Philosophy and Sexuality (Weeks 3-6)
Philosophy and Sexuality (Weeks 3-6) PHIL2025
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Molly McMullen on Monday February 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHIL2025 at University of Cincinnati Clermont College taught by Greg Loving in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Philosophy and Sexuality in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Cincinnati Clermont College.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Philosophy and Sexuality (Weeks 3 – 6) Education Separate o Girls learned home ec. (every day skills) *just follow directions o Guys learned knowledge based skills *understanding why they are following directions Practically based – Life subjects Comprehensive Principles Good host to others Cleanliness Proper mate Virgin Same cast Preferably younger than you Purity (never married) Intermediaries Investigate Objective source Ideally they should be a man but a woman can do it Have to trust them They have to know you (be someone who cares) ______________________________________________________________________________ Theano Greek woman writing to Nikostrate Nikostrate’s husband is cheating Theano tells her to kill him with kindness “Men are like that” “It’s just a phase” “He’ll wake up” ______________________________________________________________________________ Plato Forms | Images *picked up by Augustine Spirit | Flesh ______________________________________________________________________________ History of marriage Default – social contract between 2 people Legal – Roman development in the west. It was all about money and inheritance rights Early Christianity saw it as failure to control lust o Ideal: Celibacy Apocalypse – They expected Jesus to return fairly quickly Paul wanted people to forget about marriage and lust and focus on spiritual needs. But, if you had trouble, get married and get it out of your system so you can focus on spirituality ______________________________________________________________________________ Peter Abelard (1079 – 1142) Born to noble family in France “History of my Calamities” – autobiography Lecturio – default teaching method in schools Disputatio (disputation) – professor poses question to lead to discussion (Abelard preferred this teaching method Abelard would go to school where the professor used lecturio, but used disputatio He out talked professor and stole their students He ended up going to Paris and started a school that later became the University of Paris Heloise (extremely bright woman) Abelard was 30 and Heloise was 16 or 17 when they met in Paris Don’t know what happened to her parents She was being raised by her uncle Fulbert Abelard basically makes deal with uncle Abelard part of the clergy (celibacy was not required but it looks good) Fulbert is greedy Abelard wanted to rent out rooms in Fulbert’s house in exchange for free lessons for Heloise Abelard and Heloise fell in love They tried a lot of different things (different sexual positions in different places) He sometimes struck her in order to get rid of any suspicion Caneing – when professor strucks student when they get an answer wrong Abelard’s lectures lacked inspiration because he just wanted to get back home to Heloise Fulbert walked in on one of their “learning sessions” He wanted Abelard to marry Heloise Abelard agreed but only in private because it would look bad in clergy Heloise against the idea of marriage o Fulbert wouldn’t be happy with private marriage o Abelard is philosopher. That’s where his talents are and that’s where his energy needs to be o Marriage will pollute their pure love Abelard said no, so they got married Fulbert gets mad and Heloise gets pregnant Abelard doesn’t want her in stressful environment Sends her somewhere else. Tells her to wear halbit so she can fit in Fulbert things Abelard got what he wanted and dumped her He convinces guards to let him in Abelard’s room and castrates him Abelard sees it as direct punishment for his sin Servants who let Fulbert in were castrated and got their eyes taken out Abelard wants to become a monk and Heloise become a nun, she says no but they do anyway and become separated for 10 years He (abbot), she (abbis) leader if combat His autobiography comes out and she writes to him about it He writes music, words of worship, and rules for her and her nunnery He also visits and helps them ______________________________________________________________________________ Middle Ages Courtly love – very specific social practice (outlet for passion) o Between married people o Upper class (marriage of social expectation) o “Game of cheating” o Man would “court” married woman (supposed to be secret) Was about the chase, not consummation o Abelard and Heloise used as example for this o Almost always between a married man and a married woman o Page 56 of the Kama Sutra gives advice on courtly love Says it is and in born suffering Tells how o get someone, how to keep them, but also tells you not to do it New knowledge was becoming Church fought this new knowledge Said the only cure was blood leading (took at least a quart) New ideas coming in drive to Renaissance (1400s) o Based on concept of human potential o Humans had great potential in their natural state, no matter the religion o Renaissance started in Italy (was a lot of trade and travel) o Renaissance art Nudists – natural, beautiful, should be painted in natural state (skeptical at first) Signed art – unique creation from an individual o Main concept of Renaissance – human potential, beauty o Argument – people who don’t believe in God still have potential, so lets focus on that Individualism – individuals are good (emphasis on what human beings are capable of doing We aren’t totally corrupt. God made us good, so we still must be Middle Ages and Renaissance Renaissance and those concepts let to reformation (1500s – 1600s) Martin Luther (1513) – Augustinian monk, had problems with practices of the Catholic church and wanted to talk about them “95 theses” o Indulgence – people on their way to heaven but have to work off their sins o One way to work them off was to donate money o Church said if you give them money, they’ll take years off your purgatory Martin Luther didn’t like this Thought people were purchasing salvation from God Printing press (1500) o Spread ideas like wildfire o Pay someone to run off 10,000 copies and they spread o Church couldn’t knock your ideas so easily Martin Luther became ex communicated He was a jerk who couldn’t let anything go He was kidnapped and hid away for years and translated the bible into German which was bad Protestants fought to reform o Secs start to split off Luther thought he could be right and everyone else wrong Protestants thought they could be right and he wrong Luther’s ideas about sex o Best expression of love of God is hard work He married a nun at 40 years old, smuggled her out, and they had kids (she was in 30s or 40s) Religious War 1500s, very nasty Everyone thought God was on their side and they started killing each other Germany – protestant, England – protestant, France and Spain – Catholic (wars going on) Story of a soldier who disemboweled pregnant woman and drug baby by umbilical cord on his horse Council of Trent 1563 Part of Catholics selfreformation First time in western civilization, rules for marriage For marriage to happen: required priest to conduct marriage and two witnesses John Milton 1608 – 1674 Taking place in the second hundred years of the reformation England had republic (16491660) Oliver Cromwell was the leader – very religious King was kicked out, parliament rules When king came back into power, Milton was thrown in jail where he wrote “Paradise Lost” about Adam and Eve’s relationship ______________________________________________________________________________ Valentine’s Day Lupercalia (Feb.15) – everyone was drunk, women put their name in a bowl, guy would draw one out and that was who they went home with and slept with that night Pope Geasius (496) – Christianized this 3 c. Valentinus – celibate priest but married people in secret Christianized version: put name if Saints in bowl, draw out name, that’s the name you want to emulate #1 break up holiday First record of Valentine cards (1415) o Man in prison made card and smuggled it out to let wife know he was okay Victorian’s gave us all of our modern holidays: Valentine’s Day, Christmas, Thanksgiving Late 1800s – Valentine cards available to purchase India had protest of Valentine’s Day, said it was a dangerous and emotional decision It was embedded in Roman culture but church adopted and baptized it to send people in a different direction ______________________________________________________________________________ John Milton Get married if you want to have a relationship that can last, not because of social institution If relationship doesn’t have these things, get divorced “If God wants you to be happy and your marriage is bad, divorce is okay” Have to be compatible (mind and body) *better to be alone than to be with someone and be miserable (if you’re not compatible) Don’t want to get married for economic and social reasons Best mate: o Conversation – being able to talk on mental level and be interested in their mind and ideas Marriage was based on romantic aspects and friendship aspects ______________________________________________________________________________ Kama Sutra (pgs. 89105) Compatibility and matching: o Must be basic compatibility in sex o Basic problems in enforcing this: Men are a problem – they finish too fast, need to slow down and please woman. Have to have mutual pleasure Examples of matching o Organs match (can’t have big penis and small vagina) o Man is like a bull or a stallion o Woman is like a doe or a cow – elephant o Differences between sexuality Orgasm planning o Temperament – some people always want to have sex, some don’t Gender differences o Woman’s sexuality is stronger. They want more kissing and cuddling. It’s more prolonged. It’s less intense but can go longer o Men finish quick G.W.F. Hegel (1770 – 1831) There’s an absolute spirit in German Geist (where you get ghost) coming to consciousness Basic category of the universe: o Being (thesis) – we as knowing things see something as a being. It cannot be understood unless its related to nonbeing o Nonbeing (antithesis) o Both of these blend to become synthesis Hegel’s conception of love: o Love: a perfect union, no shame, no fear, no restriction o Love drives synthesis on universal level o Concept of perfect union is between people alike in power o Mutual love, enrichment o Your being will always be connected by a child if you separate compromising Ex: tv (if you don’t like what one is watching) Options: Don’t watch tv, get another one, watch something you both like Arthur Shopenhaur (17881860) Function of romantic love illusion to trick you into procreation o Do this so you can find a match who gives you strong offspring o So the man can protect the offspring Differences between male and female: o When choosing woman, man mostly focuses on external beauty o Not ethical, men want the chase, but once they get it, they want something different o Women choose someone for their heart/courage o Not external beauty o Never leave their man o Choose a man 3035 years old instead of younger boy who has boyish features o More manly at this age, could be ready to settle down, more possessions, money, stability, job
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