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Comm 1 Notes

by: Rachel Sung
Rachel Sung
GPA 3.51

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These are the notes for the ENTIRE COURSE!! This includes all lecture notes (super detailed), notes from the majority of the readings, and some section notes. NOTE: Although these notes are from...
Introduction to Communication
D. Mullin
Comm, communication, COMM 1
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This 77 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Sung on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COMM 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by D. Mullin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication in Communication Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
#1: Info Tuesday, January 7, 2017:57 AM Office hours: SSMS 4117 Tuesday/Thursday 11AM-12:30PM #2: What is Communication? Thursday, January 9, 2018:06 AM Communication is… - People involved in communication process (sources/receivers) - People are exchanging meaningful symbols (hand gestures, words) ○ Can't exchange meaning without messages/symbols  Have to talk/gesture to show what you are trying to say ○ We hope that meaning is understood by both people, no misunderstandings - Happens in various contexts ○ Interpersonal dyads, groups, media, etc. ○ Ex. Talk differently to friends compared to parents/teachers - Through various channels ○ Can be disrupted by "noise"  Noise: anything that disrupts the sending or receiving of messages - With feedback ○ Response to the method - A systematic process ○ Cognitive encoding (taking thought & making it something we can express) and decoding of the messages being transmitted - Has transactional qualities ○ Exchange, interdependence (dependence on each other; what one does, influences what the other does), irreversibility (can't go back/rewind) - THERE IS NO "s" IN "COMMUNICATION" ○ Cuz CommunicationS Specialists takes care of mail/phone lines/phone lines  Media stuff Communication Specialist - Scholar studies the human side of communication - International Communication Association - National Communication Association Communication Contexts Major areas of study in the comm field - Researchers focus of different aspects of communications Intrapersonal - Communication within a person ○ Talking to self, diary, etc. ○ Thinking about other people, & processing information ○ Example topics studied: making attributions, forming impressions Interpersonal - Communication with another (dyad: 2 people) ○ Intimate, communicate to build a relationship ○ Face-to-face or point-to-point ○ Involves self-disclosure, relational development/intimacy ○ Example topics studied: making friends; becoming close/falling apart; conflict; nonverbal messages Intergroup/Intercultural - Comm between members of different groups or cultures ○ Interaction & identity influenced by group membership ○ Example topics studied: ingroup/outgroup comm; language, ethnicity, gender, age group comm Small Group - Interaction among three or more people, up to about 25 - Interaction among three or more people, up to about 25 ○ Pursuing common goal (social or task) ○ Interact as group ○ Example topics studied: group decision making (e.g. juries, work teams); group dynamics; peer pressure) Organizational - Comm among members of organization (or between diff orgs) ○ Formal org structure ○ Formal and informal networks, rules, norms ○ Example topics studied: leadership; org culture; conversation networks; collaboration Public - 1 or a few individuals to an audience - Face-to-face but with a "distance" - Relatively one-way - Example topics studied: rhetorical devices used in speeches; imagery in pop culture Mass - Messages disseminated on large scale ○ Mediated (print or electronic) ○ Typically professional communicators ○ Less immediate feedback ○ Example topics studied: effects of TV on behavior/attitudes; role of media in society Chapter 1 Tuesday, January 7, 20149:44 PM - Communication: process by which individuals use symbols, signs, and behaviors to exchange information. - Effective communication is essential in all aspects of life We Must Communicate: The Functional Perspective - Functional perspective: examines how communication behaviors work or don't work to accomplish our goals in personal, group, organizational, or public situations - Relationships: interconnections or interdependence between two or more people ○ Interdependence: what we do affects others, vice versa  Ex. Jamie flips burgers to get money, her boss depends on her to do well, customer depend on them to get a meal Expressing Affiliation - Affiliation: the affect/feeling you have for others ○ Expressing love, respect, hate, disrespect ○ Beneficial because: feels good to be loved, meet practical needs (ex. Marry someone for stability), or emotional needs ○ Can be verbal (I love you) or nonverbal (hug/kiss) through face-to-face or mediated channels (text/FB) Achieving Goals - Goal achievement: we rely on communication in order to accomplish particular objectives ○ Ex. In Cupcake Wars it would be impossible to achieve a goal (make a good cupcake) without clear communication Influencing Others - ^ is one of the most important functions of communication ○ Ex. Michael's lack of eye contact and quiet voice influence his professor's opinion of him - Can be unintentional - Control: ability of one person, group, or organization to influence others, and the manner in which their relationships are conducted ○ Not like affection where you can give and receive infinitely ○ It is finite: the more control one person has in a relationship, the less the other persons have ○ Control varies based on situation and status  Ex. New employee will look to the manager for advice (unequal control distribution) but as the employee becomes more comfortable, she might take more control and the manager will allow her to work more independently How We Communicate Characteristics of Communication 1. Communication is Symbolic - Comm relies on symbols : arbitrary constructions that refer to people, things, and concepts  The stronger connection between symbol and object, the clearer the intended meaning & vice versa  Ex. Customer greets street vendor with a smile and nod clearing greeting him "hello" 2. Communication Requires a Shared Code - Code: set of symbols that are joined to create a meaningful message - Participates share the code to used to encode and decode messages  Encoding: process of mentally constructing a message for production  Decoding: process of receiving a message by interpreting and assigning meaning to it  Ex. Speaking common language, codes for different plays in sports, emoticons 3. Communication is Linked to Culture - Groups culture includes language and symbols as well as norms and rules - Most people are members of several co-cultures (smaller groups of people within a culture who are distinguished by features like race, religion, age, generation, gender, economic status, etc.)  Each co-culture has different meanings for a person and affects their communication, including language, how they present themselves, and how they interpret others' behavior 4. Communication Need Not Be Intentional - Can be symbolic and intentional  Ex. IMing friend you will be away from the computer saying "BRB"  GIVING information - Can also be unintentional Week 1 Page 4 - Can also be unintentional  Largely based on expression of emotion and body movements  Ex. Blushing  GIVING OFF information  More honest and reliable because it couldn't be controlled BUT can be hard to interpret (blushing because embarrassed? Mad?) 5. Communication Occurs Through Various Channels - New ways to communicate (smoke signal, telegraph, phone, email, text) - Channel: method of communication 6. Communication Is A Transactional Process - Transactional: involves two or more people acting in both sender and receiver roles, and their messages are dependent on and influenced by those of their partner - Once a message is sent out, it cannot be reversed  Ex. 2009 VMA Kanye West & Taylor Swift, even though Kanye apologized after, it could not change what had already happened  Can be immediate or delayed Assessing Communicative Values - Examine communication as it relates to the 6 characteristics - If it's definitely symbolic, with a shared code, and definitely intentional THEN high communicative value  Communication breakdowns are less likely Communicating Competently - Competent: communication that is effective and appropriate for a given situation, in which the communicators evaluate and reassess their own communication process Competent Communication Is Process-Oriented - The process is more important than the outcome - Process: measures the success of communication by considering the methods by which an outcome is accomplished - Outcome: has to do with the product of an interchange - What is said and how it is said take on greater significance than the outcome - Ethics: study of morals, specifically the moral choice individuals make in their relationships with others - Personal & cultural values provides guidance on your actions and interpretations - Ethical concerns arise when standards of right and wrong exert a significant impact on communication behavior  Ex. Communication of a political spokesperson who lies/twists truth to get ahead of polls is unethical, manipulative, and exploitive Competent Communication is Appropriate and Effective - For communication to be competent, it needs to be both effective and appropriate - Ex. You don't speak to parents same way as to friends Appropriate Behavior - Comm is appropriate when it meets the demands of the situation and the expectations of the people present - Almost all the time, cultural norms and rules set the standards for expectations - Culture norms affect individuals behaviors in similar way - Ex. Women tend to feel more comfortable expressing emotions while men feel limited by cultural expectations saying that they show caring in less open ways  Joe's girlfriend died, Eva held Joe's hand, Dave got on phone to manage funeral details - Behavioral flexibility: your ability to have a number of behaviors at your disposal and your willingness to use different communication behaviors in different situations Effective Behavior - NOT ONLY need to behave appropriately, BUT ALSO effective competent communication - What is effective in one context might not always be appropriate communication in others - Ex. You appreciate a professor giving you a syllabus but if your roommate did it, you would be annoyed Competent Communication Involves Communication Skills - Communication skills: behavioral routines based on social understandings; they are used by communicators to achieve particular goals (asking for raise, maintaining relationship, work as a team member) - Cockiness can keep a person from changing their behavior - Just because you have communication skills does not mean you have communication competence Competent Communication Involves Using Technology - Week 1 Page 5 - Modeling Communication - Different visual representations of the communication process - Linear model - Interaction model - Competent communication model The Linear Model - Simplest communication sender message - A originates communication, with words or actions; those words or actions constitutes the - Message must be carried through a specific channel (written, visual, over phone, air, sound waves, etc.)  Can be interrupted by noise so the message changes in some way, when message gets to receiver - No info on whether or how the message was received by anyone - Not considered useful for most kinds of communication because cannot see the receiver interpreting meaning of message The Interaction Model - Shows communication between sender and receiver that incorporates feedback - Feedback: message from the receiver to sender that illustrates responses that occur when two or more people communicate - Noise occurs along the way - Can be verbal or nonverbal - Communicators take turns sending messages - Ex. Iming; you get feedback but not in real time (can think about what to say, while other person may think of something new or leave) The Competent Communication Model - Is transactional: the individuals communicate simultaneously, sending and receiving messages at the same moment in time, within a relational context, a situational context and a cultural context. - 4 influences at play in this model: 1. The Communicators - Individuals who are engaged in communication - Each communicator is influenced by cognition : thoughts that individuals have about themselves and others, including their understandings and awareness of who they are □ Cognition influences behavior when you communicate - Behavior: observable communication, including verbal and nonverbal messages 2. Relational Context - Depending on the relationship you have with someone, messages can have different meanings □ Ex. When you meet someone new, you can say "Let's be friends" but when you're breaking up with someone you can also say "Let's be friends" but it has a different meaning because of the past relationship with the person - Comm is also shaped by expectations and goals for the relationship □ Ex. Goal: stay with high school sweetheart. Expectation: worry that going to different colleges may lead to break up 3. Situational Context - Depends on the social environment, physical place, specific events and situations, and specific mediated places □ Also depends on where you live and work, decorations, time of day, and the current events in the environment at that time 4. Cultural Context - Culture helps determine which messages are considered appropriate and effective and affects our cognitions □ Ex. Different cultures believe in different things but when outsiders find out about this culture, they may think that it is strange and will have to learn to accept it - Culture influences the communication choices they make and how they interpret the messages they receive from others □ Reinforced by the messages people receive from those in similar cultures The Study of Communication - Communication focuses on improving interactions and relationships - Many different areas of study, each focusing on a certain type on communication ○ Draws clear connections between the diff. types of relationships - Basic Communication Process Week 1 Page 6 - Basic Communication Process ○ Process of perception, intercultural interaction, verbal communication, nonverbal comm, and listening - Interpersonal Communications ○ Study of communication between dyads (pairs of individuals) - Group and Organizational Communication ○ Study of interactions in groups and organizations ○ By studying this, it helps scholars to create strategies for managing the flow of information and interaction among individuals in groups - Public Speaking ○ How to research and develop a presentation and connect with audience on personal level Week 1 Page 7 Section 1 Friday, January 10, 20110:00 AM Britney Craighead SSMS 4114 Mondays 12:30-2:30 Jess Contextual Levels - Intrapersonal - Interpersonal ○ Intimate, - Public ○ Giving a speech/presentation ○ Face to face, you can see others respond - Intergroup/intercultural ○ Interaction between different cultures/groups - Mass ○ Usually a professional communicator  News reporter, director - Small group ○ Hard to communicate in a large group because - Organization #3 & #4: Verbal Communication Tuesday, January 14, 20148:06 AM Important Features of Language - Language is rule-governed ○ Rules of grammar - Language allows for displacement (of ideas, thoughts, etc.) ○ Can talk about what is not here or ideas/thoughts  Hard to do without words (how would you use nonverbal comm to describe thoughts, imagination, etc. - Meanings of symbols/words are arbitrary (random) ○ Ex. The word "dog" has no reason for it to be spelled as D-O-G ○ Human-made conventions Language and Meaning - The Referential Function ○ We use language to "refer" to things & ideas ○ We categorize things & label them ○ Ex. "peach" refers to the fruit  How do we know what it is though?? Based on shape, texture, size, categories, etc. - The Triangle of Meaning Thought (reference) Symbol (word) <-- Arbitrary connection -Object (referent) Ex. "Flag" Ex. *picture of flag* - We must recognize different kinds of meanings ○ Ex. "rock" What does it mean? Music, someone's your rock (stable), stone, actor, verb, What helps us interpret its meaning?? Context within sentence, tone, situation, knowledge, experience, relationship, etc. Synonyms for "man"? Sir, mister, male, boy, guy, dude, gentlemen Synonym for "women"? Ma'am, lady, girl, female, chick, babe - Every word/phrase has two basic types of meanings: ○ Denotative  Explicit, agreed-upon meaning (dictionary-ish)  Can have more than one denotation (e.g. "rock" has many)  Denotative meanings typically widely shared among speakers of the same language  BUT -- also have idiosyncratic denotations (meaning unique to you) ○ Connotative  Emotional, evaluative connection to a word □ Male and female have no emotional meaning □ Dude/babe has a positive/negative connotation  Can also be unique to you or shared connotation too  Can also be unique to you or shared connotation too Importance of Connotations - Compare: ○ "house" versus "home"  House is more of a place  Home having a more personal meaning ○ Govt. "spending" versus "investment"  Spending means using the money  Investment meaning you're using money wisely and will get something back - "God Terms": widely positive ○ Ex. "freedom", "hope" - "Devil Terms": widely negative ○ Ex. "terrorist"  Most profanities/swear words, racial slurs Effects of Language - Language can signal our group identities: ○ The way you talk tells people who you are ○ Age, culture, gender, social status, etc. ○ "Speech Accommodation"  Adjusting our language use with others □ Can shift toward or away from the other person □ Picking up accents while travelling, cussing more around people who cuss, switch between languages  Adjustment usually based on group identity □ Toward: to gain acceptance; est. belonging ("us") □ Away: to distinguish group or power (from "them") - Language influences judgments of people ○ Perceptions of traits, abilities, etc. ○ "Equivocal" language  Intentionally imprecise language Your friend asks "Did you like your present? But you hate it. How do you answer? (probably in an indirect way) ○ Helps to manage "face" for self and other - "Power" of Language ○ "Powerless" lang: uses lots of hedges, hesitations, intensifiers (so, really), tag questions, disclaimers  Studies show that the use of powerless lang: lower impressions of competence, trustworthiness, dynamism, social/economic status, message effectiveness  BUT…can also be seen as more polite, likeable, good-natured ○ "Powerful" lang: fluent, direct, & doesn't use the above "powerless" markers NOTE: Do not confuse "powerful/less" with "high" and "low" from the textbook Chapter 4: Verbal Communication Tuesday, January 14, 2014 10:24 AM - Language: system of words that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings ○ Governed by grammatical rules ○ Influenced by various contexts - Language is always accompanied by nonverbal communication The Nature of Language - Language is symbolic, filled with multiple meanings, and informed by our thoughts Language is Symbolic - A word is a type of symbol: a sign used to represent a person, idea, or thing ○ Symbol forms the basis of language Words Have Multiple Meanings - Denotative: basic, consistently accepted definition ○ "School": a building where education takes place/group of fish - Connotative: word with emotional response people have to it ○ "School": might bring back memories of friends or bullies  Depends on attitude and experience at school Thought Informs Language - Cognitive language: specific system of symbols that you use to describe people, things, and situations in your mind ○ Influences both language and message production - Your idea of something may have a different meaning to someone else ○ Ex. You think that a "good college" is one that is close to home with a small class size, BUT your friend might think that it is one that gives you the chance to live in a new place Language is Rules by Grammar - Using correct grammar helps ensure communication clarity ○ Has phonological rules: rules about how words are pronounced ○ Has syntactic rules: rules about placement of words in a sentence  If you take a normal sentence and change the words around, it wouldn't make sense - Have to adjust grammar rules to different languages Language is Bound by Context - Communication competently involves understanding context The Functions of Language - Communication acquisition: requires that we not only learn individual words in a language, but also learn to use that language appropriately and effectively in the context of the situation - 5 functional communication competencies: ○ Focus of how language behaviors work or function for people 1. Controlling 2. Informing 3. Feeling 4. Imagining 5. Ritualizing Using Language as a Means of Control - Language is used as an instrument of control ○ To influence oneself, others, and the environment ○ Control can be positive or negative Using Language to Share Information - Informing: using language to both give and receive information - 4 aspects of informing competency: 1. Questioning - "Why?" 2. Describing 2. Describing - Help us find out about the world and communicate our world to others 3. Reinforcing - Take notes/repeat info to confirm comprehension 4. Withholding - Knowing when to reveal information and withhold it requires maturity Using Language to Express Feelings - Functional competency of expressing feeling is primarily relational ○ We let people know how much we value/don't value them by the emotions we express - Express feelings in an appropriate and effective way ○ Ex. Instead of yelling when frustrated, just say "I'm frustrated because…" ○ Also times when we avoid expressing feelings because we think that it is inappropriate in the situation  Ex. Boyfriend talks about moving in together, girlfriend changes subject b/c doesn't want to admit that she's not sure about it Using Language to Express Creativity - Imagining: ability to think, play, and be creative in communication ○ On the job, imagining is the ability to use language to convey a vision for a project to your coworkers  Ex. Architect using words to explain blueprints and models ○ In a debate, imagining skills allows you to think ahead of your opponent, etc. Using Language as Ritual - Ritualizing: learning the rules for managing conversations and relationships - You say and do the "right" thing in different situations Problems with Language - Words can lead to confusing, hurt feelings, misunderstandings, and anger Abstraction and Meaning - Language can range from being very vague to very specific - Abstraction ladder: Higher Vague Abstractions Middle Lower More specific - High abstractions can accomplish certain communication goals ○ Evasion: avoid providing specific details  Ex. Teenagers telling parents with her friends, parents want to know who, what, when (less abstraction) ○ Equivocation: using words that have unclear or misleading definitions  Ex. Describing your friend's ugly sweater, "It's…colorful!" ○ Euphemisms: inoffensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting  Ex. Using "passed on" instead of "died" - Abstract language can offer info about your affiliation and membership ○ Ex. Slang: high-level abstraction because meanings of slang are known only by a particular group of people  Jargon: technical language that is specific to members of a profession or hobby Situation and Meaning - Semantics: relationship among symbols, objects, people, and concepts and refers to the - Semantics: relationship among symbols, objects, people, and concepts and refers to the meaning that words have for people - Pragmatics: ability to use the symbol system of a culture appropriately ○ When you acquire a language, you learn SEMANTICS, but when you learn HOW to use the word, you learn PRAGMATICS The Limits of Labeling - The labels we choose for our beliefs affect how we communication them to others ○ Sometimes we ignore individual differences - Derogatory labels (e.g. racial and ethnic slurs) demean and disenfranchise entire groups of people ○ But some groups take the words with negative connotations and turn them around positively (ex. Queer: BEFORE: strange, odd, suspicious NOW: LGBTQ The Dangers of Biased Language - Biased language: words infused with subtle meanings that influence our perceptions about the subject - Politically correct language: language with negative meaning is replaced with a more neutral term ○ Ex. Fireman, policeman, chairman are replaced with firefighter, police officer, chairperson (b/c of sexism) Profanity, Rudeness, and Civility - What terms are acceptable and appropriate for broadcast are always changing due to society's constant increased usage of profanity and rude language ○ Ex. "douche" is constantly used in TV shows like Vampire Diaries It has become more acceptable because of its over usage - Profanity gets their social and emotional impact from the culture's language conventions ○ Ex. Swearing = powerful expression of emotion BUT perception of swearing as offensive depends on context and relationship - Language should meet standards of civility: social norm for appropriate behavior Language in Context - Context is important because: 1. Language reflects context - Language we use reflects who we're around, where we are, and what sort of cultural factors are at play - Speech repertoires: we have different sets of language behaviors  Used to find the most effective and appropriate language for the given context 2. Language builds on context - We adjust our language accordingly  Ex. Calling step mom "Lisa" or "Mom", depending on how close you feel towards her 3. Language determines context - Can also CREATE context by language we use  Ex. Professor says, "Call me Veronica" (informal, more equal to students) VS. "Call me Dr. Esquivel" (more formal, less personal, less equal) The Relational Context - We choose different language to communicate in different relationships - Don’t talk to grandmother same way as you talk to your friends - Language both reflects and creates the relational context - Ex. When in the dating stage, introducing the girl as "girlfriend" is surprising but using "friend" would be saying there is intimacy - Labels can also confer status and create understandings between and among individuals - Ex. Saying "I'd like you to meet my boss, Mr. Edward Sanchez", saying that he is your boss and he is more superior Introduction coworkers, "We work together", making you more equal The Situational Context - Different situations call for different speech repertoires - Can even mean using a different language - Language can reflect how comfortable we are in a situation - Language can reflect how comfortable we are in a situation - High language: more formal, polite, "mainstream" language  Ex. Business, classroom, formal social gatherings - Low language: more comfortable situations  Ex. Watching sports game at bar, watching movie at home - Women and men adapt their language use to same-sex versus mixed-sex situation The Cultural Context Culture, Words, and Thought - Language use can affect our thoughts - Study of Piraha tribe of Brazil: because they had a limitation of words for numbers, they could not perceive larger numbers - Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: words a culture uses (or doesn't use) influence thinking - If a culture lacks a word for something, members of that culture will have few thoughts about that thing/concept - Linguistic determinism: language influences how we see the world around is - Linguistic relativity: speakers of different languages have different views of the world Gender and Language - Do men and women really have different language?? According to Deborah Tannen… - Women see conversation as negotiations for closeness and connections with others - Men see talk as a struggle for control, independence, and hierarchy - Powerful controlling language used to define limits, authority, and relationships - Less controlling language used to express affection - Interruptions: depends on situation and status of speaker (not really gender) - Qualifiers, hedges, and disclaimers: language that sounds hesitant/uncertain are seen as less powerful  Qualifiers: kind of, sort of, maybe, perhaps, could be, possibly  Hedges: I think, I feel, I guess  Disclaimers: it's probably nothing, but I think…, I'm likely imagining things, but I thought I saw… - Tag questions: "That was a beautiful sunset, wasn't it?"  Attempt to get your conversational partner to agree with you, to establish connection  Might sometimes be threats (ex. You're not going to smoke that, are you?) - Resistance message:  Men say "no"  Women choose be vague or evasive language to direct "no" "I don't have protection" □ But men sometimes perceive this as a yes Geography and Language - The culture of environment affects ones language and understanding of the world - From different countries to different cities, language can be changed Accommodation - Changing our communication behavior to adapt to the other person - Communicators change regular language and slang as well as tonality, pitch, rhythm, and inflection to fit into a particular group - May be used to survive, manage defensiveness, manage identity, or signal power/status Mediated Contexts - Messages can get misunderstood when using media so it must be very clear to be most effective - Ex. Language that's more intense (powerful, committed, strong) gets more responses in email surveys because it directs attention to important points  People who do this are seen as more credible, attractive, and persuasive - Sex and gender can also influence the language you use with technology - Technology has kind of created a language of its own #4: Nonverbal Communication Thursday, January 16, 2018:02 AM Relationships to Verbal Comm - Common misperception: "trust" is in the nonverbal ○ Actually only 50% accurate when looking at eyes for "truth" ○ Sometimes just nervous & people mistake it for lying - Nonverbal comm can: ○ Complement verbal  Ex. "It's on the right" while pointing to the right ○ Substitute for verbal  When you don't want to talk ○ Regulate verbal  Control the flow of the conversation, who gets to talk and who doesn't  Ex. Raise your hand, end of lecture: students packing up, ○ Contradict verbal  Nonverbal cues means opposite of what you're saying Importance of Nonverbals - Demonstrate "immediacy" (involvement/presence) ○ Ex. Nodding head, eye contact, leaning forward - Gauge other's reactions/feedback ○ "Are they understanding what I'm saying?" based on nonverbal cues Nonverbal Codes (Ways of Sending Nonverbal Messages) - Paralanguage (paralinguistic) ○ Closely related to verbal ○ Vocalizations (crying, laughing, grunting) ○ Voice qualities  Pitch and volume  Rate and fluency  Quality (resonance, nasality)  Accent (pronunciation) □ Slur words together, punctuate certain letters  Intonation providing emphasis □ Ex. Emphasis on different words in a sentence "I didn't steal her dog" ○ Personal appearance  Body displays (hair color/style, piercings, tattoos, etc.)  Clothing & accessories □ Can signal authority, legitimacy, belonging, etc. ○ Oculesics (eye contact/gaze) □ Avoidance often taken as dishonesty, insincerity, discomfort □ Eye contact can signal confidence, immediacy & can increase perceptions of attractiveness ○ Kinesics (movement & gestures)  Illustrators (using gestures to show what you were doing, emphasis)  Emblems (specific gesture has a beginning and end, has dictionary like meaning, everyone just knows it)  Affect displays (using nonverbals to show feeling) □ Jumping up and down, facial expressions, turning away  Adapters □ When uncomfortable, nervous we do nonverbal gestures □ Ex. Twirl hair, tapping ○ Proxemics (space, distance, territory) Interpersonal distances   Interpersonal distances □ Depending on relationships & situations □ Intimate distance vs. social distance  Claim our space □ Ex. Put stuff on table ○ Chronemics (time)  Ex. When you arrive at an event or party (early, on time, late) □ Can show how much you care  Ex. How much time you take to respond to someone ○ Haptics (touch)  Shows positive affect (hug, pat on shoulder)  Control (grab wrist)  Ritual (hand shake, good game after a game) Section 2 Friday, January 17, 20110:00 AM Euphemism: more positive use of a word Dysphemism: more negative use of a word #5 & #6 : Studying Communication as a Science Tuesday, January 21, 2017:58 AM Communication at UCSB - We seek understanding of generalized patterns of communication variables (attitudes, behaviors, etc.) ○ What is related to what  Ex. Compared to many Middle eastern cultures, Americans stand far apart when conversing □ Culture is related to nonverbal distance ○ What causes what  Ex. Eye contact increases perceptions of attractiveness The Scientific Method - Formulate hypotheses about variables of interest ○ Predictions based on prior studies/theory ○ Ex hypotheses: Eye contact increases perceptions of attractiveness - Test hypotheses using empirical observations ○ Gather objective data (carefully measured data)  Can't just walk around and observe people  Have to control the factors Three Major Social Science Research Methods: 1. Survey research - Ask people what they think or do ○ Can use telephone, mail, internet, face-to-face (less common unless small scale) - Purposes: ○ Identity attitudes/behaviors in population  Test whether college students rely more on FB/tumblr/twitter to connect with friends ○ Examine relationships between attitudes/behaviors, etc.  Ex. Test whether FB use is related to feeling "connected" to others (i.e., do heavy users feel more connected than do light users?) ---ISSUES TO CONSIDER--- - Need representative sample (of participants) - Need good questions ○ Good wording, specific ○ Ex. Legal weed FOR MEDICAL USE or RECRATIONAL USE?? Not just: should weed be legalized? - Reliance on self-reports ○ People might lie ○ Might be hard to determine (Ex. how many hours do you use FB) ○ To get rid of someone faster ○ Different situations - Cannot make causal conclusions ○ Ex. 2 variables may be related; more FB use => more connected But this doesn't mean that using FB MAKES you feel more connected!! WHY NOT? ○ It may be other things that make them feel connected (third variable) ○ May be more social ○ People who are more connected, use more FB ○ Can tell that there is a relationship but no causation 2. Experimental research - Purpose: draw causal conclusions - Purpose: draw causal conclusions ○ Ex. Test whether personal disclosers on FB make people seem more likeable  Think of it like clinical drug testing - experiments test whether the drug has an effect on (improves/worsens) people's symptoms ○ Manipulate causal variable(s) (Independent Variable)  Ex. Manipulate "personal disclosures" on FB: 1/2 of participants shown thread w/ personal disclosures Other 1/2 shown same thread, but w/o disclosures ○ Control everything else (same content, format, etc.) ○ Measure effect/outcome (Dependent Variable)  Ex. Likeability ---ISSUES TO CONSIDER--- - Need random assignment ○ Randomly divide participants into groups - Need good manipulation - Limited participant sample ○ Ex. Most psych experiments use college students - Artificial setting ○ Sometimes hard to make it seem real ○ So, poor "external validity"  Hard to generalize results beyond participants and lab environment  Survey good for generalizing 3. Content analysis - Study communication contents ○ Ex. News, TV shows, media - The systematic, quantitative analysis of content of messages - Purpose: ○ describe media (or other comm) content  Ex. Is there too much sex in the media?  Ex. How often are FB/Twitter disclosures highly personal versus surface- level? ○ Assess image of particular group in media  Ex. How are fathers stereotyped in TV shows? ---ISSUES TO CONSIDER--- - Need representative sample (of media messages) ○ Include all "social media"? Limit to public Tweets? - Need clear, specific definition of content variables ○ Ex. What IS a "personal" disclosure on FB/Twitter? ○ What IS a "stereotypical" portrayal on TV? - Limitations: ○ Can only describe content ○ (No information about why content is the way or the effects of it on audiences, etc.) #6 & #7: Intrapersonal Communication Thursday, January 23, 20148:43 AM - Communication within oneself Perception Processes - Intrapersonal comm involves "making sense" mentally of people/world - Three cognitive processes: 1. Attention - We are selective about what we perceive - Internal factors (something that has to do with you) affecting attention:  Physiological filters □ Our physical state (sleeping, proximity); limitations of our senses (can't see behind us, can't listen to everything in a loud room)  Psychological filters □ Motivation or interest □ Past experience or expectations  If it's unusual, we might notice it more OR if it's not something we expect, we might not see it  External factors affecting attention □ Salience: stimulus stands out from others  Visual contrast, sound, movement, etc.  Ex. You notice a mountain lion, size of the animal is salience □ Vividness: stimulus provokes emotional response 2. Organization - We structure our perceptions - Similarity: we perceive separate stimuli as related if similar to each other - Proximity: we perceive stimuli as related if near each other - Closure: we see incomplete patterns as complete  Ex. Incompletely drawn shapes but we see them as complete - Figure ground: we perceive images as having an object (figure) and background (ground)  Ex. Black and white picture of face/vase 3. Interpretation - We evaluate our perceptions  Interpret, make sense, & draw conclusions  Ex: picture of the duck/rabbit □ What do you see first?  Ex: picture of couple by lake/baby Perceiving the Social World - How do we understand ourselves and each other? - We simplify the complex info we perceive - Biases influence our conclusions - Two research areas we'll explore… - Making attributions - Forming impressions Attribution Processes: - The way we assign explanations for people's behavior - When we notice behavior, we can attribute it either to internal or external causes - Internal attribution: we see it as caused by the person/self; within the person's control  Ex. Someone says you look nice today. You think that they probably want something, they like you, something to do with personality - External attribution: we see it as caused by the situation or other factors outside the person's control outside the person's control  Ex. Person does not show up to appointment. You think it's because something else could have happened like an accident. How do we decide?? -- compare person's behavior to others' and to knowledge of person's past behavior Biases in Attribution - Fundamental Attribution Error - Tendency to assume others' behaviors are cause by internal factors - Self-Serving Bias - We leap to whatever attribution that looks the best for us - Our positive outcomes (successes) --> due to internal factors  Ex. You do well on a test, you believe that you're smart - Our negative outcomes (failures) --> due to situational (external) factors  Ex. If YOU were the one who missed the appointment, you are more likely to blame it on other things Impression Formation - The way we combine information to get a general "sense" of a person - Attend to some info, not all - Some things we may notice, some things we may not - Organize info into a weighted average (not all factors count the same amount towards your average) SO What Gets the Greatest Weight? - Info about stable traits (personality traits, ex. Nice person, not just in a good mood) - Info about "central" traits  Every trait is the same but one trait (ex. person is warm vs. cold) that completely changes your impression about the person - Info from a credible source - Info we receive first ("primacy effect")  Ex. "Interviewers know whether or not to hire you within the first 30 seconds" - Info about extreme or unusual behavior - Info about negative traits Biases in Impression Formation - Halo effect - Initial impression (+ or -) influences how we weigh other information - Contrast Effect - Impressions influenced by what just came beforehand - Impression of one person is influenced by someone else that you were just talking to before because you compare them - Stereotyping - Assume person has certain traits or behaviors because of group membership - Why?  Normal to categorize the world, and divide into "us" and "them"  Minimizes cognitive "work" - Managing the self: "BIRG" and "CORF"  BIRG: Bask In Reflected Glory  CORF: Cut Off Reflected Failure Ch. 2: Perceiving the Self and Others Tuesday, January 21, 20111:43 AM - Perception: cognitive process through which we interpret our experiences and come to our own unique understandings of the world Perception: Making Sense of Your World - First impressions actually give a lot of information about a person - Communication processing: means by which you gather, organize, and evaluate the information you receive ○ Your interpretation of what you see, hear, touch is unique to you because of the ways you select, organize, and interpret information Selecting Information - People come with different conclusions even in the exact same circumstance because they organize and adapt their perceptions into schemas (mental categories) ○ We choose what we believe is important information & remember it ○ Ex. In a speed date, Adam might think that Irina is intimidating and boring, while Ben thinks that the she is funny and has a nice smile Schemas: Organizing Perceptions - You rely on new information & how it fits with information you already have ○ Ex. Adam compares Irina with his ex, thinking that she is artsy (&will take him to boring art shows) & decides that Irina is not for him The Function of Schemas - Schemas help you understand how things work or anticipate how they should proceed ○ Made from memories ○ Interpret new info, people, and situations based on them ○ Ex. When you're friend says "Hey, what's up?", an existing schema tells you how to respond - Schemas adjust as you have new experiences and new information ○ Ex. When Harry Potter first went to Hogwarts, magic was not part of his schema so he was surprised, but as he continued to go to school, his schemas adjusted & magic was normal to him Challenges with Schemas and Perceptions - Schemas may cloud your judgment or cause you to reply on stereotypes or misinformation - 3 key challenges to competent communication: 1. Mindlessness - Have to be mindful (focus on task at hand) BUT schemas may cause mindlessness (process information passively & automatically) - 3 signs of mindlessness: reduced cognitive activity (think less, have fewer thoughts), inaccurate recall of information (can't remember b/c you were on "autopilot"), and uncritical evaluations (doesn't question information) 2. Selective perception - Allowing bias to influence thought - Can be because of the presence or absence of schemas - Ex. During a political debate, different people might focus on different aspects of the debate, resulting in different interpretations 3. Undue influence - Giving greater importance to something than it should have  Ex. Watching media coverage of crimes influences perceptions that jurors have towards defendants. People who have been exposed to media reports are much more likely to perceive the defendant as guilty Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions - Attributions: personal characteristics that are used to explain behavior - Make attributions to try to explain the causes of a behavior and to justify your perceptions  Gives you greater control of the situation - Internal attribution: we attribute behavior to someone's personality (or something within person's control) - Situational attributions: external (outside of the person's control) - Fundamental attribution error: our tendency to overemphasize the internal and underestimate the external cause of behaviors we observe in others - Tendency to assume that another person's wrong behavior is due to an interval flaw - Ex. You fail midterm because too lazy to study - Self-serving bias: we usually attribute our own success to internal factors (Ex. I got an A because I'm smart) while we explain our failures by attributing them to situational or external effects (Ex. I failed the midterm because my professor sucks) - Unexpected events or time can change how people perceive others - Interaction appearance theory: how people change their attributions of someone, particularly their physical attractiveness, the more they interact - People become more or less attractive to us as we get to know them - Interdependent process; social interaction and relational attraction feed each other Improving Your Perception - We all perceive selectively or to be mindless at one point - Help improve perception: 1. Verify your perceptions: don’t jump to conclusions, wait and see if your observation was correct or if there's something else to it 2. Be thoughtful when you seek explanations: don’t settle for the simplest answer/explanation, think of other explanations that could be more accurate Ex. In basketball, it's assumed that the first person to throw a punch is the one who started the fight first, but if you look closer, you realize that it was something the other person had said to start the fight 3. Look beyond first impressions: don't rely completely on first impression, delay judgment until further observations are made Perception in a Diverse World - Our perceptions are unavoidably linked to the wide diversity we encounter in the world The Culture Context - Culture is a powerful context of communication ○ Has effect on the way we perceive ourselves and the people around us - You have to understand and appreciate people who perceive differently than you do ○ Also understand the way your unique background affects our background Perceptual Barriers - Perceptual challenges can give rise to potential barriers to competent communication ○ Including narrow perspectives and stereotyping A Narrow Perspective - Cultural myopia: individuals who fail to consider other cultural perspectives ○ Nearsightedness grounded in the belief that one's own culture is appropriate and relevant in all situations and to all people Stereotyping and Prejudice - Schema can be dangerous in a diverse society if we rely on them to make generalizations about people Stereotyping: act of fitting individuals into existing schema without adjusting the - Stereotyping: act of fitting individuals into existing schema without adjusting the schema appropriately ○ Impression of a group of people that is fixed, so when you meet someone in that group, you apply your set of perceptions onto the person ○ Can be positive (helps you overlook bad behaviors), negative, or neutral - Stereotype can lead to prejudice: ill will toward particular groups, usually based on negative stereotypes and feelings of superiority over those groups ○ Can lead to belief that some lives are worth less than others Cognition: Perceiving Ourselves - We introduce ourselves based on the way we perceive ourselves & want others to perceive us - 3 important influences on our cognition (thoughts about ourselves): self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy Self-Concept: Who You Think You Are - Self-concept: your awareness and understanding of who you are - as interpreted and influenced by your thoughts, actions, abilities, values, goals, and ideals ○ Who you think you are - Can shape what you think of others because your perception of others is related to how you view yourself ○ Ex. If you think using foul language makes you appear cheap and vulgar, you will think that of a person who uses this kind of language - Can affect how apprehensive you get in certain communication situations, whether or not you are willing to interact with others, and how you approach someone with a request - Social comparison theory: we tend to compare ourselves to others as we develop our ideas about ourselves ○ Can influence how we think about ourselves and what we're willing to do to close the unavoidable gap created by this comparison ○ Ex. If you are less financially well off than your friends, you might think that you are poor Self-Esteem: How You Feel About Yourself - Self-esteem: how you feel about yourself, usually in a particular situation ○ Set of attitude that people hold about their own emotions, thoughts, abilities, skills, behavior, and beliefs that change according to the situation or context - Many researchers believe that self-concept forms first, then self-esteem - One may have low self-esteem because they either lack accurate information about themselves or mistrust the knowledge they do posses ○ May also be because of their inconsistent view of themselves Self-Efficacy: Assessing Your Own Abilities - Self-efficacy: ability to predict actual success from self-concept and self-esteem ○ Helps you decide in communication situations, making you more likely to avoid situations where you believe your self-efficacy to be low - People with very high levels of self-efficacy sometimes become overconfident Interpreting Events - Self-efficacy also has effect on your ability to cope with failure and stress ○ Low efficacy = dwell on shortcomings ○ Failure takes toll on self-esteem, causing you to feel stress and negative emotional reactions making your self-efficacy lower ○ Ex. Worrying that you do not do well on job interviews, each job you don't get reinforces your negative feeling, making each interview worsen - People with high efficacy are less affected by failure because they blame it on a bad day or another external factor ○ Ex. Stumbles on words and concludes that you are not as prepared as usual. Decides to do better next time Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Self-Fulfilling Prophecies - Prediction that causes an individual to alter his or her behavior in a way that makes the prediction more likely to occur ○ Inaccurate self-efficacy may lead to this ○ Ex. If Josh goes to party believing that others don't enjoy his company, he will probably stand in a corner, not talking to anyone. Fulfilling his prophecy that others don't like him - Self-efficacy and self-fulfilling prophecy are related - Don’t always have negative results ○ Ex. Say you'll improve grades after a bad semester and work hard to accomplish goal, your prediction may result to better grades Assessing Our Perceptions of Self - In comm, you are constantly assessing your competence level for strengths and weaknesses - You evaluate your expectations, executions, and outcomes in 3 different ways: 1. Self-Actualization - Feelings and thoughts you get when you know that you have negotiated a communication situation as well as you possibly could (high performance)  Trying the best you can - Leads to higher level of self-esteem 2. Self-Adequacy - Less positive than self-actualization (adequate performance) - Leads to either contentment or to a desire for self-improvement  Ex. Self-improvement: feel that you could have done better on a test if you just studied more  Ex. Contentment: you often fight with parents but this time, you got through a visit without fighting. Even though you did not solve any past problems, you are content that you communicated well this time 3. Self-Denigration - Criticizing or attacking yourself (poor performance) - Most often occurs when communicators place undue importance on their weaknesses or shortcomings  Ex. I knew I'd end up fumbling over my own words and repeating myself - I'm so inarticulate! - Prevents real improvement Behavior: Managing Our Identities - You make decisions about how to share your internal view with others - Shows in your behavior (verbal and nonverbal) - Our behavior generates feedback for others, which leads to our assessments of self-actualization, self-adequacy, and self-denigration - These judgments affect our cognition Self-Presentation - Intentional communication designed to show elements of self for strategic purposes - Tend to focus on self-presentation more when your social identity is being evaluated (formally/informally) by others - Can present yourself through face-to-face conversations, email, text, or social networking sites (Twitter/FB) - Self-monitoring: your ability to watch your environment and others in it for cues as to how to present yourself in a particular situation - High-self-monitoring people try to portray themselves as "the right person in the right place at the right time" - Ex. Person in class with high-self-monitor is one who sits in the front, gets involved in discussions, gestures in similar manners to others, and knows when/when not to talk when/when not to talk - Low-self-monitoring people are not sensitive to situational cues - They communicate according to their deep-seated values/beliefs - You have to know the appropriate level of self-monitoring Self-Disclosure - When you reveal yourself to others by sharing information about yourself - Must be important - Not easily known by others - Must be voluntary - Can be a tool for confirming our self-concepts or improving our self-esteem - Often used to get reassurance or comfort from a friend - Information you receive about yourself is termed feedback - How you incorporate feedback into the self depends on several factors - Sensitivity level to feedback  Lower sensitivity causes one to probably ignore it Technology: Managing the Self and Perceptions - In dating & social networking sites, blogs, and chat rooms, the presentation of self can be more controlled than in face-to-face encounters - Can control self-disclosure more easily (can choose what/what not to reveal) - Statements made by your friends on FB, for example, can have a significant impac t on people's impressions of you #8 & 9: Interpersonal Communication Tuesday, January 28, 20148:00 AM Characteristics - Focus is on interaction and relationships between people - The Dual Level of interpersonal (IP) Messages: ○ Content level  The "what" of the messages we send  Subject of the message  Easiest to convey verbally ○ Relational level  Info about how interactants feel about themselves & each other in the relationship  Can be conveyed verbally or nonverbally (more often nonverbally)  Often expressed ambiguously  Can be consistent or inconsistent with content level □ Inconsistent example: when your boyfriend says "oh I don't play basketball" and you say "you ALWAYS play basketball…" at content level: just informing BUT relationally you show that you feel neglected How Do Relationships Develop?? Attraction What brings us together? - Physical attractiveness - Similarity - Proximity Reducing Uncertainty - Uncertainty Reduction Theory: uncertainty is uncomfortable so we attempt to get info about the other person to reduce uncertainty ○ Passively: observe the other Actively: seek info from 3rd party ○ ○ Interactively: talk to the other - URT: reducing uncertainty (e.g. finding similarities) increases liking Self-Disclosure - Deliberately revealing info about oneself (see also Social Penetration Theory in text) - Two dimensions of disclosure ○ Breadth of information (information on the surface, more variety)  Ex. Classes you take as GEs ○ Depth of information (deeper knowledge on info)  Ex. Classes taken for your major ○ In


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