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PFW Semester Bundle!

by: Janell Barker

PFW Semester Bundle! PFW 117

Janell Barker
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Everyone has to take this lecture, this is NOT water aerobics notes (We didn't have any). This is for the general PFW course that everyone has to take! This bundle covers all chapters and materials...
Water arobics
Mrs. Shore-Beck
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Janell Barker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PFW 117 at Ball State University taught by Mrs. Shore-Beck in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Water arobics in Health Sciences at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
PFW LECTURE NOTES  Static stretching = touching toes. Dynamic = leg lifts 4-5 Chapter Objectives: Body Composition  What are the health benefits of regular physical activity?  Amount of body fat in proportion to fat-free  What are the purpose, content, and time of weight  A better gauge of accurate fatness as the 3 parts of a workout? opposed to body weight alone  What are the 5 health-related fitness components?  Body fat does serve a purpose: warmth,  What are one or more tests for each vitamin storage, and padding. If one is fit and eats a balanced diet, body fat tends to component of health-related fitness? adjust to an acceptable level. Some people  Identify what contributes to body composition tend to carry more body fat  High levels of body fat can be detrimental to Benefits of Regular exercise: overall health  Controls weight, fights against health Assessing body composition conditions & disease, improves mental health & mood, strengthens bones &  Body compositon is measured by using muscles (prevents osteoporosis), promotes several techniques: dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), hydrostatic better sleep, improved appearance, delay weighing, skin fold calipers, bioelectrical rate of aging impedance, body girth measurements, waist Importance of physical activity to hip ratio or waist circumference, body mass index – online tools to calculate  90% of Americans need more physical Maximizing Cardiorespiratory Fitness activity to improve their health  60% of adults are not regularly active  Warm up – increase internal temp and blood Cardiorespiratory Endurance flow to muscles (5-15 mins). Stretch muscles especially task specific  Considered the most important fitness  Conditioning bout – aerobic exercise or component strength conditioning (2-30+ mins) Progress  Ability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels to slowly, use proper equipment and deliver oxygen to working muscles/remove techniques waste products  Check HR after conditioning bout to  Represented by VO2 Max or the maximum determine exercise intensity amount of oxygen that can be used by the  Cool-down – reduce intensity to pre workout body during one minute of physical activity state (5-15 mins)  The best for VO2 max is distance runners FITT Muscular strength and muscular endurance testing  Frequency – 3-5 times per week  Strength is the ability to exert maximal force  Intensity 60-80% of heart rate reserve. Use against a resistance and is best developed Karvonen equation through weight training and is often  Time – 20-60 mins depending on intensity measured by a one or three rep max leg  Type aerobic (continuous and rhythmic) vs press or bench press strength test anaerobic  Endurance is the ability of a muscle to exert a sub maximal force against a resistance Karvonen Equation repeatedly and can be measured without  Target heart rate (THR) = MHR-RHR X weights by tests such as the abdominal curl test or push-up test intensity + RHR  Max heart rate (MHR) = 220 – age Flexibility  Resting heart rate (RHR) = pulse per min at complete rest  Movement of a joint through a full range of  Intensity = 60-80% motion  Hips, lower back, hamstring Chapter 7 Objectives  Helps reduce muscle strains  Flexibility is specific to each joint  Identify the effects of a regular program of exercise on the aging process.  Flexibility is affected by temperature,  Identify correct recommendations for gender, age and genetics  Reduction of movement may compromise a exercise during pregnancy and post-partum healthy lifestyle as one ages  Identify correct recommendations for  Research has found that strength-training exercise for individuals with chronic health workouts may have a bigger effect on conditions such as arthritis, asthma, testosterone in the evening diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis 4. Your fitness level:  Identify recommendations for safe exercise in hot and cold weather Exercising in the cold:  Layer clothing – dress as if it is 20 degrees Training effect benefits for both men & women: warmer  Rates of improvement in maximal oxygen  Avoid mesh shoes uptake  Avoid over heating  Loss of fat from deposited areas  Protect exposed body parts  Running with the wind when you return  Increased bone density  Decreased exercise heart rates  Warm up before going out  Stay motivated Women: Exercising in the heat:  Women have 20% lower oxygen uptake than men (due to smaller heart size)  Avoid high heat exercise to prevent  Men have 30-40% greater physical strength hyperthermia  Women have more fat mass and half as  Drink plenty of water – before, during, and much less muscle after exercise  Men have higher performance and  Wear loose and light-colored clothes endurance and more hemoglobin and higher  Avoid vinyl or rubber clothing blood volume (sweatshirts/sweatsuits)  Women have less tolerance to heat than do  Acclimate to the warmer weather (Honolulu men marathon)  Women have 1/10 as much testosterone as  Workout early in the day men  Check with physician about effects of any  Dysmenorrhea – “painful menstruation” medication with exercising in the heat exercise might lead to a reduction in menstrual complaints Heat Illnesses:  Menstrual abnormalities (obligomenorrhea or amenorrhea) occur in 2 to 5% of the  Heat cramps. Spot it - spasms in the abdomen, arms, calves, or hamstrings. Treat normal population and up to 28% of female it – stop, drink, massage athletes (mostly endurance athletes)  Female athlete Triad – this is a life-  Heat exhaustion. Heavy seating, headache, threatening syndrome marked by three dizziness, nausea. Treat it – stop running, get in shade, drink, see doctor if needed disorders: disordered eating habits  Heat stroke. Confusion, rapid breathing, (inadequate food, energy intake insufficient to meet metabolic demands). Amenorrhea fainting. Treat it – stop running, call for (menstrual cycle cessation for more than health, get in shade, cool skin with water  Four main reasons for injury: three months). Osteoporosis (reduction in  Overuse – too much physical activity too bone mass – estrogen, weight bearing exercise and calcium must be present to  quickly (improper technique/form/footwear)  P.R.I.C.E. build bone mass).  Heat and pain relievers (heat applied too early will increase blood flow, swelling, and Men: inflammation. Use after swelling is down, 1. Your weight: 24-72 hours)  If you’re overweight, exercise can improve  80% pain-free range of motion, you’re good to go your testosterone levels by helping you shed pounds 2. Your age: Chapter 9  Older men seem to get less of a post- exercise boost in testosterone. Still, exercise  Cardiovascular disease is the #1 overall killer of Americans – kills almost twice as offers many other health benefits for older men, including bone and muscle health and many as cancer (#2) better balance.  1 in 3 americans suffer from some form 3. When you exercise:  Coronary heart disease (largest killer), stroke, high blood pressure, congestive  Your testosterone levels vary throughout the day. Levels are typically highest in the heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, and morning and lowest in the afternoon congenital heart disease  More women die from heart disease than men Coronary heart disease  110/70 is the normal blood pressure. 120/80 is outdated.  Angina pectoris (chest pain)  HTL is good cholesterol. LDL is bad  Myocardial infarction (heart attack)  High cholesterol – below 200. (160  Atherosclerotic process in the heart’s blood target) vessels  CHD accounts for more than half of all cases Insoluble fiber – works in the colon of CVD  Most commonly the result of atherosclerosis Soluble – slows digestion and helps lower cholesterol and blood glucose Stroke (brain attack)  Lean mass is muscle  Blood flow to the brain is interrupted either by a blockage (ischemic stroke) or by a burt < 18.5 BMI = underweight blood vessel (cerebral hemorrhage); primarily caused by atherosclerosis and is Women should be below .8 and men below 9.5 waist the 3 leading cause of death to hip ratio  Smile, talk, raise arms  3,500 calories for one pound of fat Atherosclerosis  Anorexia can include excessive exercise  Deposits of cholesterol and other lipids Lifetime weight management: food management, along with cellular debris accumulate in the emotional management, exercise management artery to form a plaque. The artery wall becomes hard inelastic, and clogged and ay  Approx. 80% of all cancers may be related become blocked to lifestyle choices  How to prevent  About 1/3 of cancers can be prevented by a healthful diet Chapter One – Understanding Wellness (Questions 7) Identify the top three causes of death in the United States? Heart disease, cancer, stroke 3 Largest contributing factor affecting lon Your lifestyle behaviors represent the most  controllable influence over your health. Then lifestyle behavior, heredity, social circumstance, medical  care, and environmental conditions. 4 List the top four lifestyle behaviors that contribute to premature deaths in the United States? High tobacco use, poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle (not enough exercise), alcohol 5 What are the four overarching goals of the publication Healthy People2020? 1) Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death. 2) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. 3) Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. 4) Promote quality of life, health development and healthy behaviors across all life stages. 7 What is the definition of wellness? an integrated and dynamic level of functioning oriented toward maximizing potential, dependent on self-responsibility. 8* Identify the seven dimensions of wellness and give three examples within each dimension.  Physical dimension -Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance  Intellectual dimension - Maintaining an active mind contributes to total well- being; Continually acquiring knowledge throughout life; Engaging the mind in creative and stimulating mental activities.  Emotional dimension - Awareness: recognizing your feelings, as well as the feelings of others; Acceptance: Understanding the normality of human emotion and realistically assessing personal abilities and limitations; Management: The ability to control or cope with personal feelings and knowing how to seek interpersonal support when necessary.  Social dimension - The ability to interact effectively with other people, appreciate the uniqueness of others, and feel connected to others; A genuine feeling of belonging to a social unit; Exhibiting concern for the wellness of the community and justice toward others  Spiritual dimension -Associated with the concept of self-actualization, value systems, belief in a higher power, religious expression, charity, and passion for life; Personal search for meaning and direction in life; Two questions to ask yourself: Why am I here? What is my life about?  Environmental dimension - The preservation of natural resources as well as the protection of plant and animal wildlife; Commitment to the protection of plant and wildlife species; improving the quality of the environment for future generations.  Occupational dimension - Deriving personal satisfaction from your vocation; Maintaining a balance between work and leisure; Working in an environment that minimizes stress and exposure to physical health hazards. Chapter Two – Changing Behavior (Questions 7) 3 Identify the five stages of change in the Transtheoretical model of behavior change - Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance 5 Describe the elements of a well-designed behavior-change plan.  Identify your goals  List pros and cons  Identify your stage of change  Identify processes with accompanying behavioral strategies  Create an action plan  Prevent relapse  Engage positive rewards  Develop internal motivation 6 Describe S.M.A.R.T. goal setting.  S = Specific  M = Measurable  A = Achievable  R = Reward  T = Time-defined - Ex: By the end of the semester, I will attend at least 95% of my classes. 8 What are the three contributions to relapse during attempted behavior change? Stressors, tempting social situations (really wanting a cookie), cravings (emotional and physiological) Chapter Three – Developing and Assessing Physical Fitness (Questions 7) 1 Explain the health benefits of regular physical activity.  Hypokinetic disease, such as obesity, coronary heart diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes are related to inactive lifestyles.  Approximately 250,000 premature deaths occur due to lack of exercise.  Two out of three of all Americans are considered overweight and a third of those are obese.  Our nation’s children are getting fatter.  College students are showing early forms of hypokinetic diseases. 3 Identify the five health­related fitness components.  Cardiorespiratory endurance - Represented by VO2 Max or the maximum amount of oxygen that can be used by the body during one minute of physical activity. Best measure is exercise tolerance test on a treadmill or bicycle in a laboratory. During this test a person exercises strenuously while heart rate and oxygen consumption are measured. Field tests can estimate exercise tolerance testing. Field tests – 1-mile walk test, 1.5-mile run test, 3- mile bicycle test, 500-yard swim test, 500-yard water run test, 3-minute step test.  Muscular Strength – one or three rep max leg press or bench press strength test  Muscular Endurance - abdominal curl test or push-up test  Flexibility – – lower back test, hip flexor test, quadriceps test, calf test, hamstring test, sit and reach test, shoulder girdle test.  Body Composition – skinfold calipers, body girth measurements 4 Describe the purpose of a warm-up. increase internal temperature and blood flow to muscles Chapter Four – Maximizing Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Questions 7) 3 Define and apply the FITT prescription factors for developing physical fitness.  Frequency – 3­5 times per week   Intensity 60­80% of heart rate reserve. Use Karvonen equation  Time – 20­60 mins depending on intensity   Type aerobic (continuous and rhythmic)  vs anaerobic 4 Calculate training heart rate by using the Karvonen formula.  Target heart rate (THR) = MHR­RHR X intensity + RHR  Max heart rate (MHR) = 220 – age  Resting heart rate (RHR) = pulse per min at complete rest  Intensity = 60­80% 10 How many steps per day do fitness experts recommend for weight management and fitness improvement? 10,000 Chapter Seven – Exploring Special Exercise Considerations (Questions 6) 3 Identify correct recommendations for exercise during pregnancy. No exercise on your back or bouncy exercise, no intense workouts 6 Identify recommendations for safe exercise in hot and cold weather. Exercising in the cold:  Layer clothing – dress as if it is 20 degrees warmer  Avoid mesh shoes  Avoid over heating  Protect exposed body parts  Running with the wind when you return  Warm up before going out  Stay motivated Exercising in the heat:  Avoid high heat exercise to prevent hyperthermia  Drink plenty of water – before, during, and after exercise  Wear loose and light­colored clothes  Avoid vinyl or rubber clothing (sweatshirts/sweatsuits)  Acclimate to the warmer weather Chapter Eight – Preventing Common Injuries and Caring for the Lower Back (Questions 8) 1 Identify four main reasons injuries occur. 1) Overuse; Doing too much too soon or too often, causing a breakdown at the weakest  point. 2) Improper equipment; Good footwear is paramount. 3) Weakness and inflexibility; Muscles so weak or tight that the slightest unusual twist  strains them; Common muscle imbalances – calf/shin, front/back of thigh, low  back/stomach, chest, upper back. 4) Mechanical problems; The result of biomechanical/anatomical problems (the way the  foot hit the ground) or using poor form while exercising. List three tips for avoiding an overuse injury. Warm up, cool down, stretch Explain how muscle weakness and inflexibility contribute to injuries. P.R.I.C.E. assists in the body’s healing process and helps decrease swelling so healing can begin.  P – Protect from further injury.  R – Rest for at least 24 to 72 hours.  I – Ice to reduce pain and swelling (10 minutes to areas with little fat or muscle (fingers), 15-30 minutes for larger areas (knee), 30-45 minutes for areas with large amounts of fat or muscle (thigh) every 3 to 4 hours for 48 to 72 hours or longer if swelling persists.  C – Compress with an elastic wrap to decrease swelling. (Not too tight. Loosen if throbbing occurs and remove when sleeping.)  E – Elevate as often as possible. When sleeping, raise the end of the bed. Identify the symptoms of injury that indicate the need for medical attention.  The injury is extremely painful and does not feel better in a day or two.  There is joint pain lasting more than 2 days or tenderness when you press on a specific spot.  There is loss of strength or range of motion.  The limb gives way when you try to use it.  You heard a distinct pop or snap when the injury occurred.  The injured area looks misshapen or has unusual lumps other than swelling.  There is numbness or tingling in the injured area. 8 Explain two vital components of rehabilitation needed to resume activity safely without injury.  Move the injured part as early as possible, within a pain-free range to regain flexibility.  After obtaining 80% pain-free range of motion, begin to build strength.  Gradually work your way back to your former activity level. Overload should be gradual 9 Identify the two most important keys to preventing lower back pain. Stretch and strengthen, and have good posture 10 Can you describe exercises recommended to reduce the risk of lower back pain?  Pelvic tilt/pelvic tilt with curls  Pelvic tilt with twist  Low back stretch  Lying hamstring stretch  Cat stretch  Upper back lift  Alternating arm/leg lift Chapter Nine – Maximizing Heart Health (Questions 8) Identify the 10 primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. inactivity, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes. family history, male gender (+postmenopausal women), ethnicity, and age. Identify the six secondary CVD disease risk factors. individual response to stress, emotional behavior (anger and hostility), excessive alcohol (+some illegal drugs), metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein, homocysteine. Define atherosclerosis - Deposits of cholesterol and other lipids along with cellular debris accumulate in the artery to form a plaque. As it progresses, the artery wall becomes hard, inelastic, and clogged and may become blocked. 7 What is the S.T.R. approach for stroke awareness? Smile, talk, raise arms 8 Explain the roles of HDL and LDL in heart health. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) are dangerous to the arteries and accelerate plaque formation. Optimal level is below 100. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) can protect the system from plaques. Levels above 40 are best for protecting arteries. 10 Identify prehypertension, normal blood pressure range, and the blood pressure reading that indicates hypertension. Terms Warm-up FITT Factors Karvonen Equation P.R.I.C.E. Heat Stroke Shin Splints Ankle Sprain Hyperthermia Hypothermia Atherosclerosis Primary Risk Factors Secondary Risk Factors High Density Lipoprotein


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