Regulated variable- aspect to be maintained. Negative feedback- regulated variable decreases system makes an increase. Set point- expected value of the regulated variable. Error signal- difference between the set point and the regulated variable. For example: body ph should be 7.4, if it is 7.0 the body will make an error signal, resulting in negative feedback to achieve the set point. • Which body compartment is targeted? Targets the internal environment. • E.g. 1.3 The Diabetes Epidemic—(as it relates to homeostasis) • 4.1 Factors Affecting the Direction of Transport • Know chemical forces, electrical forces, and electrochemical forces Chemical driving force- concentration gradient pushes particles from higher to lower concentration, moves down the chemical gradient from higher to lower concentration. Electrical driving force- Opposite charges attract, like charges repel. Membrane potential caused by an unequal distribution of anions and cations across the cell membrane, creates a difference in electrical potential across the membrane. At rest the inside of the cell is more negative. Direction of force depends on polarity of cell and the change of particles, magnitude depends on strength of the membrane potential and amount of charge on particle. Electrochemical force- if chemical and electrical forces act in the same direction the chemicals will move that direction. If chemical and electrical forces act opposite directions the force acts in the direction with stronger force. • Know the significance of the membrane potential. The membrane potential creates the voltage across the membrane. • Know the significance of the equilibrium potential of an ion- Ions dream state is the equilibrium potential. Is the hypothetical value for the membrane potential at which the electrical force is equal and opposite to the chemical force. If vM is stronger than Ex- electrical driving force is bigger. If vM is weaker than Ex then chemical driving force is bigger. Know which direction sodium and potassium will flow across the cell • membrane. Sodium goes in the cell and potassium leaves the cell. • 4.2 Rate of Transport • 4.3 Passive Transport • What is diffusion? Downhill movement, move in the direction of the force acting on them. Three different types. • What is the difference between simple vs. facilitated diffusion? Simple diffusion- depends on magnitude of force, membrane surface area, membrane permeability. Membrane permeability depends on the lipid solubility of diffusion substance, size and shape of diffusing particle, temperature, thickness of membrane. Facilitated diffusionP -assive transport involving a carrier. Typically a protein, has binding sites for particles, binding occurs one side at a time, random conformational changes. Rate of transport depends on each carrier, number of carriers and the concentration gradient. • Why are the differences necessary? Some ions cannot be absorbed through membranes so they need to be diffused by facilitation with a protein to make it able to cross membranes. • 4.4 Active Transport • What are the two different types and how do they differ? Primary- protein pump acts as both carrier and enzyme, uses ATP directly. Secondary- energy from the passive transportation is used to drive the active transport of another substance. Diffusion results from previous active transport of the ion. • 4.5 Osmosis: Passive Transport of Water Across Membranes • What is osmosis? The diffusion of water through a membrane. Characteristics: always passive, unaffected by membrane potentials, riven by water gradient. • What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity? Osmolarity is the total solute concentration, solute particles displace water. Tonicity is a function of the concen tration. Osmolarity is the total concentration, Tonicity is how a cell responds to some particles aka more salt cells shrink. • What happens to a cell when it’s placed in solutions with different tonicities? Hypertonic solution- cells shrink. Hypotonic-cells will swell. Cells will change when placed in solutions with different tonicities. • Which direction will water travel across the membrane? Water follow the solutes, so if the solutes leave the cell, so will the water. • 4.6 Transport of Material Within Membrane-Bound Compartments • What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? Both use secretory vesicles, Endocytosis brings in partciles, Exocytosis releases particles. • What are the different types of endocytosis? How do they differ? Phagocytosis- Particle gets picked up by membrane, turns into a phagosome which combine with a lysosome creating a phagolysosome. Pinocytosis- dissolved particles are taken into an endosome. Receptor mediated transport- Molecules are picked up into a pit that is created by membranes which closes and engulfs the particles. • 4.7 Epithelial Transport: Movement of Molecules Across Two Membranes • 5.1 Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication • Know the difference between direct and indirect communication, i.e. how it’s done, what is involved, mechanisms used. Direct communicaiton- ions travel through gap junctions directly from cell to cell. Indirect communication- ions travel from secretory cell to a chemical messenger which carries to the receptor on the target cell. • 5.2 Chemical Messengers • How are they classified? Classified by function (long or short distance) and classified by chemical properties (solubility and chemical class) • What are their chemical properties? Solubility? Know the 5 different chemical classes of messengers and why they are important. Amino acids- lipophobic, receptor on plasma membrane, only four amino acids function as messengers. Amines- most are lipophobic except thyroid hormone. Receptors on cell membrane, made or derived from an amino acid, contain amine groups. Peptides/Proteins- most abundant type of ligand, lipophobic, target receptors on cell membrane, made of CHAINS of amino acids. Steroids- lipophillic, derived from cholesterol, all steroids function as hormones. Eicosanoids- lipophillic, intracellular target receptors, most derived from arched acids. • Know why their solubility properties are important. Lipophilic (hydrophobic)- synthesized on demand, immediate release from source, release rate depends on synthesis. Lipophobic (hydrophilic)- synthesis in independent of demand, stored in vesicles of the source until needed, released by exocytosis. • Know their 5 functional classifications and how they function. • 5.3 Signal Transduction Mechanisms • Know what signal transduction is and the components involved/needed for it to occur. Messenger binds to receptor, binding results in a cell response, signal transduction (process produces a response in the target) • Understand what the general receptor properties are and how they contribute to the magnitude of the cells response. Properties- specificity, one messenger may bind to my receptor types, one target may have many types of receptors, number of receptors per cell varies and is dynamic. Magnitude depends on concentration of the messenger, number of receptors per target cell, receptor affinity to the messenger. • Know the differences between an intracellular mediated response vs. a membrane-bound receptor mediated response Intracellular-mediated response- Characteristic of lipophobic ligands, receptors are found in cytosol or nucleus, cell response is via gene activation. Membrane-bound receptor- Response of the target takes one of two forms (movement of ions, or phosphorylation of enzymes). • For the membrane-bound receptor mediated response, know the difference between signal transduction for channel-linked, enzyme-linked and G- protein linked receptors. Channel-linked- receptor and channel are same protein, action is direct, binding of ligand causes channel to open or close, change in transport of ions thru channel creates the target response. Enzyme-linked- receptor and enzyme are the same protein. Ligand binding activates the enzyme, action is direct, activated enzyme causes target response. G-protein linked- g proteins link ECF messenger to ion channels and amplifier enzymes, the receptor binds to the G in protein nucleotides. • 5.4 Long-Distance Communication via the Nervous and Endocrine Systems • Know what the two long distance communication systems are and how they differ. Endocrine- secrets hormones which enter the blood, blood spans the distance to the target. Slower Nervous- nerve cells transmit signals via action potentials to span the distance to the target. Faster. • 6.1 Primary Endocrine Organs • What are they? Where are they located? What hormones do they produce and what are the actions of those hormones? Hypothalamus and pituitary- located in the brain, secrete oxytocin and ADH. pineal gland- secretes melatonin, located in the brain thyroid- secretes T4 and T3, regulates metabolism found in the neck parathyroid- secretes calcitonin which regulates calcium levels in the blood thymus- secretes thymosin which regulates t-cell function found in chest adrenal glands- found on top of the kidneys, secrete aldosterone to regulate sodium and potassium levels, cortisol which regulates metabolism and bodies responses to stress, androgens which are sex hormones and regulate report function. Adrenal medulla secretes chromaffin cells (epi, norepi and dopamine) pancreas- Alpha and beta cells, delta cells and f cells. gonads- males testosterone and androstenodione, females progesterone and estradiol • Describe the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (both anterior and posterior pituitary). Links two different capillary beds where exchanges happen between blood and tissue within capillaries, transports products of one region directly to another region in high concentrations. • 6.2 Secondary Endocrine Organs • What are they? What are their primary functions? Which hormones do they produce and what are the actions of those hormones? Heart-ANP inhibits sodium reabsorption by kidney tubules Kidneys- Erythropoeitin stimulates production of red blood cells in the bone marrow Stomach- gastrin stimulates acid secretion by stomach and intestine Small intestine- Secretin regulate gastro secretions Liver- Insulin like growth factor IGF’s, promote bone and soft tissue growth Skin liver and kidney- dihydroxy vitamin D3, promotes absorption of calcium by intestine. • 6.3 Hormone Actions at the Target Cell • Describe how hormone levels in the blood are controlled. Rate of hormone secretion, amount of hormone bound to plasma proteins, rate of hormone metabolism. Negative feedback controls humoral control (insulin for example) neural goes until physiological response is achieved. • What are the factors that would influence a target cells response to the hormone? Types of receptors on target cells, signal transduction mechanism, concentration of free hormone in the blood. • 6.4 Abnormal Secretion of Hormones • What are the 3 types of pathologies involving abnormal hormone levels? Hypo secretion: too little (diabetes mellitus type 1) Hyper secretion: too much (acromegaly) Abnormal tissue responsiveness: normal hormones but tissue respond wrong • How can you tell at which level of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary axis the abnormality is located? ?????? • 6.5 Hormone Interactions • Describe the types of interactions between hormones acting on the same target cell, including additive, synergistic, and permissive interactions. Antagonism- hormones oppose each other Additive effect- net effect equals the sum of the individual effects Synergism- effects of two hormones favor each other but the net effect exceeds the sum of individual effects Permissiveness- One hormone s needed for another to exert its effects
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