Chapters 2 & 3
Chapters 2 & 3 04:189:101
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Chapter 2: Communication Past and Present ANCIENT ROOTS OF COMMUNICATION STUDY Concern about communication and its role in human affairs was expressed prior to the 5 century BCE, in classical Babylonian and Egyptian writings and in Homer’s Iliad. Explained human behavior, starting with systematic theory development in communication can be traced to the Greeks Rhetoric and Speech First Theory of Communication o Developed in Greece by Corax o Later refined by his student Tisias o Message organization: suggesting that a message should have 3 parts corresponding to contemporary concepts of introduction, body, and conclusion Sophists – group of itinerant teachers in Athens in the 5 century BCE who set up small schools and charged their pupils for tutoring o Protagoras of Abdera (490-420 BCE) Taught concepts that are embodied in the modern idea of debate A good speaker should be able to argue both sides of a proposition o Gorgias of Leotini (485-380 BCE) One of the first to advocate the use of emotional appeals in persuasive speeches Style, Appropriate figures of speech o Isocrates (436-338 BCE) Wrote speeches for others to deliver and was very influential in his time Known for his belief that an orator should be trained in the liberal arts and should be a good person o Cicero (106-43 BCE) Developed rhetorical theories Communication = academic and practical Included all of what is now considered the domain of social sciences Believed a successful speaker was a knowledgeable person o Quintilian (35-100 CE) Educator, Synthesizer Guidelines demonstrate how a good communicator should be educated Origins of Communications Theory: Early Greece Plato (428-347 BCE) Aristotle (384-322 BCE) o Communications = the means through which citizens participated in democracy. An orator or speaker constructing an argument to be presented in a speech to hearers. o Speaker’s goal was to inspire a positive image of himself or herself and to encourage the members of the audience to be receptive to the message. o Primarily a verbal activity through which speakers tried to persuade-to achieve their own purposes with a listener through skillful construction of an argument and delivery of a speech Augustine (354-430 BCE) o His work led to a rediscovery of classical Greek theory o United the practical and theoretical aspects of communication study 17 -19 THCENTURIES Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) o Speechmaking and writing that was designed for more practical purposes in his theories o Proposed an ethical basis for communication and argued that the function of true rhetoric was the furtherance of good o His ideas had a MAJOR influence on later writers George Campbell (1719-1796) o Scottish philosopher and professor of divinity o Wrote on the philosophical aspects of rhetoric o Maintained that rhetoric has 4 purposes To enlighten To please the imagination To move the passions To influence the will Hugh Blair (Scottish writer) o Proposed theories that could be applied either to writing or speaker o Book: Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres – a guide to composition and was very influential at the time National Association of Elocutionists (1892) o A powerful force at the time, produced a very stylized mode of delivery that included vocal manipulation and physical gestures End of 19 century: most colleges/universities were organized into departments o Rhetoric and speech were often taught within departments of English JOURNALISM Began about 3,700 years ago Egypt, when a record of the events of the time transcribed on the tomb of an Egyptian king. Years later, Julius Caesar (100-4 BCE) had an official record of the news of the day posted in a public place and copies of it were made and sold Early newspapers: a mixture of newsletters, ballads, proclamations, political tracts, and pamphlets describing various events o Forms of public communication st 1 paper published in the U.S.: Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick (1690) 2nd published newspaper: The Boston News-letter (1704) TH EARLY 20 CENTURY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND JOURNALISM Speech emerged as a discipline in its own right Practice of journalism Radio and television THE 1940s-1960s: INTERDISCIPLINARITY Scholars from the various behavioral and social science disciplines began to develop theories of communication which extended beyond the boundaries of their own fields National Society for the Study of Communication (now the International Communication Association) was established o Goal: bringing greater unity to the study of communication by exploring the relationships among speech, language, and media Lasswell’s View of Communication Harold Lasswell (1902-1978) An act of communication could best be explained by the answers to these questions: o Who o Says What o In Which Context o To Whom o With What Effect One-way process Shannon and Weaver’s Model Claude Shannon (1916-2001) and Warren Weaver (1894-1978) "Communication include(s) all the procedures by which one mind may affect another. This, of course, involves not only written and oral speech, but also music, the pictorial arts, the theatre, the ballet, and in fact all human behavior. One-way process Katz and Lazarsfeld’s Model Political scientists: Elihu Katz (1926-?) and Paul Lazarsfeld (1901-1976) Was based on earlier research in which they found that information presented in the mass media did not reach and have an impact on individuals as previous views of communication seemed to suggest it would. o Found that political radio and print messages had a negligible effect on individual’s voting decisions Westley and MacLean’s Model Bruce Westley (1915-1990) and Malcolm S. Maclean Jr. (1913-2001) Communication process begins with receiving messages rather than sending them o Starts with a series of signals or potential messages Signals may involve a single sense modality such as sight or sound (X) Many signals (Xs) in one’s environment at any point in time are attended to by an individual (A) When individual A processes these signals and interprets them, what is, in effect, a new message (X^1) results It is this new message-A’s personal representation of the sum of all the Xs-that is passed along when individual A describes what he or she saw or heard to a second individual (C). THE 1970s-1980s: GROWTH AND SPECIALIZATION Increasingly becoming popular/Topics of interest o Interpersonal communication o Study of nonverbal interaction o Information science o Information theory o Information and communication systems Single term to refer to a field of study, a set of activities and a profession Confusion: the use of communication and communications o Began to be used interchangeably with communication in popular-and sometimes academic THE LATE 1980’s-2000: THE INFORMATION AGE Information as a Commodity Interest in information communicated via messages as an economic good or commodity-something that can be bought and sold-and in the technologies by which this commodity is created, distributed, stored, retrieved, and used Largest businesses Became central in: telecommunication, publishing, Internet, computer industries, banking, insurance, leisure and travel, research Converging Media Media were brought together to form hybrid technologies that permitted communication sources and receivers to carry out function that were once difficult, time consuming, or even impossible ST THE 21 CENTURY: COMMUNICATION STUDY TODAY Ancient and Newly Emergent Origins: early Greek philosophers 1990s: changes to the discipline, including a new name last 50 years: broadened, change in structure, facets grown substantially communication can be viewed as a newly emergent field, the newest of the disciples concerned with the study of human behavior Discipline and Interdisciplinary Link Communication in the present period is a strong discipline in its own right At the same time, interest in communication extends well beyond the boundaries of the communication field Personal and Professional Applicability The importance attached to communication in contemporary life can also be seen in the extent to which the phenomenon is regarded as essential to our personal as well as our occupation roles Importance of communication for: individual leaders, team collaboration, organizational effectiveness, and marketplace competitiveness, etc. Old and New Technology Speaking and listening are as basic to communication and human behavior at the early years of a new millennium as they were at the time of the ancient Greeks. Possibilities for new forms of communication are quite remarkable Problem and Solution Communication = problem & solution Communication is seen as both a chasm and a bridge o The significance afforded to the phenomenon in our time is quite remarkable, and a factor that contributes to the vitality and importance of communication study and communication practice Practical Skill and Fundamental Life Process Primary emphasis on communication: as a skill, or on the set techniques associated with creating and disseminating messages orally or in written form, in face-to-face or technologically mediated settings Communication theoretically – viewing it as a fundamental life process, one that is basic to our physical, personal, social, political, and cultural existence Useful tension for the field – a tension between the search for practical technique and the quest for theoretical understanding. o Each makes a useful and complementary contribution to the field in its effort to advance human knowledge and capability THE EVOLUTION OF THEORY Most fundamental of the traditional themes: the view that communication consists of a source constructing and transmitting a message to one or more receivers in order to bring about a particular effect. o One-way event consisting of a one-way transfer of information from source to receiver Paradigms – broad theoretical orientations that guide work of scholars in a field over a substantial period of time MS(message sent) ≠ MR (message received) S M R = E Paradigm Source = Message ReceiverEffect Communication Theory Today The evolution of the concept of communication has been: o From source-and message-centered to receiver-and meaning- centered o From one-way to interactive and transactional o From event-to process oriented o From an exclusive emphasis on information transmission to an emphasis on interpretation and relationships, as well as information transmission o From public speaking to a framework that takes account of relationships, families, groups, organizations, societies, andl, media CONCLUSION We have seen that the communication field is both ancient as well as a product of the 20 century, interdisciplinary in heritage, the home of scholars and professionals, a discipline which benefits from the approaches of both the humanities and behavioral sciences, and an area in which media are of continuing concern. Chapter 3: Communication As A Basic Life Process BEYOND SMR = E: THE ADAPTATION PERSPECTIVE Envisions communication more broadly as the process whereby humans and animals process messages in order to adapt-to cope with and shape the demands and challenges of life. It is the process through which living beings create, transform, and use information in order to relate to their environment and one another In a systems view, communication is recognized to be multidimensional, multidirectional, and extremely complex-involving messages which are created and transmitted and others that are not. Intended Messages Individuals Individuals Effects Effects Unintended Messages COMMUNICATION PROCESSES IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS All animals and humans are open systems o Participate in continual give-and-take transactions with their environment Create, gather, and use information to interact with and adapt to their environment and its inhabitants Communication is the essential life process through which animals and humans crate, acquire, transform, and use information to carry out the activities of their lives COMMUNICATION MODES Both purposeful and nonpurposeful cues are vital as potential sources of the information that shapes behavior Visual Messages Visual messages are particularly important – can hold great significance for us when they are noticed and attended to o Same case for animals Sight important to humans and some animals but not for all – some generally it’s not as crucial as other communication modes Tactile Messages Touch Bumping Vibration Physical contact plays a critical role in the biological and social development of human infants, and young of other species Remain crucial throughout the lives of many animals, in parent-young relations, courtship, and intimate relations, social greetings, play, and aggression and combat. These cues also play a vital role in self-defense and self-preservation Olfactory and Gustatory Messages Pheromones: technical term used to refer to these chemical messages o Carried through water or air Auditory Messages Provide critical links to the environment and to one another Inanimate sources o Thunder, earthquake, surf splashing against the shore Produced by living things o Speaking, whistling, honking a horn, drumming, striking a part of the body against an object, the ground, another part of the body In order for them to be useful, the vibrations must be detected, received, and processed by means of a special organ which converts the data into electrical impulses that can be interpreted by the brain Important in the lives of a wide range of species BASIC LIFE FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATIONS The significance of communication and the various information- processing modes is clearest when one considers some of the basic life functions they serve Courtship and Mating Differences for each species Individuals must attract and sometimes persuade one another, and the mating activity must be synchronized Other species: human courtship involves the identification and attraction of mates o Human courtship and mating involve persuasion and negotiation Reproduction Offspring of any species, as they reach adulthood, bear a strong physical resemblance to their parents o Physically, structurally, in general appearance, number of behavioral patterns, young of any species Biological communication process o DNA: located within the cells, the molecular basis of heredity Union of two cells, all the information needed for the continuity of the species is transmitted in what is undoubtedly life’s most fundamental communication process Parent-Offspring Relations and Socialization Children’s survival depends on relations with adults Social animals: extended contact between parent and young is required Zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) o First to study the processes by which birds and other animals learn or imprint their identity in early social interaction Navigation The purposeful movement of an animal through space, from one location to another o Goal directed movement of this kind is necessary for nearly all of life’s activities including mating, food location, and self-defense o Sound, sight, odor, temperature, etc. must be used o Information must also be processed to determine present location and also to guide movement in a desired direction Most elaborate navigation process: Used by Social bees in locating and securing food o Nobel Prize recipient Karl von Frisch (1886-1982) Found that when a worker bee locates a desirable food source, it announces the find to other bees in the hive by a dance Essential for humans o Each must analyze an immense quantity of information in order to arrive safely at the intended destination Self-Defense Communication plays an important role in the processes through which living systems identify and respond to potential threats to their safety and well-being Stress response: hormonal and muscular systems are activated, readying the animal for maximum physical output o The outlet for this stress energy (act of fighting/retreating) is often the basis for information used by other animals Humans – the natural fight-or-flight response is often constrained or channeled into other culturally sanctioned actions o Communication = central role Territoriality The establishment and maintenance of a home or territory is another activity in which communication is essential o Humans and the most other animals become attached to particular places Also play an important role in the lives of social insects Mobile or transitory territories Humans maintain personal space Humans use communication to mark their territories in more permanent ways o The use of fences as territorial boundary markers is an interesting human invention to accomplish this goal THE COMMUNICATION ICEBERG The Visibility and Invisibility of Human Communication Aspects of the process that can be easily observed are really only the tip of the communication iceberg Most of the operations/functions that are necessary to make the communication process “work” are invisible to the untrained eye People Observa ble Symbols Technology Meaning Learning Subjectivity Largely NegotiatioCulture InteractinLevels and Contexts Unobservabl e Self-referenceSelf-reflexivitythics Inevitabili ty VISIBLE ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION People: Individuals functioning as message senders and/or receivers Symbols: Characters, letters, numbers, words, objects, people, or actions that stand for or represent something besides themselves Language: a set of characters, or elements, and rules for their use in relation to one another o Code and transmit messages from one point to another using one or more communication modes Auditory mode – oral, spoken, acoustically coded languages Visual – written, light-utilizing languages o Based on arbitrary symbolization Represent things to ideas about things Most cases there is no direct or obvious connection between the symbol and the referent (the thing the symbol stands for) Fundamental illustration of symbolic language: monetary system Permanence and Portability Through technology use, symbols can have permanence and significance from the situation in which they were originally used Because of technology, human communication also has the capacity for “portability”-for bridging space INVISIBLE ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION Meaning We invent symbols. In order to to use them in communication, we also have to invent their meanings and the responses we make to them Learning Analytical reflection will remind us of the underlying complexity of human communication To the extent of us learning them and are able to use them appropriately Subjectivity Symbols will not necessarily mean the same things to all of us We relate to messages in a particular way as a product of our experiences The subjective aspect of human communication extends to all types of symbols-words, art, money, flags, and so on A recognition that much of communication is subjective and personal has led to the observation that the amazing thing about human communication is not that it sometimes seems to fail but, rather, that it ever seems to succeed Negotiation Reconcile our meanings with those of others Individuals adjusting and readjusting the messages they send and the interpretations they attach to the messages of others, in an effort to make sense of, cope with, and adapt to the demands and opportunities that present themselves Culture We are influenced through our participation in groups, organizations, as members of society Establish a commonness of cultural experience with other people through social communication. Our symbols and meanings become shared and standardized (intersubjectified) and take on an objective quality Through human communication, we create a common culture and a shared view of reality and come to be able to understand one another- to coordinate the meanings for the symbols we use Interacting Contexts and Levels Interplay among all levels Human communication is the web that unites and gives mutuality to the various forms and levels of human activity Self-Reference The meanings we learn to attach to the symbols we use-and the symbols others use-always reflect our own experiences As a result, the things we say and do and the way we interpret others’ words and actions are a reflection of-and statement about-our meanings, experiences, needs, and expectations. It is in this sense that human communication is self-referencing and autobiographical: What we see in and say about other people, messages, and events in the environment always says as much about us as it does about them Self-Reflexivity The human capacity which allows individuals to view themselves as “self” as a part of and apart from their environment, is the core of the communication process Because of self-reflexiveness, we are able to think about or encounters and our existence, about communication and human behavior It is our capacity for self-reflexiveness that allows us to theorize about ourselves and our experiences-to “get outside ourselves” in order to look at ourselves Ethics Deciding when or if it is acceptable to deceive others and what type of deception is acceptable is only one instance of the ethical choices we make every day as communicators Inevitability “We cannot not communicate” – Watzlawick, Beavin, Jackson We are inevitably engaged in the process of creating and processing messages during every waking moment Our verbal and nonverbal behaviors are ongoing sources of information for others We are continually and unavoidably processing messages created by the people, circumstances, and objects in our environment, and about ourselves Technical inaccuracy of concepts o Communication breakdown o Failure to communicate From differing interpretations of messages, expectations, intentions, or outcomes
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