Contemporary Issues of Biology
Contemporary Issues of Biology BIOL 10003
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Weithas on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Contemporary Issues in Biology Notes bundle (2/112/18) Emma Weithas Eating Disorders & the Digestive System (2/11) Humans are made of 2 million types of proteins → runs on energy from glucose and fats • Cellular respiration (ATP= form of chemical energy our cells use) cells need energy to perform → energy comes from ATP, made through cellular respiration → “raw materials” for energy are air and food (glucose and o^2) cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria ADP: like an uncharged battery, charge molecules through cellular respiration to make ATP again •Food Molecules carbohydrates: chains or individual simple sugar units → 2 glucose molecules make a disaccharide (and secretes water), is a simple carb (sugar), polysaccharide (many in a chain aka starch), humans can’t break down cellulose (plant fibers), glycogen is a complex carb proteins: amino acid chains → peptide bond: what bonds amino acids, secretes water fats: glycerol bonded to three fatty acids → fatty acid, always 3 (triglyceride) secretes water • Digestive Process food needs to be broken to simpler molecules, needs glucose for cellular respiration order of food digestion= mouth, esophagus, stomach(gastric glands), small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus *ase= enzyme →salivary glands: amylase →gastric glands: HCL and pepsin →pancreas: amylase, trypsin, lipase →liver: bile →small intestine: maltase and peptidase digesting starch: amylase (salivary glands) in mouth, no digestion in stomach, pancreas converts starch to maltose, small intestine absorbs glucose to circulate though the body digestion of fat: none in mouth or stomach, all in the small intestine and liver with lipase and bile digestion of protein: in stomach • Getting food to the cells Small intestine has folds intended to absorb and move small food molecules to the circulatory system Capillaries: exchange of food molecules going into and out of the circulatory system why do we need amino acids? to make more proteins • Anorexia and Bulimia 90% of cases are in women and affect 10 million americans anorexia: self starvation bulimia: episodes of binge eating and inappropriate ridding of food (vomiting/ laxatives) →results in premature death and interferes with food molecules getting to circulatory system → can result in premature death causes: social pressures, inherited genetic disorders or personality traits • Review Questions: 1. How do stomach enzymes that digest protein damage the stomach (leads to an ulcer) acid is in the stomach to digest protein, if not enough mucus lining in the stomach it will digest its own stomach 2. Orlistat is a drug that blocks the enzymatic breakdown of fat by bile, how does it work? you lose weight because the small intestine doesn't soak up and store fat, side effects are anal leakage though 3. How does someone die from anorexia? Their heart is too weak to pump blood to the body (needs ATP energy from food) Circulatory System and Heart Disease (2/16) • The Heart Functions: pump blood to lungs, rid carbon dioxide, pump blood to organs and cells (supply nutrients and pick up waste) →blood is mostly water Four chambers of the heart: Right atrium Left Atrium Right Ventricle Left Ventricle Cardiac cycle: steps of how your heart beats →1. atria contract, 2. ventricle contracts, 3. rest → SA node aka pacemaker: makes an electrical charge starting at top (atria) spreading to bottom (ventricle) → AV node: pause between atria and ventricle ECG (heartbeat on monitor) the first bump: atria firing, second bump is ventricles firing it is bigger because he has to push it out of the heart • Diet and Clogged Arteries arteries: carry blood away from the heart, stronger veins: carry blood to the heart →oxygenated blood is red, deoxygenated blood is dark red (not blue) • Diet and Heart Disease: intake of saturated fats leads to increase LDL:HDL ratio (LDL is bad cholesterol, HDL is good cholesterol) leads to increased deposition of cholesterol in arteries of the heart, leads to blockage of arteries and death of heart muscle slow process, plaque builds up and embeds itself into artery walls, if it rips off the body tries to clot forming a blood clot and blocking blood from traveling through the artery coronary bypass: combats a clot in an artery, grafted veins working (above or around) the blocked blood vessels Mediterranean diet: high exercise and olive oil (unsaturated fats) perhaps its why they have less recorded heart disease cases → Lyon Diet Heart Disease Study 1994: much reduced risk of 2nd heart attack , little red meat and unsaturated fats blood clots blocking arteries triggers the most heart attacks • Blood Pressure systolic: measured as ventricles contract (max, 1st number) diastolic: measures as ventricles rest (min, 2nd number) →normal is around (120/80) high is (140/90220/80) need enough pressure to circulate but not too much to make the arteries rigid( where it’s easier for plaque buildup) →could result in heart attack or stroke • Review Questions 1. Why would a person die of a stroke? blood clot blocks flow and brain cells die 2. Why is blood pressure higher in the south? Is it dangerous to the heart? bad diet, eat a lot of saturated fats, high bp which leads to artery damage which leads to deposition of cholesterol in arteries which leads to heart disease and stroke 3. Statins (drug) lower/block cholesterol, how does it help you? not as much bad cholesterol, so it is less likely to build up plaque, drugs are more effective than just diet and exercise because it’s usually genetic and because of your liver not things you are consuming Alcohol and Human Health • French Paradox and moderate drinking they eat alot of saturated fats and consume wine with each meal, they have very low rates of heart disease →concludes that wine, or alcohol, in moderation counteracts bad foods for your heart, but is even more effective with a good diet, moderate drinking lowers the risk of heart diesase →one drink a day for women, maybe two for men, difference is because of different sizes and metabolism → one drink measurements; 5 ounces =wine, 1.5 ounces= liquor, 12 ounces =beer • Risks of Drinking Alcohol many deaths with drunk driving, high doses can kill you →alcohol enemas can kill you very fast with very little amounts of alcohol because it doesn’t filter through the liver Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: affects babies in early stages when mom doesn’t know she’s pregnant Jshaped curve: a graph that shows that moderate drinking is the lowest risk for heart disease then the more you drink the higher and higher the risk goes up social drinking leads to freinds= less depressed • Effects of Heavy Drinking on the Liver The liver: acts as a filter, detoxes blood, conversion of ammonia (poisonous) to urea, production of cholesterol and bile, regulates blood sugar levels *alcohol detox* →Fatty liver: most common alcoholinduced liver disease (ALD), stores fat here, can’t function, reversible with abstinence →Alcoholic Hepatitis: serious liver ALD, swelling of the liver, makes cells swell then burst, can be reversed by abstinence →Cirrhosis: scarred liver, not reversible by abstinence or anything, prevents liver from functioning, starts accumulation of liver leading to death, 1020% of heavy drinkers develop this, requires a liver transplant • Binge Drinking and College Drinkers Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks consumed on any given occasion →works your liver, more alcohol consumed than can be processes, flows through liver and poisons cells (brain cells, muscles= why bad decision making and loss of motor skills/slurred words) → If you’re 120 lbs, takes two drinks to be over the legal driving limit →can lead to hangovers, DO NOT take tylonol when hungover cause can lead to liver failure, drink lots of water instead because hangovers are from being dehydrated
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