BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 2 Bundle
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 2 Bundle BIO 1144
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Friday February 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Shoot: Leaves and Stem photosynthesis support leaves and transport 1°Growth = elongation Shoot tip: • Bud- inside is the SAM (Shoot Apical Meristem) • Shoot- I.s. (Inside the bud) Bud = New shoot Node = Any point along the stem where a leaf, bud or branch arises Internode = The region between two nodes; Elongation occurs within these (Brooker, et al. 722) Leaf C.S. Dicot Leaf Monocot Leaf • Net venation • Parallel venation Stems: 1°Growth - mostly above ground Monocots • 1°Growth (elongation) elongation Dicots -scattered VBs • 1°growth (elongation) • 2°growth (expansion) - ringed VBs (-pith, -cortex) • Vascular Bundles VC and CC both retain cell division properties to produce "rings" of 2°tissues inside/outside of the cambium ring • VC and CC are Lateral Meristem (expansion) = 2°growth (2°tissues) VC • Inside ◦ 2°xylem =wood; (conducts H2O/minerals) • • Outside ◦ 2°phloem = inner bark (conducts solutes) CC • Inside Periderm = outer bark • Outside Replaces epidermis and cortex 2°Growth in Stems (dicots) • Stem (after 3 years 2°growth) Begins late 1st year Comparison between Plant Organs: • Leaves - 1°Growth only ◦ Divot - net venation ◦ Monocot - parallel venation • Roots - monocots - 1° ◦ Dicots - 1° & 2° (most) • Stem ◦ Monocots -1° ◦ Dicots - 1° & 2° (most) • Roots - endodermis and pericycle ◦ Monocot - pith and cortex ◦ Dicot - cortex (xylem @ cortex) • Stems ◦ Monocot - scattered VBs -no pith or cortex ◦ Dicot - pith and cortex, VBs in ring 1°Growth = Elongation (Apical Meristems- cork cambium) • 1°tissues 2°Growth = expansion (vascular cambium - cork cambium) • 2°tissues Regulation of Plant Growth • Hormones - "chemical messengers" ◦ Travels from one place to another to initiate a response ◦ Mostly internal; transported in phloem tissue ◦ Interact with external environmental factors ‣ Temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture ◦ Growth, seed germination, flowering, fruiting, shedding leaves, color loss leaves ◦ Growth Inhibiting ‣ Mostly in fall/winter ◦ Growth Promoting ‣ Mostly in spring/summer ◦ All hormones require ATP energy for transport. 5 Hormones • Auxins ◦ Produced in shoot tips, leaves, fruits, and seeds ◦ Growth promoting hormones ◦ All hormones require ATP energy investment for transport (phloem) ◦ Effects ‣ Promote cell elongation ‣ Promote stem elongation ‣ Promote stem expansion ‣ Promote the development of fruit ‣ Inhibits bud development ‣ Inhibits the abscission (a layer of cells develop and a part snaps off) of leaves, flowers, fruits • Cytokinins ◦ Growth promoters ◦ Produced in seeds, fruits, and roots ◦ Effects ‣ Promotes cytokinesis and cell division ‣ Promote the development of buds ‣ Inhibit leaf senescence (loss and breakdown of chlorophyll; change in color) (Brooker, et al. 717)
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