Notes before the first midterm
Notes before the first midterm LING 320
Popular in Language in Culture and Society
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
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Date Created: 02/21/16
LING 320 01/19/2016 ▯ Language in al around us. ▯ Cognition ▯ Evaluation ▯ Teaching ▯ Governing ▯ Documenting ▯ ▯ Languages can be studied in many different ways, but there are 4 major approaches to study language though scientific methods (based on analytical data). ▯ -Formal Linguistic ▯ Chomsky’s theories ▯ Linguistic competence vs. linguistic performance ▯ Emphasize linguistic competence(internal knowledge about language when one knows languages) ▯ -Variationist Sociolinguistics ▯ William Labov is often regarded as the founder ▯ Research done with quantitative analyzing methods. ▯ -Conversation Analysis ▯ focus on the fluent exchange of utterances in a turn-taking, not ▯ interested in the social context when the conversation takes place. ▯ -Ethnography of speaking/Linguistic Anthropology ▯ socialization: how speakers are socialized to speak a certain language. ▯ power: language is used to establish power relationship ▯ identity: language used to construct aspects of identity. ▯ ▯ The ethnolinguistic perspective ▯ -historical change of the behavior of speakers ▯ -parole vs. langue ▯ -competence vs. performance ▯ ▯ discourse analysis ▯ analyze languages used in different mediums ▯ as study of language use within its natural context. It’s practiced in many academic departments. ▯ ▯ ▯ Language and culture ▯ Culture informs language vs. language informs culture ▯ Language depends on culture or culture is shaped by language. ▯ ▯ -How do we use language to construct the sociocultural identity (belonging to a particular group of people)? ▯ -How does language use word or silence to control situations? ▯ -How people react to different accents and ways of speaking? ▯ how German sounds like a angry language./ Southern accents sound like red necks ▯ -How does language vary according to social space (physical or virtual position where people interact) ▯ people sound different in different situation. ▯ Cultural relativism Anthropology is inherently comparative. There are many different ways to be human. Every culture exists illustrate what it means to be human. However, we believe all cultures are equal. We can learn to understand these different system. - the different preferences of skin tones between eastern Asia and Western world. Linguistic anthropologists believe that all languages are equal. Linguistic relativism Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: language shapes the ways we talk, which shapes our thoughts, thus, language shapes our worldview. -language determines/influence thoughts. Most linguists acknowledge language influence thought. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ language contact ▯ When two or more language interact with each other. ▯ Bilingualism/multilingualism, ▯ Language obsolescence: language abandoned when learning a new language. ▯ ▯ Language socialization ▯ Appropriate use of language through social interaction ▯ Learn to engage in social interaction via language ▯ What language to use in what environment and with what people. ▯ ▯ Translation: meaning transferring between two languages ▯ Hermeneutics: like explaining ancient language by modern language. ▯ ▯ The interaction between language and culture ▯ Franz Boas: founder of American anthropology. ▯ Yupik(inuit):large number of distinct words for such thing as snow. ▯ -isolating language: like English, separate ideas are put into separate words. ▯ -agglutinating language: Yupik, several ideas are put together into one words. ▯ -misquoted that Yupik has hundred of words for snow, it has only a dozen. ▯ ▯ Cultural emphasis: language encodes specific ideas and concepts that are significant aspects of a specific culture. ▯ ▯ Organizing the world around us: ▯ A mental map that demonstrate the relationship of things around them. ▯ People have different ways to organize things ▯ Tomato? Fruit or vegetable? ▯ ▯ Ethnosemantics ▯ The way that the semantic meaning of words people with different culture tend to interpret. ▯ -Taxonomy: classification, tree like diagram, hierarchical ▯ -Componential analysis；features of a language for people to classify things. ▯ ▯ Feature analysis ▯ ▯ Prototype theory ▯ Meanings as being related to cognitive categorization. ▯ Some members of the category is more central, some of them are less so. ▯ Linguistic relativity ▯ Language shapes people’s view of the world. ▯ -Difficulty to translate and adopt to a language with different cultural background. ▯ -language is arbitrary, hard to predict that how people classify the world. ▯ ▯ Cross-language color naming: Paul Kay ▯ Confirming and disproving Sapir Whorf Hypothesis. ▯ -Grue is use for both green and blue, language speakers who use grue are able to distinguish the grue of grass and the grue of sky, but used to regard both as grue. ▯ -English has seven color terms but it can also just divide the spectrum by warm color and cool color. ▯ ▯ Linguistic rule are arbitrary. ▯ -language are not planned or chosen for a particular reason. But it doesn’t mean a language is being like itself is random. It has historical reasons. ▯ Hopi verb tense Not like English, having past, present and future tense. But in Hopi, it has Objective sense: things in existence in recent past and present and Subjective tense: remote past, future thoughts, wishes, mental thinking. Language and thoughts Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Strong form: language determines the ability to think and interpret. Weak form: language influence thought. Weak form is more preferred. -language has ambiguity in word and sentences. -loan words to fill semantical gap. ▯ Sounds of Language ▯ - A single linguistic course can’t teach you to hear and pronounce every sound produced in every language. ▯ - there are so many sounds and takes so long time to learn them all. ▯ ▯ Phonetics ▯ - Articulatory: sounds production ▯ - Acoustic: physical properties of sound waves ▯ - Auditory: how sounds are perceived. ▯ In this course we will only investigate articulatory phonetics. ▯ ▯ Major Articulators ▯ Lung – Trachea – Larynx – Pharynx – Oral cavity – Nasal cavity ▯ - Soft palate (Velar) ▯ - Vocal folds; control airflow from the lungs. ▯ - Glottis: the space between the two vocal folds. ▯ ▯ Consonants: sounds in languages involve a major obstruction of the airstream. ▯ -Voicing/place of articulating/manner of articulation ▯ -voiced/voiceless ▯ -place of articulation is defined by two articulators ▯ Bilabial/Labiodental/Interdental/Alveolar/Alveolar-palatal(post- alveolar) /Palatal/Velar/Glottal ▯ -Manners of articulation ▯ Oral stop/Nasal stop/Fricative/Affricate/Approximants(central/lateral) ▯ Flap, t and d are flapped when appear between two vowels. ▯ ▯ Vowels: involved a relatively unimpeded airstream. ▯ - height(high/mid/low)/frontness(front/central/back)/rounding/tenseness (extreme tongue position) or laxness (the tongue is relaxed). ▯ ▯ ▯ Vowels: involved a relatively unimpeded airstream. ▯ - height(high/mid/low)/frontness(front/central/back)/rounding/tenseness (extreme tongue position) or laxness (the tongue is relaxed). ▯ ▯ Diphthong: combination of vowels. The tongue moves from one vowel position to another. ▯ ▯ Phonetics vs. Phonology ▯ How sounds are produced vs. how sounds pattern in systematic ways, how sounds work together. ▯ ▯ Phonetics: outsider’s perspective, how scientists are interested ▯ Phonemics: insider’s perspective, how speakers actually do ▯ ▯ Phonology ▯ Contrastive sounds differentiate the meaning of words ▯ -minimal pair is a set of words which differ by only one sound and which differentiate meaning ▯ -sounds in a language which differentiate meaning are called phonemes. ▯ ▯ Morphology Morphology Morpheme: minimal linguistic unit has a meaning of grammatical function. For morpheme/ bound morpheme A free morpheme can occur a an independent word, a bound morpheme must be attached to a word Derivational morpheme/ inflectional morpheme -Derivational morpheme not only change the meaning of the stem but also change the part of speech of the stem -Inflectional morpheme only change the meaning but remain the part of speech the same. Word formation -Compounding -Blending Ex. smoke + fog = smog -Clipping Ex. information = info -Acronyms Ex. NASA -Back formation Ex. sandwich – fish burger -Borrowing Ex. sushi ▯ Syntax ▯ There are rules for languages to build sentences or utterances. ▯ ▯ -Constituents: syntactical units made up of elements which are grammatically coherent. ▯ -movement test/substitute test ▯ ▯ Ambiguity ▯ ▯ Prescriptive rules: how people should speak ▯ Descriptive rule: how people actually speak ▯ ▯ Historical Linguistics ▯ How do we know that languages are related? ▯ Cognates: languages developed independently from a single historical source. ▯ -generally have similar phonological form and similar meanings. ▯ -sometimes it’s difficult to differentiate cognates and loan words. Like the word sushi, ▯ ▯ Goals of historical linguistics: ▯ -to determine the relationship between languages. ▯ -reconstruct proto languages ▯ ▯ protolanguages: hypothesis about the structural change and change in forms for a mother languages ▯ -how daughter languages are reconstructed. ▯ ▯ Comparative method ▯ -to determine genetic difference between languages. ▯ ▯ Steps for comparative method. ▯ ▯ Some common sound changes ▯ -Assimilation: one sound becomes more like another sound in its environment. ▯ -palatalization: alveolar and velar sounds move to the palatal place of articulation. ▯ -voicing ▯ -devoicing ▯ -metathesis: change in the order of sounds. ▯ ▯ Some people don't like changes ▯ -reflects in some beliefs, ideas and myths. ▯ ▯ ▯
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