AN 1103: Highlighted Notes 2
AN 1103: Highlighted Notes 2 AN 1103
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Bryanna Lamm on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Technical Information Species Concept ● A problem in interpreting the fossil record is the concept of species. ● Extant (living) forms, species defined as populations thanterbreedo produce viable offspring that can reproduce. ● Extinct forms, species is based on morphology (use of appearance) Two acceptable ways to write genus and species: ● Genus species ● Genus species Dental Formula ● A shorthand to show the number and types of teeth. Represents half of one jaw, or both jaws with two sets of numbers. ○ Incisors (2) ○ Canines (1) ○ Premolars (2) ○ Molars (3) ● Humans dental formula of 2123 ● Generalized placental mammal dental formula is 3134 ● Primates have less teeth; there is a trend for tooth reduction ● Knowing the dental formula helps classify primates and primate fossils ● New World Monkeys 2133 ● Old World Monkeys 2123 ● Apes and Humans 2123 ● Tamarins and Marmosets 2132 Y5 Dentition ● On lower molars 5 cusps and Yshape groove ● Found in Apes and Humans ● Monkeys have bilophodont molars; two long ridges or ‘loafs’ running parallel to cheeks CP3 or Honing Complex ● Canine Diastema: opposite jaw, where the canine sits when the jaw is closed ● Sectoral Premolar: lower premolar functions as a shearing surface with the upper canine; also sharpens the upper canine ● Large canines: a dietary adaptation and also used for defense Eruption of Molars ● In humans, children’s molars erupt on a certain schedule: ○ Molar 1; 6 years ○ Molar 2; 12 years ○ Molar 3 (Wisdom Teeth); 1821 ● This is significant because: ○ It can be used to determine approximate age at death of child ○ Compared to primates; humans experience long time of social and learning Dental Arcade ● One of the ways of determining the place of a fossil in the ape or human line is to look at the shape of the dental arcade: ○ humans have a parabolic arch; the distance between molar 3 and molar 3 is wider than between molar 1 and molar 1 ○ apes have a Ushaped arch; parallel rows, same distance apart Tooth Enamel ● Humans have thicker enamel than apes Nose ● Lemurs and Lorises have a rhinarium (moist, attach to upper lip) ● Lemurs and Lorises are strepsirhini ● Tarsiers have a nonmoist nose that is not attached to lip ○ Tarsiers, new world monkey, old world monkeys, apes, and humans are haplorhini Haplorhini ● Platyrrhine primates have flat noses with nostrils pointing outward (NW) ● Catarrhine primates have a pointed nose with with nostrils pointing downward (OW) Sexual Dimorphism ● Differences in body size or morphology (form) between males and females ● In modern humans and chimpanzees is about 88% ● Gorillas and orangutans is about 50% ● Greater in terrestrial species than in arboreal species Sagittal Crest ● A sharp fin of bone that runs along the midline of the skull that increases the area available for the attachment of chewing muscles ○ Usually absent in humans Tails ● Humans and apes have no tails ● Most monkeys have tails ● Most new world monkeys have prehensile or semiprehensile tails that are used for grasping and locomotion. Also may have tactile skin ○ Prehensile (grasping) ● Old world monkeys have nonprehensile tails or no tails Ischial Callosities ● Old World monkeys and gibbons have patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks Cranial Capacity ● Defines as the volume of the interior of the skull Cranial Sutures ● When a human infant is born, skull composed of separate bones to accommodate the huge postnatal brain birth. ● Later in life, the bones fuse together. Position of Foramen Magnum (FM) ● An indicator of bipedalism is the position of the FM “big hole” at base of skull where spinal cord attaches to the brain ● Bipedal animals forward position (towards face) ● Quadrupedal animals rear position (further from face) Estrous and Menstrual Cycle ● Nonhum,an primates have estrous cycle (like dog/cat going through heat) ○ Ovulation, reception and attractiveness occurs at top of curve. ● Menstrual Cycle ○ Ovulation happens at top of curve ○ Receptive and attractiveness occurs at all times. Primates Primate tendencies: ● Grasping hands and feet, opposable thumbs, nails instead of claws ● Shift from smell to sight as primary sense. Stereoscopic, color vision ● Shift from nose to hand as major tactile organ ● Increase in brain complexity ● Increased parental investment. Learning as a major primate adaptation ● Sociality. Primates are social animals. Visual Predation Theory ● Primates evolved in lower branches and undergrowth by developing visual and tactile abilities to aid in eating insects. Arboreal Theory ● Primates evolved by adapting to life high up in the trees where visual abilities would have been more important than smell. Major Primate Groups: Prosimians ● “PreMonkey”, Lemurs, Lorises and Tarsiers. Are more “Primitive”. ● Greater olfaction (smelhinarium, fixed upper lip ● Only partial binocular vision ● Scent marking of territories ● Shorter gestation and maturation ● Lemurs and Lorises (dental comb; “toilet claw” on second toe) Lemurs ● Madagascar and adjacent islands ● 60 species ● Size: 5 inches to 3 feet in length; 2 oz 20lbs ● Smaller lemurs nocturnal, most diurnal ● Mainly arborea; terrestrial ● Quadrapeds or vertical clingers and leapers ● Live in groups, alone or in pairs ● Lifespan 19 years Loirses ● 8 species ● India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and Africa ● 819 inches, 9 ounces1.5 lbs ● Nocturnal ● Clow climbing “oozing” ● Insectivorous ● Two pairs of mammary glands ● Lifespan 14 years Tarsiers ● 8 species ● Islands in Southeast Asia ● Nocturnal, very arboreal, vertical clingers and leapers ● Elongated hands and feet ● No rhinarium ● Rat sized (36 inches, 26 oz) ● Stable pair bonds ● Enormous eyes are immobile in sockets ● Urine markings Monkeys ● The New World (NW) monkeys (Platyrrhines flat noses) ● diverged from Catarrhines (sharp noses) Old World (OW) monkeys), Apes and Humans ● The NW monkeys have dental formula of 2133 as opposed to 2123 in all Catarrhines ● Most monkeys have tails; prehensile ● Bilophodont ● Monkeys arm lengths equal leg length ● Platyrrhines ○ have prehensile (grasping) or semiprehensile tails, some with tactile skin ○ Forests of Central and South America ○ Small ○ Arboreal ○ Flat noses ● New World ○ Dental Formula 2133 (exceptions are marmosets and tamarins who have 2132 dental formula) ○ Only one nocturnal species night/owl monkey ● Old World ○ Catarrhines ○ Dental Formula 2123 ○ 270 lbs ○ Terrestrial and arboreal; dinural ○ Arboreal animals tend to be smaller and less sexual dimorphism ○ tails or no tails ○ Ischial callosities Apes ● No tails ● Y5 Dentition ● 2123 dental formula ● larger than monkeys ● shoulders higher than monkeys ● Ushaped dental arch ● Arm length greater than leg length ● endangered ● Catarrhines ○ Lesser Apes ■ No tool use ■ Gibbons ■ Siamangs ○ Great Apes ■ Build nests ■ Gorillas ■ Chimpanzees ■ Orangutans ● Gibbons ○ 3 Genera ○ 11 species ○ Ischial callosities ○ Little sexual dimorphisms ○ Sleep between branches (no nests) ○ Southeast Asia ○ Arboreal; diurnal ○ Endangered ○ Diet: fruits, leaves, flowers, seeds, insects & plants ○ Monogamous ● Samangs ○ No nests ○ Larger than gibbons ○ Arboreal; diurnal ○ Inflatable throat sacs ○ Monogamous ○ Asian ○ Webbing between toes ○ Vocalization more pronounced ● Gorillas ○ Central africa ○ 50% sexual dimorphism ○ nests ○ sagittal crest ○ largest living primates ○ Y5 molars ○ Harem ○ Silver back males, Black Back males, Females, and Offspring ○ Tool use in wild ● Orangutan ○ Indonesian islands, rain forests of Sumatra and Borneo ○ Tree nests ○ Solitary ○ Pongo (genus) ○ Marked sexual dimorphism (50%) ○ Using tools (sticks) to get fruit ● Chimpanzees ○ Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) ■ No tool use ■ socialsexual behavior ■ African ○ Pan paniscus ■ Promiscuous ■ Extensive tool use ■ 88% sexual dimorphism ■ 390cm^3 ■ African Humans are not Great Apes Hominid Evolution Bipedalism occursearly Increase of brain size occlater Early Hominids ● Sahelanthropus tchadensis ○ 67 million years ago (mya) ○ Chad ○ Nicknamed Toumai “hope of life” ○ Hominid features: ■ flat face, enormous brow ridges ■ forward position of foramen magnum ○ Apelike features: ■ small brain 320350 cm^3 ■ teeth are primitive ■ back of skull apelike ● Orrorin tugenensis ○ 6 mya ○ Kenya ○ Incisors, canines, one premolar chimplike ○ thick enamel ○ small molars ○ arms and finger bones climbing ● Australopithecus anamensis ○ 4.23.8 mya ○ Southern Apes ○ Kenya ○ bipedal ○ thick enamel ○ large molars, small canines ○ Apelike features: ■ Ushaped dentition ■ Arm bones adapted to life in trees ● Australopithecus afarensis ○ 3.5 mya ○ fully bipedal ○ cranial capacity 404cm^3 ○ nicknamed “Lucy” ○ 3.5 feet tall ○ Gracile ○ Intermediate Vshaped dental arcade Gracile: small, delegate, dainty Robust: large, big teeth, sagittal crests, heavily muscled ● Australopithecus africanus ○ Robust ○ Extinct ● Australopithecus aethiopicus ○ “Black Skull” ○ Robust ○ Extinct ● Australopithecus robustus ○ Robust ○ Extinct ● Australopithecus boisei ○ Robust ○ Extinct Hominid Phylogeny A. afarensis > A. africanus > Homo The Genus Homo True parabolic dental arcade Brain capacity 20% larger than Australopithecines ● greater than 500cm^3 Homo habilis ● “Handy Man” Louis Leakey ● precision grip ● probable maker of Oldowan tools Homo Erectus ● Cranial capacity 900cm^3 ● Adaptive strategy of Hunting and Gathering ● First to leave Africa ● Fire is associated with erectus ● First documented tool user; Acheulian tool user Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (archaic) ● First to ritually bury their dead (Shanidar Care) ● Mousterian tools Homo floresiensis ● “Hobbits” Anatomically modern Humans: Homo Sapiens sapiens ● appeared 200,000 years ago ● change in anatomy and behaviour cultural explosion ● Hunters and Gathers
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