Review material 3/4 tests in this course
Review material 3/4 tests in this course PSY 151
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This 44 page Bundle was uploaded by Amanda Howard on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Chevalier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Test #1 psychologystudy of mind, brain and behavior o intuition and common sense are powerful, but not error free o amiable skepticismbeing ready to be wrong o thinking criticallysystematic questioning/evaluations of claims, examine assumptions, discern hidden values, asses conclusions o faults to critical thinking confirmation biasonly looking for information that supports our previous views on a matter belief preservation(self serving bias)failing to see your own mistakes or that you could be wrong seeing false relationshipsdrawing a conclusion with limited support for it aftertheface explanationsseeing the signs after something has happened and claiming you knew all along o mental shortcuts brain tries to be as efficient as possible appeal to authoritytrusting something based on the name attached rather than the data o science or. pseudoscience Pseudoscience is presented as science difficult to disprove based on research and/or participants warning signs exaggerated claims overreliance on anecdotes “proof” instead of evidence lack of connection to other research lack of review from independent researchers makes complex very simple o nature v. nurture debate are physiological characteristics biologically innate or acquired through experience o mind/bodyour mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the brains subjective experience Descartesdualismthat the mind and the body are separate yet intertwined History of Psychology o introspection experimental psychology Wilhelm Wundt’s labfirst psych lab introspectionsystematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts o Structuralism approach to psych based on the idea that the conscience experiment can be broken down into its basic components Tichner the issue is that experience is subjective so everyone gets slightly different results o Functionalism mind helps humans adapt to environment William James Harvard Lab coined stream of consciousness inspired by Darwin what functional aspects does the mind serve how might it help them survive o Gestalt the idea that the whole personal elements are different than the sum of its elements o Psychoanalysis bring unconscious to conscious(unconscious thought process) Freud(Breuer was partner) believed that you should dig into the unconscious to alleviate repressed traumas unconscious place where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness free association where the patient talks about anything they want to and conclusions are drawn from that o Behaviorism environmental effects on the observed behaviors study stimuli(triggers) and responses John Watson 100% nurture little albert study w/ the rat B.F. Skinner o Cognitive approach emphasize mental activity(intelligence, thinking, language, memory, decision making) monkey studies cognitive neurosciencethe studies of neural mechanisms underlying thought, learning, perception, language and memory o social Psychology how situations shape behavior How thoughts, behaviors, and feelings affected by the presence of other people affect behavior conformity, obedience, helping other Stanford prison experiment personal psychology the study of people's thoughts, emotions, behaviors and change in different social situations o psychology/therapy Types of therapy o psychoanalysis o behaviorism o cognitive o social o neuroscience Advances in understanding via. biology o brain chemistry o neuroscience o genomegenetic code Levels of analysis o biological o individual o social o cultural Research o basic levels of researchhow the mind works biological brain + mind developmentalabilities across life cognitivehow we perceive, think and solve problems personalitytrails socialhow we affect one another o applied research using basic research to solve real world problems clinical psychological disorders counseling academic, vocational and marital challenges education school +e du setting industrial/organizational behavior in workplace forensic law and legal system o four goals of science(scientific method) description prediction control explanation o critical thinking via scientific method research theory hypothesis o Steps 1. hypothesis 2. literature review 3. design study 4. study 5. analyze data 6. results 7. repeat/replicate o What makes a good theory falsifiablethe ability for it to be wrong) organized tends towards simplicity stimulates research can be replicated testable o variablewhat is being studied o operational definitionwhat qualifies and quantifies a variable(ex. the measure of happiness) o Types of research descriptive research method where you observe behavior to describe it systematically and objectively case studyintense of unusual person or group (ex Freud) sometimes due to limited subjects Naturalistic observationspassive research w/ unenduring observation(ex. Jane Goodall)(opp. of participant observation) participant observation where the participant knows they are being watched o reactivity knowing that one is being observed changes the behavior while being observed o observation bias the observer knows the results they want to see and we'll see those results more clearly o experimenter expectancy effect change in behavior due to expectations of observer(ex. counting horse) o types of data collection self reportpeople provide info(ex. survey) good for touchy topics where someone may like snimiti could not be total truth interviews are interviewed more information will come out of it placed pressure of participant helpful if participant cannot fill out a report o correlations studies how two things relate to each other don’t alter variables cannot draw conclusion positive correlations where both variables increase or decrease together negative correlations variables move in opposite directions correlation does not equal causation directionality problemcan’t tell which variable changed which 3rd variablecould have been a confounding variable o Basic elements of experiment causal explanations manipulate and measure variables experimental group receives treatment control group no treatment/placebo population everyone in interest group samplesubset of population random sampleeveryone had an equal chance of being chosen convenience samplethe group that is most convenient (ex. people who respond to a survey) o experiment must be: safe fair informed participants privacy knowledge of what i being studies have the right to quit at any time have the IRB(institutional review board) approval if human subjects are involved have the IACUC(Animal institutional review board) approval if animals are involved risk has to be weighed relative risk to participant outweighs rewards no unreasonable pain/discomfort informed consent must be obtained from human participants what will happen in study free to leave all deception revealed data validity must be weighed construct validitythe extent which the variables measured are external validity the degree which the findings can be generalized beyond the population internal validitythe degree which the effects are to the variables not confounding cultural tendency a measure that represents the typical response or behavior of group neuronscells in brain o analyze and transmit information(communicate_ o basic units of nervous system reception(get info) integration(process info) transmission(send off info to next cell) presynaptic neuronthe neuron that sends signal postsynaptic neuron the neuron that receives the signal o 4 regions of neurons dendritesreceive part of neuron(look like trees) Soma(cell body) integrates information axonshoots info down(surrounded by myelin sheetfatty tissue) deterioration of myelin sheath can be caused by MS terminal buttonultimately sends on info(via chemicals called synapse) o types of neurons sensory neuronsdetect information from physical world and pass it on to the brain motor neurons direct muscles to contract and relax interneurons communicate in long or short distance circuits o grey vs white matter grey matter mostly cell bodies mostly on outside of brain dendrites where neurons are talking white matter axons middle covered in fatty tissue giving it a pinky tissue most on inside of brain more of this as you get other o how a neuron fires when neuron is resting, the charge on inside and outside is different resting membrane potential sodium and potassium contribute to the resting membrane potential action potential(neural firing) is the electric signal that caused the terminal buttons to release chemicals All or none principle when firing cannot adjust for strength exhibitor signalsdepolarize(less negative inside cell), increasing the chance it will fire inhibitory signalshyperpolarize(more negative inside), decreasing chance it will fire neurotransmittersend messages in brain Glia cells o outnumber neurons o help neurons by adding to firmness and structure of bring take care of nutrients and waste make up myelin sheath create bloodbrain barrier(keep things out of brain) communicate with each other and neurons Chemicals in the brain o agonistsmimic neurotransmitters o antagonistsoccupy receptor and prevent activation o SSRI interfere with receptors, block messages that the serotonin is sending to the synapsis slowing down everything o Dopamine(DA) possible component of “reward” controls voluntary movement parkinsonism is lack of dopamine o Serotonin may have roll in impulsivity aggression depression control of food/alcohol mood regulation rem sleep Acetylcholine found in neuromuscular junction(where muscle meets bone) involved w/ Alzheimer’s, learning, memory shortage o Norepinephrine/epinephrinehyper aware once called adrenalin arousal and attentiveness may inhibit REM sleep o Gaba too muchcoma most regions of brain(synopsis) inhibitory to neurotransmission opposite of Glutamate o Glutamate too much can lead to seizures most regions of brain(synopsis) excitatory neurotransmission o endorphins opioidlike chemical naturally in brain role in pain relief Brain stem parts o spinal cord reflexes senses into brain motor signals out o brain stem heart rate breathing/swallowing vomiting midbrain/pons/medulla medulla generates vomit because the blood/brain barrier is weaker produce dopamine norepinephrine and serotonin o cerebellum movement balance coordination motor memory o cerebral cortexgrey matter outermost layer of brain 2 hemispheres 4 lobes frontalsensing info parietalhigher level processing occupationalvision temporalfacial recognition o subcortical structuresunder cortex thalamusgatekeeper receives incoming sensory information and sends it off hypothalamus 4 basic animal drives fight flight feed fuck amygdala process/understanding other emotions hippocampus(marijuanashort term memory loss) memory formation basal ganglia motor movement corpus callosum transfer info between 2 hemispheres languageleft spatialright prefrontal cortex(humanness) attention working memory planning decision making personality Imaging o PET scan radioactive substance into bloodstream o FMRI lay in tube and oxygen in brain measured o EEGmeasures the electrical activity in brain o TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) uses magnets to disrupt brain function in certain area of the brain Plasticityability to heal after injury(physical/mental) etc o most plastic as child o decreases with age, but doesn't stop being to some degree plastic Neurogenesis o production of new neurons o often in hippocampus(memory) o depression/stress depress neurogenesis critical periodsidea time to learn something(ex. language) Circadian rhythmbiological patterns that happen at certain times of the day o in human 24 hour cycles o sleep needs decline with age o lack of sleepweight gain Stages of sleep o Stage 1(10 mins) theta waveslooks like brains awake can only happen once o Stage 2(15 mins) theta waves, Kcomplex(large waves) and sleep spindles(shirt rapid waves) abrupt noise causes kcomplex lighter sleepless sleep spindles o Stage 34(deep sleep) Delta waveshuge slow brain waves o REM sleep brain becomes active paralysisso you can't act out your dream more vivid dreaming will rebound if suppressed and you will make it up the next night alcohol +sleep meds suppress Sleep disorders o Insomniainability to sleep most common in the elderly and women a hypochondriac's disease o sleep apnea stops breathing because throat closes oxygen levels drop tissue in back of throat blocks breathing most common in overweight men o narcolepsy sudden hit of intense sleepiness/muscle weakness(cataplexy) excessive sleepiness during day hours o somnambulism/sleepwalking more common in children nonREM sleep o night terrors only in children wake up confused/screaming Dreams o REM/nonREM sleep o activation synthesis theoryremember brain occurrence and trying to make sense Sleep o REM/nonREM consolidate memories Psychology Test 3 Developmentchange over time and maturation over the course of a lifespan o Nature v nurture what are parts of biology what can be shaped by culture, parents, life interaction between biology and environment o Continuous v. stages qualitative difference between a 2 and 5 year old is it large stages or gradation o Stability v. change introversion and extroversion are stages will versus stability Early experience o children shape the environment they are in o early experiences are not necessarily more influential that later experience in shaping us infant determinism you can't change an infant that much as a child post hoc reasoning blaming things on the way a child was raised when it might not necessarily be true o childhood fragilitythe notion that children are weak o children are always changing and learning Conception o sperm and egg create child9 month gestation o zygote(02 weeks) rapid cell development cells start dividing and multiplying like crazy implantation on uterine wall o embryo(28 weeks) major organs develop embryo and placenta develop o fetus(8 weeksbirth) baby is growing and finishing getting bigger gains euros(1,000 per min)brain develops towards the end of the process the sleep cycle begins organs develop(breathing begins) baby starts to move around how active the fetus is a sign of how active the child will be o risk factors teratogensharmful prenatal agents Ex: drugs, pesticides, Accutane Fetal alcohol syndrome(FAS) alcohol specific babies can't metabolize alcohol so it just sits there mostly causes wide set eyes and facial stuff worse in embryo stage when vital organs are forming, any earlier and it causes spontaneous abortions Early life o most organs are developed when baby is born and just need to get bigger o A baby’s brain is different and forms tons of synapses when the child is born pruning the synapses that aren't used to used get cut this is where nurture is key because the more the baby is exposed to the smarter is an be for the rest of its life o critical periods times when the brain is ready to get new phases of information you miss these and the baby could never learn ex. Languages are easiest to learn before 7 o reflexinborn automatic response to stimulation for survival simple responses(ex. blinking) an example is when a baby’s hand will automatically close if you touch its palm most go away by 6 months when the baby gains control of them o infant memory previously assumed that a child under 1 didn't have a lot going on before 9 monthscan remember if everything is the sameafter 9 months some things can be different infantile amnesiawhen you get older you can no longer access the memories from when you were a child could be that long term part of brain isn't developed could be that they don't have language to make the connections Perception o what’s on board and what is not o taste and smell are prenatalchild can recognize taste and smells and have preferences o 6 months have adult hearing can respond to sound o vision is horrible at birth 5 months can see color can't focus vision until 9 months Infantile attachment o emotional bond with adults in life related to survival bond with someone who cares for them is vital o critical period w/in the first year of life o eye contact and crying to pain others are ways to keep attachment o both parties need to adapt to being with each other are caring for each other o Harry Harlow before him people thought that attachment was solely due to feeding, but he discovered that is had to do with comfort monkey “mother “experiment took baby monkeys from their mother and offered them two fake mothers: one made of wire that had food and one that was made of cloth baby monkeys preferred the cloth mother proved that attachment was not solely based on food also showed that no social interactions> severe social problems Social development o deprivation of attachmentdifficult to recover o study of children in “strange situation” 23 year old in room with caregiver, stranger enters, caregiver leaves, caregiver comes back attachment styles come from parents behavior at home secure 65% securely attached infants are comfortable when parent is there and get upset when parent leaves insecurely attached 35% o avoidant indifferent to parent and don't care when parent is there or not there caused by parents not coming o ambivalent/resistant unhappy when parents leaves, isn’t there, and when parent comes back caused by parents being grumpy when they do come o disorganized(least common)no pattern in behavior generally caused when child is mistreated or has a parent with mental illness Cognitive development o Jean Piaget worked with Bene on intelligence tests noticed that children responded differently than adults all kids would get the same ones wrong, which would be different than the ones the adults were getting wrong 1st person to observe children Believed kids were “little scientists” using scientific method to explore world and weren’t just mini adults create a hypothesis, study, draw conclusion How do kids go from simple reflexes to abstract reasoning? universal stages sensorimotor(02 years) o “think” with senses ears, eyes, hands o bound to movement o learn to control reflexes with mussels o thinking o 8 months object permanence if you can't see something it still exists preoperational(27 years) o not as attached to the physical world o thinking turns representational ex. words mean a real life object o fail conservation tasks don’t understand that different shaped containers can hold the same volume o egocentric o theory of mind don't understand that other people may like other things than you do concrete operational(712 years) o can always pass conservation tasks o logical thinking formal operational o abstract thinking o Piaget criticism underestimate children's abilities disregard factors of other people in their world Theory of mind o the concept that other people have different perspectives 22 1/2 years children start to develop belief ( 45 years ) understand that others can have different information o children with autism never pass, especially with regards to belief Moral development o Bound to the culture you were raised in Kids from different cultures are raised with different values o Lawrence Kohlberg influenced by Piaget a child's moral process is different that an adult wanted to understand WW2 developed many through ethical dilemmas Heinz dilemma A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: “No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it.” So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's laboratory to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not? Would propose the scenario and then measure their response, people’s stage of development is based on their justification of their response, not on how they chose to respond preconventional(under age of 9) selfinterest and avoiding punishment People are worried about “being a hero” or “getting in trouble” convention(early adolescence) uphold laws and truths to maintain social order gain social approval “if you steal it people will think you're a criminal” post conventional (adolescence) basic values and principles are beyond man made using morals “right to life is more important than the law” Criticisms: some people don't get to post convention depending on the society they were raised in neglecting other aspects such as caring Moral emotions o relating to behaviors more than relating to cognitive empathy observe someone and also feel their emotion high on empathymore likely to help people sympathynot feeling the same thing or quite understanding where they are coming from but still want to help not liking something and thinking that it is gross will drive emotions most of the time culturally influenced and created don't like it, just feels wrong Adolescence o not as tumultuous as depicted o question self physical changes increased cognitive abilities question everybody/thing peersidentify who you are parents only for autonomy and values(emotionally based relationship) Erik Erikson 1st total lifestyle theory o at certain ages we have certain issues that we have to fight through Infancy trust or. mistrust adolescence intimacy v role confusion Intimacy or. isolation end of life integrity v. despair( when reflecting) Emerging adulthood(18 mid 20’s) o only in western cultures o not all adult responsibilities and independence( ½ being taken care of ) o emotionally and financially dependent o example: collegepeople live on their own but are still financially dependent Early adulthood(2040) o physical high point o use it or lose it (physically and mentally) Middle adulthood(4065) o gradual physical declines o decline in reproductive and mental ability Late adulthood (post 65) o focus on what's important o better at vocab and knowledge tests o bad working memory o physical and mental declines Adulthood o marriage is helpful leads to high life satisfaction shared values, interests and emotional support tend to be happier with less mental illness however, divorce and never getting married are more acceptable now woman can now support themselves o work provides fulfillment, satisfaction and competence o across life happiest when not alone o death and dying grief varies by culture(some view it as more of a celebration) depends on cultural expectation counseling isn't more effective than time Emotions o positive or negative response o Physiological response (physical reactions, sweating etc.) o behavioral response(avoid scary things, approach happy things) o cognitive approach( how you mentally approach something) o hard to understand emotions o primary emotion experienced all around the world and have according facial expressions happinessstandard upturned mouth with crinkling around eyes surpriseopen mouth and large eyes fearfurrowed brow angerpursed mouth disgustharder to gauge emotional dimensions valence(positive negative) arousal(highlow) o secondary emotions based on blends of primary emotions not as easy to identify begin from knowing yourself fearcauses shame, guilt, anxiety angercauses jealousy, resentment Lie detectors o polygraph detects physical response ex. sweating 4050% false positives 10% false negative some people are good at lying often comes down to what the administrator of the test thinks is true and the subject can feel that o guilty knowledge test multiple choice, but the investigators need to know every aspect of the crime FMRI measure blood flow to the brain when a question is asked o people lie a lot o you can only really tell is someone is lying if you know them really well Emotional theories o physical arousal goes with experience of emotion o JamesLange (came up with same thing at the same time) physical arousal comes first which your body reads and produces the emotion studies with forcing people to smile, made them happy, frowning did opposites o you explore empathy by mimicking the expressions you see to feel what they are feeling o Botox decreases emotion o Two theories of the link between physical expression and emotional arousal of emotion CannonBoard arousal and physical emotion occur at the same time and one is not before the other SchachnerSinger 2 factors(physical arousal and how you label it) arousal + label= emotion Function of emotions o adaptive o prepare and guide successful behavior o cognitive function o memory, behavior positive feelings encourage events o decision making use emotion as information current mood effects all judgements o nonverbal communication gestures tone o facial expressions trigger emotional feeling signal body to respond accordingly communication w/o tones complicates everything Guilt(secondary emotion) o when you understand you have done something wrong and it has hurt somebody else o fostered early if parents are super open o feel responsible for others feelings o helps prevent form the action happening again Embarrassment o violated or harmed your own self image o can help relationships because others know of your wrongdoings o cued by blushing Blushing is a psychological response when nervous system goes into overdrive. Nonverbal apology. Motivation drive/motivation towards goal o energizes, guides and maintains behaviors towards a goal o differs in strengths o needs motivates us come from difference in biological/ social needs when we move from the norm we are motivated to rediscover homeostasis o Maslow's need hierarchy humanistic psychologywhat helps people/how we can help everybody 1. Psychological needs water, food, sleep 2. safety needs health, family, employment 3. affectionlove, intimacy, affection 4. esteemindependence, selfrespect, confidence 5. selfactualizationmoral problem solving , acceptance of facts o incentives external object/goal motivation w/o deficiency 2 types of motivation o Extrinsicexternal goal/reward o Intrinsicinternal value/pleasure(it rewards itself) if someone originally does something intrinsically, but then is externally rewarded, they may not do it intrinsically anymore someone can do something extrinsically and then have it become intrinsic selfdeterminate theory 3 rewards competence autonomy relatedness to others selfperception theory we see our actions as international we may not know the motivation behind them but we will still say they are intentional achievement motivation desire to do well to have high achievement motivation o identify things you are good at o work hard in those things and do well delayed gratification no immediate gratification, just wait for larger reward predictive of all life success delay immediate reward need to belong being with others is a basic need anxious when group status is threatened difficult when shy Social psychology o understand how we think about other people and how we influence them o groups safety and help o share responsibilities and labor o don’t violate normsknow the rules of how they operate o culture is identifying with the group view outgroup and more homogenous don’t like to be minority we like groups and will create them off basically nothing o deindividuation(mob mentality) once you are in a large group you are no longer an individual loss of selfawareness and restraint arousal and anonymity o social surfacing less effort when working in a large group towards a goal than by yourself o group polarization like minded discussionstrengthens group beliefs become stronger o groupthink pressure, threats, biases create poor decisions when large group making important decisions quickly the results will be worse pulling people with other viewpoints is always good Conformity doing what others are doing to fit in o Solomon Asch study how many people would conform to something that is blatantly wrong 30% conform every time 75% conform at least once o normative influence conform to peer pressure to gain approval o information influence accept others opinions as information assume everyone else knows something you don't o social norms you don't want to be the rude person o things that influence you to go along more large group unanimous Compliance o when people start things of you, to gain something o foot in the door approach start with small requests and up the ante as time goes on o door in the face approach start with large request and bring it down as time goes on Obedience when you are following the orders of an authority figure o Milgramshocking people as directed unethical study basically participants were told to shock someone in another room every time a fake participant in the room gave a wrong answer. The participants were told the shocks got stronger with every wrong answer. If the participants refused they were delivered a prod by the experimenter, for example: the experiment requires you to continue. 65% shocked person until they died The person in the other room was also one of the experimenters People will commit heinous acts if there is an authority figure demanding it o What increases obedience proximity to authority pressure of authority prestige of authority proximity to victim( farther away, the more you will hurt them) Kohlberg stagesless likely authoritative persistencemore likely Prosocial behaviorfancy word for helping/doing nice things for someone else o has to be altruisticunselfish with no benefit to you notice the event recognize as emergency assume responsibility o males are more likely to help a stranger than females o females are more likely to help people that they know o other factors more likely to help if you're in a good mood more likely to help if you're not in a hurry less likely to help in a group bystander effect o diffusion of responsibilityassume somebody else would help o ambiguous responsibility trust others instincts of situation above your own o remain anonymous if you don’t do anything costs v. benefits Attitudes: evaluation of people, objects etc. (like/dislike equation) o Socializationinitially in line with parents, community etc. explicitly what you verbalize, constantly demonstrates implicit minor behaviors outside consciousness subtle and automatic o mere exposure effectyou like things more that you are exposed to o change attitudeslet your opinions shift based on behaviors o hard to estimate behavior easier to estimate if attitude is strong personally relevant specific o cognitive dissidencewho you think you are doesn't match who you are can’t change behavior, so change attitudes o Attributeshow we think about ourselves and others and how we explain behaviors personal that did that because it is who they are situational it was based on what is going on fundamental attribution errors humans like you only make personal attributions about others o more westernized active observer effect when it comes to ourselves, we only like to make situational attributions o personal attributions make you less likely to help o situational make you more likely to help o Stereotypes cognitive schema of people based on how the brain segments things o Prejudice negative attitudes about groups of people negative stereotypes leads to prejudice explicit predigest has decreased in north America o Discriminations negative behavior due to prejudice not helping people because of this o modern racism implicit biases are there subtle cues unconscious patronizationslesser expectations for a certain group of people social inequalitiesattitudes justify status quo o just world thinking good things happen to good people, bad things happen to bad people o overestimation of similar outgroups o perspective perspective taking majority listening to minority perspective giving minority talking to majority o suppressiondoesn't work, suppressing stereotypes just causes them to come back stronger o decategorization(ex. color blind) just increases the problem and does not give people an outlet to talk about their experiences o promoting peace o when separate groups get together o best with equal status and economy o contact and cooperation are key Psychology Test #4 Personalitywhat makes you you o thoughts feelings actions o trait enduring predisposition o doesn't change all that much o geneticno thought nature Temperamentpersonality of young child o measured by reactivity and selfregulation emotionality activity level sociality at age three can use these to predict personality of the adult some mix of temperament and parents response Personality theories o Freud(psychoanalytic) Anna Freud(daughter) did the research very influential very involved with his mother meant his theories to apply to everyone, but only worked with wealthy psychotic woman with lots of rules because those were the only people he really studied believed: unconscious forces drive behavior o we don't know these ideas are there, yet they are influencing us o unacceptable thoughts and feelings drive behavior psychic determinants all psychotic events have a cause o everything else including thoughts are happening because of something else symbolic meaningeverything that you do means something o nothing is by chance unconscious motivation we rarely know why we do what we do o the why has been created for us without our conscious knowledge levels of awareness(ice berg imagery only conscious is above water aka in our awareness) o conscious o preconscious o unconsciouscause of all our problems free associationtalk endlessly until something that you didn't know was there pops up analyze dreams as unconscious three personality structures working together o id unconscious working on pleasure animal instincts(eat, sex fight) o super egoideal behavior idealized standard of behavior virtuous and trying to be the best person possible o ego reality principle how we suppress the id the idea of living in reality trying to balance ego and superego defense mechanisms o used outside of awareness to alleviate anxiety o id and superego cause anxiety 100% of the time o essential for mental health o overreliance is pathological o reduce and redirect anxiety repression o forget the bad thing ever happened ex can't remember event o repressed memorywhat happens when you don't know what happened or what was true lots happen before age 3 denial o refuse to accept things we don't like ex not accepting that you were abused reaction formation o unacceptable impulse o repressing impulse o doing opposite ex angry person being overly happy projection o attributing negative impulses to somebody else o it's not you is them ex. you don't like someone, so you think they don't like you rationalization o selfjustification of behavior ex. I just drink to socialize displacement o unacceptable impulsestake it out on somebody else ex. blowing up at somebody after having a bad day sublimation o unacceptable impulsetalk it out with beneficial behavior ex. aggressive person becomes a football player stages of psychosexual development o what happens in your early years determines your personality o fixated on gratification/deprivation Oral stage(08 months) gratification from mouth sensations sucking, biting, chewing weaning off breast feeding is the child's first big loss o how weaning takes place shapes personality o kids stopped early need other fixation ex. thumb for mouth o oral fixationneedy attachment issues Anal stage(23 years) bowel + bladder illumination coping with demands for control over body some pleasure involved(?) o how parents potty trained o anal retentiveparents harsh about accidents, so uptight for the rest of their life o anal expulsiveparents too lax sloppy and don't care about messes phallic(35 years) physical pleasure and enjoyment from genitals incestuous feelings towards parents of the opposite sex(electra/oedipus complex) negative emotions towards parent of the same sex over time identify form parent of the same sex again and learn from them penis envygirls realize they don't have a penis and want one latency(6puberty) no sexual urges just being kids girls friends with girls, boys friends with boys mostly because they had the same play interests as the same sex genital(puberty +) maturity of sexual interest end of personality formation for Freud o Freud current day issue with Freud is that his methods can be tested scientifically never studied kids directly even Freud’s students rejected sexual motivations appreciation for unconscious childhood is not as import as he says and your personality doesn't suddenly stop significant other can change attachment style gender identity does not require same sex parent at home idea of gender identity is biological o expectancy value locus of controlhow much control you have of your life internal things that happen because you worked hard and got there o deal with stress better externaljust by chance shaped by: o how people spoke to you as a child o entity viewsmart or not, not grey o incrementalintelligence based on work, you can always get better o Humanistic theories(Maslow and Rogers) Carl Rogerspersonality theories and therapy came from authoritarian background originally went to school for farming believed him and god were on the same footing first to call patients clients believe you can't only live for others expectations respecting what the client believes is most important one of the first to encourage group therapy nominated for nobel peace prize does not have evidence based theories believed: person centeredno human is better than others o we are all good on the inside and getting better subjective understanding of themselveswhat you think about yourself is important even if it's incorrect unconditional positive regardtry to be positive no matter what o don’t discredit the person discredit the behavior o ex. “you didn't study as much as you could have” instead of “your dumb” humanistic theories impact: counselors education(Montessori schools) child raising positive psychology a new area that views clients as good people trying to get better instead of sick people self concept what you mean to you instead of your label o trait approaches don’t care why or what lead you to the behavior suggest genetic components to traits Big 5 traits(CANOE)everywhere there are 5 factors(basic traits) and everyone is somewhere on the continuum Conscientiousness how organize or careless you are o low: disorganized, careless, impulsive, spontaneous o high: organized, careful, dependable, stubborn Agreeablenessability to work with others o low: ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative o high: soft hearted, trusting, helpful, naive Neuroticism negative emotional reaction o low: calm, secure, content, unconcerned o high: anxious, insecure, selfpitying, unstable Openness curiosity and desire to learn new things o low: practical, routine, conforming o high: variety, imaginative, independent Extraversion o low: reserved, sobe
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