HD 101 Notes
HD 101 Notes HD 101
Popular in Human Development Across the Lifespan
Popular in Human Development
This 146 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Olson on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HD 101 at Washington State University taught by Debra Nelson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Development Across the Lifespan in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
CHAPTER 1 : LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT ▯ ▯ 8-26-15 ▯ ▯ Lifespan Development: examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the lifespan. –womb to tomb- Growth o Physical Development o Change in characteristics o Topical areas of development Physical Cognitive Personality and Social ▯ Influences on development History graded o 9/11, great depression Age graded o Stages of ages, walking, puberty, happens to everyone at a specific time Sociocultural graded o Voting age, drinking age, determined by society Non normative graded o Unexpected life events happening early or late. Child abuse, late marriage ▯ Cultural Factors and Developmental Diversity Broad Factors o Orientation toward individualism or collectivism Finer Differences o Ethnicity o Race o Socioeconomic status o Gender ▯ ▯ 8-28-15 ▯ ▯ Key Debates in lifespan development Continuous change o Gradual Discontinuous change o Happens in stages Critical periods o Will impact life Sensitive periods o More susceptible Lifespan approach o All throughout life Particular periods approach o Specific times Nature o Natural Nurture o Raised ▯ Theoretical Perspectives Theory: broad, organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest o Describe, explain, and predict 6 major perspectives - see table 1.3 o Psychodynamic o Behavioral o Cognitive o Humanistic o Contextual o Evolutionary ▯ ▯ ▯ 8-31-15 ▯ ▯ Types of correlational studies Naturalistic observation o Observing it as it occurs o No influence Ethnography o Case Studies; surveys Small number group, usually one Psychophysiological methods o EEG, CAT, fMRI o Looks for correlations ▯ ▯ Experiment Groups o Treatment/experimental o Control group Variables ▯ ▯ Field study Capture behavior in real life settings Participants may behave more naturally ▯ Lab studies Holds events constant Enables researchers to learn more clearly how treatment affects participants ▯ Measuring developmental change Longitudinal studies o Measuring individual change over time o Risks Some may move away Things can happen to them Research can change A lot of time A lot of expense Cross sectional studies o Measuring people of different ages at same point in time o Positives More opportunities Saves time Saves money o Risks People are different Different life experiences – age differences Sequential studies o Combines the two o Textbook talks more about it ▯ ▯ The other part of the puzzle Emotional self-regulation increases during adolescence o Several strategies used for emotional regulation Change way thinking about situation Suppressing troubling emotions ▯ Emotional Difficulties in Adolescence: Depression ¼+ adolescents report feeling very sad or hopeless for two or more consecutive weeks Only small majority experience major depression Higher incidence among girls than boys Stress is more pronounced for girls due to many, sometimes conflicting, demands of traditional female gender role. ▯ Emotional Difficulties in Adolescence: Suicide Other factors in adolescent suicide o Depression o Family conflicts o History of abuse and/or neglect o Drug and alcohol abuse o Availability of guns ▯ Preventing suicide Talk Make environment safe Find help Be supportive Talk about suicidal thoughts Aging and Emotional Regulation Shift toward positive memories in late adulthood o Ability to regulate emotions often improves across the adult lifespan o Decreased functional connectivity with other brain regions involved with perceptual functions that inhibit emotional responses ▯ Successful aging secrets Three major approaches o Disengagement theory: gradual retreat Late adulthood involves a gradual withdrawal from the world on a physical, psychological, and social levels Withdrawal is a mutual process and not necessarily negative o Activity theory: continued improvement Happiness and satisfaction from high level of involvement Adaption to inevitable changes Continuing/replacing previous activities Continuity theory: compromise position o People need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well bing and self esteem o Regardless of activity level, most older adults experience positive emotion as frequently as younger individuals o Good physical and mental health is important in determining overall sense of well being ▯ Biological basis of temperament Recent approaches to temperament grow out of behavioral genetics framework o Physiological reactivity to novel stim o Clear biological basis underlying inhibition to the unfamiliar Rapid increase in heartbeat, blood pressure, pupil dilation, and high excitability of brains limbic system. o Dimension Activity level Approach withdrawal Quality of mood Distractibility Rhythmically ▯ How does temperament apply to infants Temperament o Refers to how children behave, as opposed to what they do or why they do it o Displays as differences in general disposition from birth, largely due initially to genetic factors o Tends to be fairly stable well into adolescence o Is not fixed and unchangeable and can be modified by childrearing practices Categorizing temperament Babies can be described according to one of several temperament o Easy babies 30% o Difficult babies 10% o Slow to warm up babies Generally negative mood 15% o Inconsistently categorized babies 35% ▯ Erikson: Psychosocial Development Early experiences responsible for shaping key aspects of personalities o Trust versus mistrust Trust = sense of hope and success Mistrust = sense of harsh, unfriendly world o Autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage Autonomy = sense of independence Shame and doubt = sense of self doubt and unhappiness You can ▯ CHAPTER 2 : GENETICS, PRENATAL, BIRTH ▯ ▯ Genes and Chromosomes – Blueprints for creating a person are stored and communicated in our genes, the basic units of genetic information Gametes from male and female join o Ovum and sperm Fused gametes create zygote ▯ ▯ The code of life Genes o DNA Chromosomes o Rod shaped dna portions in 23 pairs o Contain genetic blueprint for people o Replicate through mitosis 25,000 genes = 46 chromosomes = 23 chromosome pairs = one human cell o FIGURE 2.1 ▯ Baby makes 2 or 3 more Multiple births Monozygotic o One egg that splits o Identical twins Dizygotic o Two eggs o Siblings, not really twins o 2 twins married twins IDENTICAL Had kids, those kids are siblings Multiple births have increased in the last 25 years o Fertility treatments o Women are waiting longer to have children for the first time which increases the % o Some families, its just something that happens ▯ Just the right type Genotype o Homozygous o Heterozygous Alil contains different forms of the genes from both parents Phenotype o Physical things you can actually see Hair color Eye color ▯ Inherited and genetic disorders Causes o Genetics Something that runs in the family Cancers, etc. o Spontaneous mutations No reason, no genetics, nothing in environment o Environmental insult Maybe mom had contact with something Drinking Drugs Second hand smoke Specific diseases while pregnant ▯ Only genetics? The fact a disorder has genetic roots doesn’t mean that environmental factors do not also play a role Genetic factors often intertwine with environmental considerations ▯ Prenatal testing First trimester screen (blood test, ultrasound, sonographer) o Done regularly CVS embryoscopy o Go in the uterus and put a needle in and pull out some of the c….? o Not normally done unless a risk factor Amniocentesis o Not normally done unless there’s a risk factor See table 2-2 for some currently available DNA based gene tests on pg. 49 ▯ ▯ ▯ 9-2-15 ▯ MODULE 2.3 ▯ PRENATAL GROWTH AND BIRTH ▯ ▯ 3 stages of prenatal development Germinal Stages o Begins at time of inception o 2 weeks o Once the egg starts growing, its then called a blastocyst Travels to and implants in the uterus Fertilized in the philopian tubes Zygote travels in the philopian tube and down to the uterus o Characterized by methodical cell division o With division comes cell specialization Embryonic o 6 weeks long o Organism firmly secures to uterus and called an embryo Morning sickness is happening during this o Development of major organs and basic anatomy Heart is starting to beat o 3 layers that form different set of structures Ectoderm Outer Skin Hair Teeth Sense organs Brain & spinal cord Endoderm Inner Digestive system Liver Pancreas Mesoderm Middle Muscles Bones Blood Circulatory system o In this stage you get to about an inch long o Head grows rapidly About 50% of the body o Nervous system starts at 3 weeks o 5 weeks is when they can detect brain wavelengths Fetal stage o Longest 6.5 - 7 months o Formally starts when differentiation of major organs has occurred Organs are formed May not be functioning normally yet o Organism now called fetus Going to put on weight Increases in weight 20x o Characterized by rapid development ▯ Body Proportions During fetal period body proportions change dramatically At two months head represents about half of the fetus but by the time of birth its ¼ of its total size ▯ Pregnancy Probs Infertility – when you cant get pregnant after 12-15 month of trying o You can do many things Artificial insemination In vitro fertilization (IVF) Sperm from dad, egg from mom, fertilize in a dish and insert it in the mom. Surrogate mother Miscarriages: o Involuntary termination o 15-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriage Abortions: o Voluntary termination ▯ Threats to Development Teratogen o Things in environment that cause problems Critical periods, sensitive periods o Things that are bad for babies Aspirin Caffeine Smoking, first or second hand ▯ Mother’s Prenatal Influence – More women are giving birth later in life than was true just two or three decades ago. What can influence the growth health of a child: o Diet Undernourished can cause problems Should take iron supplement Cant have tuna or fish o Exercise Pregnant women should exercise o Age Its harder to get pregnant as your older o Prenatal support Young moms don’t have much social support Teenagers don’t get prenatal care because they try to hide the pregnancy o Heath Sickness in pregnancy can cause harm to the baby If mom has an STD that’s really bad for the baby Will take baby out by sea section because they don’t want baby in contact with mom’s bodily fluids o Drug Use Alcohol Tobacco ▯ ▯ 9-4-15 ▯ ▯ Optimizing the prenatal environment Avoid x rays and BC pills o Get rubella vaccination Eat well o Take prenatal vitamins Avoid alcohol use and drugs Monitor caffeine intake Avoid smoking and exposure to second hand smoke Exercise regularly ▯ Three Stages of Labor 1. Baby should come head first Head facing moms back Contractions 8-10 min, every 30 seconds Cervix needs to dilate 10 cm or 4 in End labor contraction 2-3 min and lasts 2 min 2. Baby’s head starts to move Labor 90 min average nd 2 stage ends when baby is born 3. Placenta is born Umbilical cord attached ▯ Birth Complications Preterm infants o Before 38 weeks Low birth weight o 7.5 avg. less than 5.5= low Small for gestational age Very low birth weight infants o Most vulnerable immaturity of organ system o Weigh less than 2.25 lbs. (1250 g0 ▯ CHAPTER 3 : PHYSICAL GROWTH AND CHANGE ▯ Module 3.1 Physical Growth and Change Cephalocaudal principle o Growth follows a direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body Proximodistal principle o Development proceeds from the center of the body outward Principle of hierarchical integration o Simple skills typically develop separately and independently These simple skills integrate into more complex ones later on Principle of independence of systems o Suggests that different body systems grow at different rates ▯ ▯ Physical Growth in infancy: ▯ ▯ Birth-2 years ▯ Rapid Advances Greatest increase in height and weight occurs during the first year of life, children continue to grow throughout infancy and toddlerhood o Birth at 7 lbs.; 20 in o 5 months = doubled in birth weight o Fist year child grows the most o 1 year = tripled birth weight and 30 inches o 1-2ndrowth slow down o 2 b day is 4x what birth weight was; 36 inches ▯ An interesting Head count: not all parts of a babies body grows at the same rate o at birth the head is ¼ of the whole body o during the first 2 years the rest of the body begins to catch up o at the age of 2 the babies head is 1/5 of body length o by adult hood 1/8 ▯ Rhythms and States Rhythms – repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior o Some immediately obvious (pattern of wakefulness) o Some more subtle (breathing, sucking) States – the degree of awareness to both internal and external stimulation o Major body rhythm Degree of awareness to external and internal stimulation ▯ Behavioral States in infancy: Awake: o Non alert o Fussing o Crying Transition between sleeping and waking o Drowsy o Daze o Sleep-wake transition Sleep o Active o Quiet Transitional sleep states o Active-quiet transition sleep ▯ Preschooler changes in body shape and structure ▯ 2-6 years old Bodies vary in height, weight, and shape Toddler fat burns off o Less round and chubby and more slender o Arms and legs lengthen o Head size more adult-like Internal physical changes occur o Muscles, bones, organs (ear tubes) ▯ ▯ Nutrition ▯ Slower Growth = less caloric requirements Economic factors influence averages o Cant afford certain foods Children can maintain appropriate intake of food, if provided with nutritious meals Inappropriate encouragement in increase food intake beyond an appropriate level may cause obesity ▯ ▯ ▯ 9-11-15 ▯ ▯ Middle Childhood: See how we grow! ▯ 6-11 years old – slow but steady Height and weight changes Only time in lifespan when on average girls are taller than boys o 4’11” girls o 4’9” boys Variation in heights up to 6 inches not unusual o Baby fat is pretty much gone o Some cultural differences in body shape and size ▯ Physical manifestations of puberty Happens when pituitary glands start sending signals Rapid growth Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics o Primary: obvious in terms of reproduction, (genitals) o Secondary: Facial hair, curves, voices change Changes in body composition o Curves Changes in circulatory and respiratory systems ▯ Puberty in Girls Begins earlier for girls than boys Girls start puberty around age 11 or 12 and boys begin around 13 or 14 Wide variations among individuals Influenced by environment o Diet o Home life o Stress amounts ▯ Onset of menarche – first menstrual cycle Varies in different parts of the world Begins later in poorer or developing countries o Not the right nutrition Influenced by proportion of fat to muscle in body Related to environmental stress ▯ What is a secular trend Earlier start of puberty is example of significant secular trend o Pattern of change occurring over several generations o Trends occur when physical characteristic changes over course of several generations o Result of better nutrition over centuries ▯ Physical Growth in Adulthood 18+ Physical development and maturation complete Peak of physical capabilities Primary aging: universal and irreversible changes due to genetic programming Secondary again: changes that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual factors that are not inevitable o avoidable Brain wave patterns show more mature patterns Senses are at a peak Most professional athletes at peak during early adulthood ▯ You know that you are aging when You shrink o Some up to 4” Because spine starts to curve The spine pads compress Grey and white hair, thinner hair Wrinkles ▯ The Flourishing Elderly The percentage of people over the age of 65 is projected to rise to almost 25% of the pop by the year 2050. Can you name 2 factors that contribute to this increase? ▯ Ups and downs of physical transitions Emotional reactions to physical changes depend in part on their self concepts Self image is tied closely to ones physical attribute Middle aged adults generally report no less satisfaction with their body images than younger adults ▯ Double Standard Women, especially in western cultures, suffer from the double standard for appearance Women are judged more than men Women are more likely to have cosmetic surgery/hair coloring ▯ ▯ The growing brain Fastest growing part Increase in number of interconnections among cells, which supports more complex communication between neurons, permits, rapid growth of cognitive skills Amount of protective myelin increases o Coverings on cells-axons Synaptic Pruning – if a babies experiences do not stimulate certain nerve connections, these, like unused neurons, are eliminated Plasticity – the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable. Laterization: where one function is located more in one hemisphere than another ▯ Use it or lose it Brain produces oversupply of grey matter during adolescence which is later pruned back at a rate of 1-2% per year ▯ Form and function: brain growth Neurons reposition themselves with growth becoming arranged by function o Cerebral cortex Higher order thinking or thought processes o Subcortical levels Things already fully developed at birth ▯ Gender related lateralization differences BOYS o Greater lateralization of language in left hemisphere o Higher autism incidence o -OR- o Gender predisposition to functioning differences GIRLS o Language is more evenly divided between two hemispheres o -OR- o Verbal abilities emerge earlier in girls because girls receive greater encouragement for verbal skills than boys ▯ ▯ 9/14/15 ▯ ▯ How is this related to adolescent impulse control? Prefrontal cortex provides for impulse control o Adolescence prefrontal cortex is biologically immature = ability to inhibit impulses is not fully developed Reflexes: Protective Reactions Reflexes: unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in presents of certain stimuli Grasping, blinking, etc. see chart in book ▯ Why do reflexes come and go? Reflexes disappear to increase in voluntary control over behavior that occurs as infants to become more able to control their muscles o May be that reflexes form foundation for future and more complex behaviors ▯ ▯ Milestones of motor development: 3.2 mo. Roll over 3.3 mo. Grasp rattle 5.9 mo. Sitting without support 7.2 mo. Standing while holding on 8.2 mo. Grasping with thumb and finger o Cheerios 11.5 mo. Standing alone well 12.3 mo. Walking well 14.8 mo. Building tower of two cubes 16.6 mo. Walking up steps 23.8 mo. Jumping in place ▯ Potty Wars: Opposing views Brazelton o Flexible approach advocating waiting until signs of readiness appear Rosemond o Rigid approach advocating quick and early training ▯ Early Childhood Significant Gross Motor Skills Age 3 o Able to walk up stairs alternating feet o Unable to stop or turn suddenly o Able to jump a length of 15/24 in Age 4 o Able to walk down stairs with assistance o Have some control in starting stopping and turning o Jump 24-33 in Age 5 o Able to walk down long staircase, alternating feet o Capable of starting and stopping and turning in games o Able to make a running jump of 28-36 in ▯ Middle Childhood Significant Motor Skills Development 6-12 YEARS, LOOK IN HER SLIDES ▯ Do boys and girls differ in motor skills gender differences in gross motor skills became increasingly pronounced during middle childhood o boys outperform girls o little or no difference when equal participation in exercise/activities o influenced by societal expectations ▯ Learning the world sensations – physical stimulation of the sense organs o what your body actually reads with nerves o touch perceptions – the mental process of sorting out, interpreting, analyzing, and integrating stimuli from the sense organs and brain o how your brain interoperates it o squeeze, tickle ▯ Perceptual Systems Visual perception o At birth babies see 8-14 in and it’s still really fuzzy o 3 months things are kind of clear o 6 months things are clear o like complex over simple patterns auditory perception o babies can hear in the womb o babies prefer mom/dad’s voice smell and taste o they have a high sense of taste touch o highly developed o reflexes human touch helps development infant massage ▯ Multimodal Perception: Combining Individual Sensory Inputs ▯ - considers how info that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated New area of study in infant research Some researchers argue that sensations are initially integrated with one another in the infant Others maintain that infants sensory systems are initially separate and that brain development leads to increasing integration ▯ Loss and inhibited perception Affects individuals at various stages of life. To various extents Results often lead to challenges in navigating everyday life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVPjb19ur9Y ▯ The advantage of exercise include muscle system o slower decline in energy molecules, muscle cell thickness, number of cells, etc. nervous system o slower decline in processing impulses circulatory system o cholesterol levels are helped, decreases heart attacks and strokes skeletal system o slower decline in bone minerals and calcium psychological benefits o enhanced mood o feeling of well being o reduced stress ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ legal visual impairment-blindness is visual acuity below 20/200 after correction ▯ partial sightedness - is visual acuity of less than 20/70 after correction ▯ auditory impairments – affects one to two percent of school age pop ▯ affordances – the option that a given situation or stimulus provides ▯ glaucoma – occurs when pressure in the fluid of eye increases bc it didn’t drain properly or because too much is produced ▯ presbycusis – the ability to hear high pitched high frequency sounds usually degrades first ▯ peripheral slowing hypothesis – PNS becomes less efficient with age – takes longer for info to travel ▯ generalized slowing hypothesis – processing in all parts of the NS including the brain is less efficient – slowing occurs throughout the body ▯ CHAPTER 4 : STRESS AND COPING ▯ ▯ 9-14-15 ▯ ▯ Stress and Coping ▯ Illness and Well-Being ▯ Promoting Health and Wellness ▯ ▯ What is the foundation of wellness for people of all ages?? Diet ▯ First foods Breast feeding or bottle feeding o Pros: Don’t have to buy formula The milk adjusts as the baby gets older Convenient Bonding with baby and mom o Cons: Not much o Weaning: Should be breast fed for a year Solid Foods: when and what o When should infants begin eating solid foods? 12 months? o What foods should they eat? Fruit – they like more Veggies – blah but should eat them o Foods to avoid before age of 1-2: Nuts Earlier they are introduced, the more likely to have a nut allergy Honey Infant botulism Hot dogs Processed Choking hazard Grapes Skin is bad Choking hazard ▯ Eating the right foods Obesity in preschoolers, and beyond, increasing Good nutrition important o Low in fat o High in nutritional content o Monitored iron content Development of natural preferences occurs o Picky eaters o Non picky eaters o Going to take 8-10 times to make a kid try it ▯ ▯ Healthy Eating Practices ▯ ▯ Portion Sizes ▯ Portion Size: Balanced ▯ nutrition ▯ Balanced Nutrition: ▯ Eating ▯ Eating environment: enviornment ▯ -where you’re eating effects the kid ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Malnutrition: Improper amount and balance of nutrients, produces several results ▯ Factors associated with malnutrition: o More common in developing countries o Related to poverty in the US o Fast food is cheaper ▯ Malnutrition Differences Undernutrition: o Don’t have enough of the right things Marasmus: o Deficiency in protein Kwashiorkor: o Stomach, limbs, and face swells with water Nonorganic failure to thrive: o No reason they should not be thriving ▯ ▯ Obesity Across lifespan ▯ Obesity: Weight greater than 20% for given height Childhood o 15% obese Adolescence o 20% overweight o 5% obese Adulthood o 20-30% obese obesity remains the most common nutritional concern in adolescence and adulthood LOOK AT VIDEO Greater risk of heart disease, diabetes, certain types of cancer, tube 2 diabetes, and other diseases ▯ Cost of obesity A clear link between overweight babies and overweight adults, however, has not yet been found Greater risk of heart disease, diabetes, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and other diseases Weight gains during infancy are associated with weight at age six ▯ Eating Disorders – mental health disorders Anorexia Nervosa o Can be fatal o 95% are female o late onset can happen in 30s o typical in early adolescence o 1/100 Bulimia o Binging and purging ▯ ▯ ▯ 9/18/15 Illness and well-being, threats to wellness and health ▯ Kids o Most us kids are reasonably healthy o Increasing number being treated with drugs for emotional disorders (see 4.6) o Greatest risk comes from accidents Starting in preschool because they can walk and aren’t paying attention They are curious Fearless Preschool o Majority of us preschoolers are healthy o Average preschooler has 7-10 colds and other respitory illnesses average 3-5 SIDS a III Understood killer o Definition: Sudden Infant Death : : normally put to bed and then don’t wake up, stop breathing o Cause: Not really sure o Decline: sleeping on back o Prevention: Smoking can be a problem Sleep apnea Blankets ▯ Safeguarding Environments Precautions to safeguard child’s environment – child proofing o Outlet covers o Plastic things around doorknobs o Baby gate o Car seats o Bumpers on corners ▯ Why are preschoolers accident prone? High levels of physical activity Cognition characterized by lack of judgment o I dare you Higher risk taking behavior in some children Environmental hazards (especially related to SES) o Socioeconomic status (SES)-severe poverty o Led based paint ▯ Threats to Adolescents(12-18 or 19): Substance use and abuse o Alcohol o Smoking Decreasing in general Increasing for adolescent girls Illegal drugs Misuse of drugs o Prescription drugs Their own or someone else’s o Over the counter drugs ▯ Common STIs or STDs HIV/AIDS o Most serious and fatal HPV Trichomoniasis Chlamydia Genital Herpes Gonorrhea Syphilis o Also deadly ▯ Avoiding STIs Abstinence o Best way to avoid o Oral and vaginal Sex education o Need to talk young Other ideas ▯ ▯ 9-21-15 ▯ ▯ Adulthood Health and Wellness ▯ ▯ Height and weight changes Stooping Compression of cartilage between disks Activity levels reduced – weight & general health ▯ Genetics and Long Term Diet Osteoporosis o Calcium is important- caffeine is bad ▯ Midlife Transitions Middle adulthood likely to experience fewer infections, allergies, respiratory diseases, and digestive problems Chronic diseases that are likely to appear after 40 o Arthritis o Hypertension – High blood pressure o Diabetes Type 2 especially ▯ Ongoing Sexuality Sex contributes to wellness across the lifespan Sexuality affected by age-related changes in sexual functioning o Female climacteric Transition that ends child bearing years o Menopause Menstrual cycle stops o Per menopause Before menopause Hormones change in body o Male climacteric Physical changes Prostate gland enlarges Testosterone levels decrease ▯ Risks along the lifespan ▯ Physical Disorders Common physical disorders – cold Coronary heart disease o Only thought it was for men- now its leading killer of women Cancer ▯ Psychological and mental disorders Major depression o Older and older = more of an issue Dementia o Forgetfulness o Related to prescription drugs possibly Alzheimer’s disease ▯ Alzheimer’s Disease – a step toward prevention Current treatments reduce severity of symptoms but doesn’t slow disease progress A rare gene mutation that prevents plaque from forming in brain has been identified Cognitive fitness and (FINISH IN SLIDES) ▯ Caring for people with it Make home environment secure Provide labels for everyday objects Keep clothing simple Put bathing on schedule Prevent driving Monitor telephone use Provide exercise opportunities Make time for caregiver ▯ ▯ ▯ STRESS AND COPING ▯ CAN WE HAVE LIFE WITHOUT STRESS? NO ▯ ▯ Origins of Stress Primary appraisal o Is this a positive or negative event Marriage, kids, holiday dinners Secondary appraisal o Can I handle it ▯ Events likely to produce stress Evokes negative emotions Uncontrollable or unpredictable Ambiguous or confusing Create strain on person’s capabilities ▯ Consequences of stress ▯ Stress Direct physiological events o Elevated blood pressure o Decrease in immune system functioning o Increased hormonal activity o Psychophysiological conditions Harmful Behaviors o Increased use of nicotine, alchoholand other drugs o Decreased nutrition o Decreased sleep o Increased drug use ▯ indirect health related behaviors increase delays in seeking medical care decrease in likelihood in seeking medical advice at all ▯ ▯ Coping with Stress ▯ General Guidelines find social supports redefine “threat” as “challenge” seek control over the situation use relaxation techniques maintain a healthy lifestyle that reinforces natural coping mechanism ▯ Resilience ability to withstand, overcome and thrive after adversity characteristics of resilient people o easy-going o good natured o good social and communication skills o independent ▯ ▯ PROMOTING HEALTH AND WELNESS ▯ ▯ Wellness and aging is getting sick an inevitable part of aging? Dependent on genetic predisposition, past and present environmental factors, (including economic well –being), and psychological factors. ▯ Promoting Good health ▯ To extend an active lifespan Proper diet Exercise Avoidance of obvious threats to health ▯ ▯ ▯ Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – the study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors ▯ Psychosomatic disorders - medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties ▯ Defensive coping – involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation. ▯ Hardiness – a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness ▯ Addictive drugs – drugs that build a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them ▯ Type A behavior – competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility. ▯ Type B behavior – characterized by non-competitiveness, patience, and lack of aggression ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 5 : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ▯ ▯ 5-23-15 ▯ ▯ Key Elements of Piaget’s Theory Action=knowledge Four universal, sequential stages o Sensory motor - baby o Pre operation – elementary age o Concrete operation - middle school age o Formal operations 12-17 Development = physical maturation and exposure to relevant experiences Schemes adapt and change o Schemes are ways we organize our world ▯ What basic principles underlie this cognitive growth? Principles underlie the growth in children’s schemes o Assimilation Takes info that they already have/ know and applies it to other situations. (sees a dog, 4 legs, dog. Sees another dog, 4 legs, dog) is the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking. o Accommodation May not be right, the child just assumed (4 legs = dog, but it could be a cow) takes place when child changes existing ways of thinking, understanding, or behaving in response to encounters with new stimuli or events. Earliest Stage of Cognitive growth: o Sensorimotor Period: the initial major stage of cognitive development, can be broken down into six sub stages. Scheme Invariant order stages Stages are the same Individual differences in rate Transitions include characteristics of both stages ▯ Object Permanence: When you put something over an object and the baby knows its still there Banging is a scheme used by babies to explore their world Assimilation occurs when they incorporate new objects into the scheme Accommodation occurs when the new object doesn’t fit the existing scheme ▯ ▯ Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years Preoperational Stage 2-7 years o Time of stability and change Learning Mental reasoning and use of concepts increase Not capable of operations o Use of operations at end of stage ▯ Centration What you see is what you think - a kid would say 2 nd has more The process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 9-25-15 ▯ ▯ Conservation: Learning that appearances are deceiving Conservation: the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. o Because children are unable to conserve, preschoolers cant understand that changes in dimension does not mean that other dimensions change ▯ Incomplete understanding of transformation Preoperational children o Unable to envision successive transformations o Ignore middle steps Transformation: the process in which one state is changed into another. ▯ Egocentrism Egocentric thought – thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others. o Preschoolers do not understand that others have different perspectives from their own. Egocentric thought takes two forms: the lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective and the failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from theirs. o Lies at the heart of several types of behavior during the preoperational period ▯ Intellectual Development: Piaget Cognitive development in school years and adolescence Concrete operational stage o 7 and 12 years o characterized by active and appropriate use of logic logical operations applied to concrete problems conservation problems; reversibility; time and speed, and decentering ▯ How does concrete operational thought emerge? Shift from preoperational thought to concrete operational thought does not happen overnight o Children shift back and forth between preoperational and concrete operational thinking o Once concrete operational thinking is fully engaged, children show several cognitive advances o They attain the concept of reversibility which is the notion that processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed, returning it to its original form o Because they are less egocentric, they take multiple aspects of a situation into account, an ability known as decentering ▯ Piagetian Stages Related to Youth Development Concrete operations o 6-11 years old o mastery of logic o development of rational thinking Formal operations o 11+ years o Development of abstract and hypothetical reasoning o Development of propositional logic ▯ Consequences of formal operational use Increased abstract reasoning o Questioning of parents and authority figures o More argumentative o Indecisiveness because of multiple sides of issues ▯ Early Critics Weigh In About infants o Critics dispute that cognitive development is grounded in motor activities o Piaget overlooked early sensory and perceptual systems About theory o Piaget provided impetus for research classroom reform and new theories ▯ Contemporary Critics Dispute Piaget’s critics point to recent studies that cast doubt on piaget’s view that infants are incapable of mastering the concept of object permanence until they are close to a year old o Timing and mastery of object permanence o Children’s understanding of numbers o Conservation o Cultural issues ▯ Post formal Thought Piaget underestimated the portion of the life span during which cognitive development occurs Adult predicaments are sometimes solved by relativistic thinking rather than pure logic Post formal thought acknowledges that world sometimes lacks purely right and wrong solutions so adults must draw upon prior experiences to solve problems Dialectical thinking ▯ ▯ 9-28-15 ▯ ▯ Perry and Post formal Thinking Movement from dualistic thinking o Everything is either black or white, right or wrong Understanding feasibility of holding multiple perspectives Knowledge and values are relativistic o Moving from all or nothing, black or white, into other areas ▯ Schaie’s Stages of Adult Development Acquisitive Stage o Childhood and adolescence Achieving Stage o Young adulthood o Achieving long term goals o Self centered Executive Stage & Responsible stage o Middle adult hood o Responsible stage Personal decisions individual o Executive stage Broader perspective World wide kinds of things Things outside our own personal areas o Reintegrative Stage Late adulthood Tasks that involve personal meaning Families and friends Don’t care about work force because they’re not in it ▯ Intelligence in Older people Older research studies and findings o Notion that older people become less cognitively adept initially arose from misinterpretations of research evidence o Problems Cohort effects Age groups Reaction time components As people age, reaction time is slower Resting effects Subject attrition People just move away Or if they get old enough they die ▯ ▯ Recent conclusions about nature of intelligence in older people Crystalized intelligence o Things that you remember always Ex. Her dad could remember poems from 8 grade th Fluid intelligence o What seems to come and go in memory Ex. Her dad couldn’t remember her children’s names Some abilities gradually decline; others stay relatively steady No uniform pattern of age related changes across all intellectual abilities Acquired strategies remains steady and may improve ▯ Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development Cognition result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation Children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of assistance that adult and peer partners provide. ▯ Culture and gender influences Nature of the partnership between developing children and adults and peers determined largely by cultural and societal factors o Developing cultures living in tribes Children do what adults do in day They would build fires o Societal expectations about gender play role in how children come to understand world` ▯ What is scaffolding Provides assistance or structuring provided by others Supports learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth Facilitate the completion of identified tasks Helps children think about and frame task appropriately ▯ Zone of Proximal Development Cognition increases through exposure to info that is new enough to be intriguing (LOOK AT SLIDES) ▯ Evaluating vygotsky’s contributions Vygotsky’s writings represent consistent theoretical system related to importance of social interaction in promoting cognitive development Theory consistent with growing body of multicultural and cross-cultural research and cognitive development Theory lacks insight into processing and synthesizing of individual bits of info ▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 6 : COGNITIVE GROWTH ▯ ▯ 9-30-15 ▯ ▯ Cognitive Growth: Information Processing Approaches, Memory ▯ ▯ The basics of information processing What’s information processing o Identifies the way that individuals take in, store, and use information o Involves quantitative changes in ability to organize and manipulate information o Cognitive growth characterized by an increase in sophistication, speed, and capacity in information processing o Focuses on types of mental programs used when seeking to solve problems ▯ What are the fundamental elements in information processing ▯ Encoding-storage-retrieval Encoding o Initial recording of info Storage o Info saved for future use Retrieval o Recovery of stored info ▯ Automatization The degree to which an activity requires attention o Automatic vs. controlled Auto: breathing, heart rate, blinking, digestion, hearing Controlled: breathing can be, heart rate can be, blinking can be, what you have to do o Depends on frequency If you do it a lot something that’s controlled becomes automatic. Helps with initial encounters with stimuli through easy and automatic information processes. ▯ Cognitive architecture: Three system approach ▯ ▯ Information ---------sensory store ▯ | ▯ loss of information ▯ typically within 1 second ▯ ▯ Sensory Store Initial momentary storage of info Rapid decay but highly accurate Cognitive representations of unfiltered or unevaluated stimuli; not analyzed in terms of meaning Types: visual, sound, smell, pain ▯ Short-term Memory Short duration, limited capacity memory Processes selected input from sensory store Thoughtful deliberate processing starts here so stim may be stored in terms of meaning ▯ Working Memory Short term memory capacity reviewed as set of memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse info Central executive controls functions of short term memory, coordinating the problem- solving strategies, directing attention, and selecting strategies for remembering in short term o Make a song o Repeat ▯ Long term memory Component in which information is stored on relatively permanent basis Nearly limitless capacity Functions with retrieval process o Retrieval cues Process of bringing info back to use it Stimuli that allows us to recall that info o Memory modules Different memory systems that we have in our brain 2 different types declarative memory facts and figures o names dates birthdays factual memory skills and habits o bike o driving ▯ CHAPTER 7 ▯ Sounds, first words, language development ▯ ▯ 10-5-15 ▯ ▯ From sounds to symbols Fundamentals of language o Phonology Sounds 40 Phonemes in the English Language Morphemes o Unit of a language that cant be further divided Semantics o Rules of grammar ▯ ▯ Comprehension and production ▯ Early Sounds and Communication Prelinguistic Communication – before they can speak o Babbling Universal Progression from sounds that are the simplest to make to more complex sounds Experience eventually does make a difference ▯ What comes after b aba b aba ba Progression from simple to complex Exposure to speech sounds of particular language initially do not influence babbling o At six months babbling reflects of language of culture o Distinguishable from other language babbling Combinations of sounds and gestures used to communicate ▯ First Words Increase at rapid rate o 10-14 months = first word o 15 months = 10 words o 18 months = one word stage ends o 16-24 months = language explosion goes from 50 to 400 words o culture affects type of first words spoken ▯ First sentences First sentences created around 8-12 mo. after first words Indicate understanding of labels and relationships between these Often observations rather than demands Use order that’s similar to adult speech but with missing words o This is telegraphic speech ▯ Linguistic Inaccuracies Telegraphic speech o Words not critical to message left out Underextensions o Words used to restrictively Overextensions o Words used too broadly ▯ Language Development During preschool years o Sentence length increases at steady pace o Syntax doubles each month Word, phrase, and sentence structure o Enormous leaps in number of words used through fast mapping Grouping things ▯ What is fast mapping New words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter ▯ Preschool language on the grow Use plurals and possessive forms of nouns Employ the past tense Use articles Ask and answer complex questions ▯ Extend appropriate formation of words to new words ▯ ▯ 10-7-15 ▯ ▯ Private Speech Speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves o Performs important function o Serves to try out ideas, acting as sounding board o Facilitates children’s thinking and helps them control their behavior o Serves an important social function ▯ What about practical communication ▯ Pragmatics is the aspect of language relating to communication effectively and appropriately with others helps children to understand the basics of conversations o turn talking o sticking to a topic o what should and should not be said, according to the conventions of society o use of different language in various settings ▯ Social speech ▯ Before the age of 3 Speak only for their own entertainment Apparently unaware if anyone else can understand ▯ During Preschool years Begin to direct their speech to others Want others to listen Become frustrated when they cannot make themselves understood Begin to adapt their speech to others through pragmatics ▯ Mastering the mechanics of language in middle childhood Vocab continued to increase Mastery of grammar improves Understanding of syntax grows Certain phonemes remain troublesome Decoding difficulties when dependent on intonation More competence in pragmatics Increase in meta-linguistic awareness ▯ Metalinguistic Awareness One of most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language o Age 5-6 Understand language is governed by set of rules o By age 7-8 Realize that miscommunication may be due to factors attributable not only to themselves, but to the person communicating with them ▯ Language acquisition: 3 views Learning theory approach o Language is a learned skill Language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning Through the process of shaping, language becomes more and more similar to adult speech Nativist approach o Language as an Innate skill We are born with this capacity Genetically determined Innate mechanism that directs the development of language Children are born wi
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