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Contemporary Issues of Biology

by: Emma Weithas

Contemporary Issues of Biology BIOL 10003

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > BIOL 10003 > Contemporary Issues of Biology
Emma Weithas

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"These notes cover material that will be on the second test. They are typed and very clear" the course is "contemporary issues of biology" professor is "sawey", the notes type is a bundle.
Contemporary Issues in Biology
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Weithas on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Contemporary Issues in Biology Notes bundle (2/11­2/18)  Emma Weithas    Eating Disorders & the Digestive System (2/11)  ­Humans are made of 2 million types of proteins  → runs on energy from glucose and fats   • Cellular respiration (ATP= form of chemical energy our cells use)  ­cells need energy to perform  → energy comes from ATP, made through cellular respiration   → “raw materials” for energy are air and food (glucose and o^2)  ­cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria    ­ADP: like an uncharged battery, charge molecules through cellular respiration to make  ATP again  •Food Molecules  ­carbohydrates: chains or individual simple sugar units  → 2 glucose molecules make a disaccharide (and secretes water), is a simple carb  (sugar), polysaccharide (many in a chain aka starch), humans can’t break down  cellulose (plant fibers), glycogen is a complex carb  ­proteins: amino acid chains  → peptide bond: what bonds amino acids, secretes water  ­fats: glycerol bonded to three fatty acids  → fatty acid, always 3 (triglyceride) secretes water  • Digestive Process  ­food needs to be broken to simpler molecules, needs glucose for cellular respiration  ­order of food digestion= mouth, esophagus, stomach(gastric glands), small intestine,  large intestine, rectum, anus  *­ase= enzyme  →salivary glands: amylase  →gastric glands: HCL and pepsin  →pancreas: amylase, trypsin, lipase  →liver: bile  →small intestine: maltase and peptidase  ­digesting starch: amylase (salivary glands) in mouth, no digestion in stomach,  pancreas converts starch to maltose, small intestine absorbs glucose to circulate though  the body  ­digestion of fat: none in mouth or stomach, all in the small intestine and liver with lipase  and bile  ­digestion of protein: in stomach  • Getting food to the cells  ­Small intestine has folds intended to absorb and move small food molecules to the  circulatory system  ­Capillaries: exchange of food molecules going into and out of the circulatory system  ­why do we need amino acids? to make more proteins  • Anorexia and Bulimia  ­90% of cases are in women and affect 10 million americans  ­anorexia: self starvation  ­bulimia: episodes of binge eating and inappropriate ridding of food (vomiting/ laxatives)    →results in premature death and interferes with food molecules getting to circulatory  system  → can result in premature death  ­causes: social pressures, inherited genetic disorders or personality traits   • Review Questions:   1. How do stomach enzymes that digest protein damage the stomach (leads to an  ulcer)  ­ acid is in the stomach to digest protein, if not enough mucus lining in the stomach  it will digest its own stomach       2.  Orlistat is a drug that blocks the enzymatic breakdown of fat by bile, how does it  work?  ­ you lose weight because the small intestine doesn't soak up and store fat, side  effects are anal leakage though        3. How does someone die from anorexia?  ­ Their heart is too weak to pump blood to the body (needs ATP energy from food)      Circulatory System and Heart Disease (2/16)  • The Heart  ­Functions: pump blood to lungs, rid carbon dioxide, pump blood to organs and cells  (supply nutrients and pick up waste)  →blood is mostly water  ­ Four chambers of the heart: Right atrium        Left Atrium      Right Ventricle    Left Ventricle  ­Cardiac cycle: steps of how your heart beats  →1. atria contract, 2. ventricle contracts, 3. rest  → SA node aka pacemaker: makes an electrical charge starting at top (atria) spreading  to bottom (ventricle)  → AV node: pause between atria and ventricle  ­ECG (heartbeat on monitor) the first bump: atria firing, second bump is ventricles firing  it is bigger because he has to push it out of the heart   • Diet and Clogged Arteries   ­arteries: carry blood away from the heart, stronger  ­veins: carry blood to the heart  →oxygenated blood is red, de­oxygenated blood is dark red (not blue)  • Diet and Heart Disease: intake of saturated fats leads to increase LDL:HDL ratio (LDL  is bad cholesterol, HDL is good cholesterol) leads to increased deposition of cholesterol  in arteries of the heart, leads to blockage of arteries and death of heart muscle  ­slow process, plaque builds up and embeds itself into artery walls, if it rips off the body  tries to clot forming a blood clot and blocking blood from traveling through the artery  ­coronary bypass: combats a clot in an artery, grafted veins working (above or around)  the blocked blood vessels   ­Mediterranean diet: high exercise and olive oil (unsaturated fats) perhaps its why they  have less recorded heart disease cases   → Lyon Diet Heart Disease Study 1994: much reduced risk of 2nd heart attack , little  red meat and unsaturated fats  ­blood clots blocking arteries triggers the most heart attacks   • Blood Pressure  ­systolic: measured as ventricles contract (max, 1st number)  ­diastolic: measures as ventricles rest (min, 2nd number)  →normal is around (120/80) high is (140/90­220/80)  ­need enough pressure to circulate but not too much to make the arteries rigid( where  it’s easier for plaque buildup)  →could result in heart attack or stroke   • Review Questions   1. Why would a person die of a stroke?  ­ blood clot blocks flow and brain cells die  2. Why is blood pressure higher in the south? Is it dangerous to the heart?  ­bad diet, eat a lot of saturated fats, high bp which leads to artery damage which leads  to deposition of cholesterol in arteries which leads to heart disease and stroke  3. Statins (drug) lower/block cholesterol, how does it help you?   ­ not as much bad cholesterol, so it is less likely to build up plaque, drugs are more  effective than just diet and exercise because it’s usually genetic and because of  your liver not things you are consuming       Alcohol and Human Health   • French Paradox and moderate drinking   ­ they eat alot of saturated fats and consume wine with each meal, they have very low  rates of heart disease   →concludes that wine, or alcohol, in moderation counteracts bad foods for your heart,  but is even more effective with a good diet, moderate drinking lowers the risk of heart  diesase  →one drink a day for women, maybe two for men, difference is because of different  sizes and metabolism  → one drink measurements; 5 ounces =wine, 1.5 ounces= liquor, 12 ounces =beer  • Risks of Drinking Alcohol  ­many deaths with drunk driving, high doses can kill you  →alcohol enemas can kill you very fast with very little amounts of alcohol because it  doesn’t filter through the liver  ­Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: affects babies in early stages when mom doesn’t know she’s  pregnant   ­J­shaped curve: a graph that shows that moderate drinking is the lowest risk for heart  disease then the more you drink the higher and higher the risk goes up   ­social drinking leads to freinds= less depressed  • Effects of Heavy Drinking on the Liver  ­The liver: acts as a filter, detoxes blood, conversion of ammonia (poisonous)  to urea,  production of cholesterol and bile, regulates blood sugar levels *alcohol detox*  →Fatty liver: most common alcohol­induced liver disease (ALD), stores fat here, can’t  function, reversible with abstinence   →Alcoholic Hepatitis: serious liver ALD, swelling of the liver, makes cells swell then  burst, can be reversed by abstinence  →Cirrhosis: scarred liver, not reversible by abstinence or anything, prevents liver from  functioning, starts accumulation of liver leading to death, 10­20% of heavy drinkers  develop this, requires a liver transplant  • Binge Drinking and College Drinkers  ­Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks consumed on any given occasion   →works your liver, more alcohol consumed than can be processes, flows through liver  and poisons cells (brain cells, muscles= why bad decision making and loss of motor  skills/slurred words)  → If you’re 120 lbs, takes two drinks to be over the legal driving limit  →can lead to hangovers, DO NOT take tylonol when hungover cause can lead to liver  failure, drink lots of water instead because hangovers are from being dehydrated            


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