Popular in Cognitive Psychology
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Reconstructive (vs. Reproductive) Memory “The first notion to get rid of is that memory is primarily … reproductive. In a world of constantly changing environment, literal recall is extraordinarily un(Bartlett, 1932) Remembering a list: bed, silence, toss, artichoke, tired, quilt, sheet, fatigue, clock, knight, night, dream bed - primacy night - on list twice repetition/frequency artichoke - distinctiveness dream - recency sleep/pillow/blanket - people put but weren't on the list (reconstructive memory) I. Classic Studies by Bartlett (Remembering, 1932): repeatedly tested recall for (odd) stories hours, months, or years later. On eskimos Lasting findings and concepts: Omissions: especially info. that is illogical or violates expectations. Didn’t fit with expectations. Additions: e.g., added info. that would help explain incongruous passages. If they didn’t understand or if something seemed to be missing Transformations: ex., “fishing” (familiar) replaces "seal hunting" or distortions o Altered information: ex. Fishing (familiar) replaces seal hunting o Altered sequences: even if all of the pieces are remembered you may not remember the specific order Information omitted in an earlier recall may reappear later. People may not have lost their memory but are just having a retrieval problem Bartlett concluded that memories are shaped by an active organization based on past experience (general knowledge): schemas examples: “restaurant schema” recall a visit to a restaurant from the moment you got to the entrance – explains the typical experience at a restaurant “college office schem”(Brewer & Treyens, 1981) –students spent less than a minute in the room and recalled a chair and a desk (most all offices have this) About 1/3 recalled books even thought there were no books. face schema vs restaurant script Schema: a body of organized info we have about a concept, event or knowledge domain; this organized knowledge, derived from experience, guides the encoding of new information and retrieval of stored information. Script: a type of schema consisting of the knowledge of the typical ordered sequence of events/actions in a particular situation. trip to a gas station, checking into the hotel II. Linguistic Memory (for sentences & passages): we retain the "gist" (deep structure; meaning) rather than verbatim (surface structure). Linguistic memory seems to be reconstructed from knowledge. We remember the “gist” of sentences. Semantic Integration: we take information from multiple sentences and ‘store’ it in abstract form.(Bransford & Franks, 1971; try demo. In Matlin, pp. 279280] Sentences with the same information, however it’s hard to know the exact wording of the sentence but you know the general information and can identify one with wrong information. III. Eyewitness Testimony & Face Recognition Studies *Loftus Common Problems There is a problem: Faulty eyewitness testimony is the most frequent cause of wrongful convictions (> 50%) we find out because information comes out that someone else did it, and more recently DNA came out and has exonerated many people Misleading Postevent Information (MPI) such as (mis)leading questions can distort & transform memories. - a large, robust effect. Are memories themselves changed, or just peoples’ reports? It seems that memories themselves are changed, not just peoples’ reports. If someone planted a piece of info such as –he had a mustache- people will start to remember the man with a mustache Example of a leading question: how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? People report a higher speed if it was ‘smashed’ as opposed to ‘contacted’ Also asked if there was any broken glass (there wasn’t any) usually only there in a higher speed collision however if the leading question swayed one way or the other people would or wouldn’t remember glass Source-monitoring confusions: a memory derived from 1 source may be misattributed to another; includes info. from before or after a remembered event. The bunny effect – mistaking bugs bunny being at Disney world when asked if they met him there but it was impossible. It was a super subtle hint (bugs on Disney stationary) Picking the clerk as the robber in a line up bc of recognizing him ID problems include use of best-match criterion (e.g., picking person in line-up who most resembles your memory of culprit; similarly, may try to pick the suspect.) If the police has enough to know that someone did something they don’t want an eyewitness because they don’t work well. Dangerous phenomenon because they may pick someone who didn’t do it, they just may resemble the perpetrator. Induces you to pick the wrong person because people assume the person is there when the guilty person might not be there. Confidence is a poor index of accuracy (low positive correlation) – positive, as people are more confident they are more likely to be correct, but it’s really low so it really tells you nothing about how likely they are to be accurate Attention is limited i.e. Weapon-Focus Effect: in crimes involving a weapon (armed robbery) for most of us the weapon will draw most of our attention. While this happens we aren’t looking at the person/knowing what they look like. IV “Recovered Memories” & False Memory Syndrome (FMS) Remembering things that never happened. FMS involves: 1. Belief that a behavioral problem is a reaction to a repressed traumatic past event; usually childhood sexual abuse (CSA). 2. development of pseudomemories of childhood trauma Epidemic of FMS beginning in 1990’s partially due to “therapists” beliefs and practices. Ex. Daughter of clergy man developing rape memories from therapist, many people were lead to believe that they suppressed memories that really never happened A lot of media coverage of these cases People doing therapy had reason to suspect that people coming to them were struggling with childhood repression De Rivera (1998) examined 56 people who had recanted false accusations. All had FM supported by an authority figure (e.g., therapist). Most (54%) indicated the therapist was the main author of their abuse story. (false) memories may be induced by suggestive therapists who may use hypnosis, sodium amytal, dream interpretation and/or guided imagery. False memories can be induced by: 1. suggestion (Loftus) 2. Beliefs about one’s own past are readily influenced by clinicians’ dream interpretation (Mazzoni & Loftus, 1998) dreams may be the “royal road to memory manipulation”. 3. merely imagining events: Imagination-inflation (Loftus; Mazzoni) – people can develop both a belief in, & a memory of, an event that never happened to them by __________________________________. V. Memory shifts due to knowledge (e.g., of environmental invariants like momentum or gravity) or inference A. Representational Displacement: observers tend to remember an event as extending past its actual ending point. e.g., Representational Momentum (RM) memories tend to be distorted in the directional of a perceived or implied motion with higher perceived velocity more displacement. B. Boundary Extension a tendency to ‘remember’ more of a scene than was actually seen, as when ‘remembering’ parts of a static scene that were actually _____________________________ of the view. pictures drawn from memory may include elements that would logically fall just outside the boundaries of the orig.n (Intraub) Improving Memory 1. Methods of improving encoding and consolidation A. Mnemonics 1. Method of Loci requires 3 steps: A. identify sequence of familiar places B. create images of toberecalled (TBR) items associated with places. C. recall by "revisiting" places 2. Peg Word System 3. First Letter Technique (acrostics) 4. Chunking reduce amount you need to remember B. Dual (multiple) encoding Visual + Verbal or Visual + Motor Enactment Effect: Performing actions produces better recall than only learning the action phrases (e.g., “tear the paper”) Varied study environments C. Comprehension make sure you understand the material D. Minimize interference – e.g., study before E. Distributed Practice F. Use Deep Processing (not rote rehearsal) G. Self-Tests – testing effect: testing helps LTM II. Improving Retrieval – general goal: recreate type of processing that occurred when the event was originally encoded. Problem of False Recall: ex. Ss tried over long period of time to recall names of school classmates. Found steady and significant increase in false names with increase (Read & Bruce, 1982) A. Hypnosis? B. Reconstructing context C. Bizarre/unusual hiding places? Prospective Memory Remembering to do things (stop at store on way home; take pie out of oven; etc.); Memory for the future. far less studied than retrospective memory, but many similarities (e.g., impact of retention interval) failures are common and can occur even for highly important items or events Failures (1) departures from customary actions (2) being distracted (3) time pressure appears to be the memory component most sensitive to aging effects, but appears to be more of a problem for young adults. …?
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