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Com 105 Weeks 5 and 6 Notes

by: Annabelle Hutson

Com 105 Weeks 5 and 6 Notes Com 105

Marketplace > Washington State University > Communication > Com 105 > Com 105 Weeks 5 and 6 Notes
Annabelle Hutson
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This contains half the notes from week 5 after the exam and all of week 6.
Global Communications
Dr. Dixon
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Com 105 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Dixon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Global Communications in Communication at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Com 105 Weeks 5 and 6 Notes Week 5: Beginning the Mass Communication Module:  Mass Media: communications which use mass medias and technologies which reach a mass audience, meaning it reaches a very large number of people.  History of Mass Media: o Mass communication has only been around for a little while o 3500 B.C.E: the first pictographs carved into stone, this was first designed for the masses, because if it was designed for a small amount of people they would not have gone through the trouble to carve it. o 2500 B.C.E: the Egyptians invents Papyrus o 1000 B.C.E: Phonetic writing o 1500s: the emergence of print media allowed people to print and distribute mass amounts of books, and this could be done quickly. The example is the Guttenberg Bible, which he printed for people to have. o 1860s: these are the first audio recording, when they can capture sound and then play it back. This was fundamental for today such as music. o 1910s: the emergence of cinema and recording movies and films for people to watch. It started off as a sideshow attraction, but then became a main form of entertainment. There is a well-known example which is "A Trip to the Moon" by George Milliare. o 1920s: Radio emerged as the main form of entertainment, and had a profound effect on the listeners. Orson Wells told the story called "the War of the Worlds" on the radio, but people did not hear the part that said it was fake, so they actually thought aliens were invading New Jersey. o 1950s: was the "Golden Age of Television" which replaced radio as the main form of entertainment. This was during the rise if the middle class, and televisions became the new item that the middle class had. There was generally very few channels and the family would sit around the tv together and watch a show. o 1990s: the internet came into play, and the phone and internet were connected meaning you could not use both the phone and the internet at the same time. o 2000s: the smart phone comes out, which allowed media to be moved with a person and control so many different things. o Future: there are new ways of experiencing the world and new entertainments. Some media is used, especially virtual reality, to use for practical purposes. o Entertainment vs. Journalism:  Entertainment Media - mass media which holds the attention and interest of a mass audience, with the intention of giving pleasure and delight. Whether this is something funny, or something you watch because you like it. Examples: Sports (football, soccer, cricket, ect. People come together to watch the same thing), Movies (Titanic, Star Wars, Avatar, ect. These can be funny, or about real events), Television (shows, as well as netflix and HBO Go), Novels (we still use it, and it spreads around the world, such as the Harry Potter), News Events (some become entertainment events, such as the OJ Simpson Trial because they allowed cameras in the court room and it was a media circus and Micheal Jackson Trial. Right now it is the political sphere, with Trump vs. Sanders and all the candidates).  News Media - mass media whose focus is on delivering news to the general public or target audience. Examples: Newspapers (dominant form of news consumption back in the day, this has changed with the rise of the internet, but they have adapted to online media), local Television ( local areas to one nation or even one state), Cable television (allows for international news outlets), alternative media (grows due to the internet, allows anyone to become a part of the journalism process because they can create a blog. An example of this is the ISIS media department which is very media savvy), Citizen Journalism (people have the ability to film things with their phone, and report on things through digital technology).  Global Scale: how does all of this relate across the globe? Week 6: Media Policy Around the World: Globalization: is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. It can have different connotations with different people, such as people believing it imposes Western Culture on the rest of the world, which loses the rest of the cultures around the world. It works against indigenous and distinctive media content. The other side of the argument is that globalization can work toward acculturation and integrative communication. There is more of a collaborative process where media is negotiated so that there is elements from the developing country mixed with elements from the country which produces the media. Effects of Globalization:  Integrative Communication Theory (the negative argument): Exportation of Western mass media to developing countries. the introduction of Western mass media comes at the expense of developing countries' cultural traditions. Shows produced in America but go to another country does not really change the plotline, because that country cannot make the storyline their own, they can only change the lip dub to a new language. The flow of values from developed countries to developing countries. As a result, professional Western productions will overwhelm locally produced programming. An example would be the Simpson as an international cartoon. The storyline cannot really be altered.  Acculturation Theory (the positive argument): Exportation of Western mass media to developing countries. The exported Western Media can be adapted to the norms and customs of the developing countries. While the shows originated in Western Mass Media, there is more of a creative license for the show to be changed in the developing countries culture and norms. A great example is the different versions of "American Idol" in other cultures, where the storylines can be changed and include more of the local culture.  Emerging global media: innovation and acculturation. Developing countries often "personalize" their media. Similar to the acculturation theory, indigenous culture melds with western media to produce unique media product. U.S Media Regulations:  In Mass Media there is NEVER free flow of information. There are still restrictions despite the first amendment. There are supreme court cases which set the bounds.  Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - created via Communications Act of 1934. Acts as federal regulator of broadcast stations, radio operators, and broadcast news.  FCC does not regulate print media.  First Amendment Challenges:  Content regulation - regulation of media content by government authority. Regulate what is and is not produced.  Lovell v. City of Griffin 1938 - Lovell was Arrested for distributing religious material without permission from the city. It was ruled by the supreme court that this was unconstitutional. If you are on a street corner and pass out information, it is not illegal.  Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo 1974 - Florida law requiring newspapers to allow equal space to political candidates for editorials or ads. (ruled unconstitutional)  Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC 1969 - FCC law required broadcasters to present all sides of controversial issues of public importance (Fairness Doctrine). (ruled constitutional) FCC voluntarily removed doctrine in 1987. Global Media Policy Continued… Obscenity Regulations:  First Amendment protects speech in U.S. o Limited content regulation o Limited censorship o Does not allow for the free flow of media, there are some regulations o FCC regulates broadcast media - (e.g., fairness doctrine and obscenities) o U.S. Government can censor news if deemed "clear and present danger" to national security. Very high burden of proof required (NY Times v. US, 1971).  First Amendment Challenges: o Content Regulation - regulation of media content by government authority  Lovell v. City of Griffin, 1938  Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 1974  Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 1969 o Prior Restraint and Censorship - rules against certain content and government forced redaction of media content.  Near v. Minnesota, 1931 - Minnesota law gave state power to handout injunctions against media publishing malicious, scandalous, or defamatory comments. Local newspaper had investigative stories about the police force, and used "offensive language" (ruled unconstitutional, the newspaper was allowed to print the stories).  Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart, 1976 - can press be prevented from releasing information seen as "implicative of guilt" of a criminal defendant? (ruled unconstitutional, it could be a problem but it could be avoided by having jurors unable to see the news so they won't be influenced)  New York Times v. United States, 1971 - Nixon claimed executive authority for force the New York Times to suspend publication of classified information (the "Pentagon Papers"). (Ruled NO "clear and present danger" from publishing materials.) o Defamation - the action of damaging the good reputation of someone; slander and libel. Can result in civil (not criminal) punishments.  New York Times v. Sullivan, 1964 - Established "actual malice" standard. You have to show that the information used to defame was false, but if there was a reasonable suspicion that the information is false, then it can be considered as such.  Gertz v. Robert Welch, inc. 1974 - states are free to establish standards of liability for defamatory statements.  Texas Beef Group v. Winfrey, 1997 - Oprah Winfrey was sued for a show she did about beef health risks.  Obscenity: o FCC regulates broadcast stations and policies (public airwaves) against obscenity. o FCC v. Pacifica Foundation 1978 - defines the 7 dirty words you can't say on TV and established decency regulation, from 6am to 10 pm. o Unintentional or fleeting obscenities:  2004 Superbowl - most watched, recorded, and replayed television moment in TIVO history, FCC fined CBS recorded $550,000. Appealed and ruling reversed.  FCC fleeting expletives regulations ruled unconstitutional, they cannot hold the live tv stations accountable for something they cannot control.  Media Regulations Around the World: o Free speech of the press worldwide o 2006 Thai coup d'etat against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The leaders of Thailand's military coup closed more than 300 community radio stations. They monitored all the media other than that. They dissolved Thailand's 1997 constitution, which guaranteed press freedom. They cancelled radio stations and news on TV which expressed people's opinions on the issues around them.


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